Text: Michael J. Deas, “Notes,” The Portraits and Daguerreotypes of Edgar Allan Poe (1989), pp. 175-188 (This material is protected by copyright)


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Notes

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­[page 175:]

Introduction

     1 The woodcut (fig. 5) cannot be strictly regarded as a life portrait, since it was undoubtedly based on a daguerreotype — either the “McKee” daguerreotype (fig. 3) or a variant plate produced at the same sitting. Both daguerreotypes are now unlocated.
2 The Osgood portrait was painted probably at the suggestion of the artist’s wife, while the two daguerreotypes by Pratt (fig. 22 and fig. 23) were produced at the insistence of the photographer himself. The “Annie,” “Stella,” “Ultima Thule,” and “Daly” daguerreotypes (fig. 20, fig. 21, fig. 14, and fig. 12) each appear to have been taken at the request of Poe’s acquaintances, while the “McKee” daguerreotype and the watercolor by A. C. Smith seem to have been commissioned specifically for reproduction in contemporary periodicals.
3 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 1:246, 2:367, 1:239. [[Texts of these letters, respectively: Poe to J. R. Lowell, March 30, 1844 (LTR-173); Poe to Mrs. J. E. Locke, May 19, 1848 (LTR-267); and Poe to J. R. Lowell, October 19, 1843 (LTR-164).]]
4 Ibid., 2:367.
5 Cited in Charles F. Briggs to Page, Feb. 6, 1845, William Page Papers, Archives of American Art, Detroit.
6 Maunsell B. Field, Memories of Many Men and Some Women (New York: Harper & Bros., 1874), p. 224; Susan V. C. Ingram, quoted in Quinn, Poe, p. 631; Whitman, Poe and His Critics, p. 35.
7 [Rufus W. Griswold],“Death of Edgar A. Poe,” New-York Evening Tribune, Oct. 9, 1849.
8 See Harrison Hayford,“Poe in The Confidence-Man,” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 14 (Dec. 1959):207-18; Walt Whitman, Complete Poetry and Collected Prose (New York: Library of America, 1982), p. 874; see pp. 701-2 for Whitman’s description of Poe’s appearance and manner.
9 Oliver Leigh, Edgar Allan Poe: The Man, the Master, the Martyr (Chicago: Frank M. Morris Co., 1906).
10 Quoted in Quinn, Poe, p. 68.
11 Miles George to Edward Valentine, May 18, 1880, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 351.
12 Prof. James A. Harrison, in his edition of The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, 17 vols. (New York: George D. Sproul, 1902), 1:70, disputes the accuracy of this description, calling Poe’s hair black and his complexion dark olive. Harrison does not explain how Poe could have falsified his enlistment document in the presence of the attending surgeon who endorsed it, but his impressions of Poe’s physical appearance seem to be derived from a description given by Mary Starr Jenning, published in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine for Mar. 1889.
13 Quoted in Harrison, ed., Complete Works of Poe, 1:86.
14 Lois and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr., eds., Baudelaire on Poe (State College, Pa.: Bald Eagle Press, 1952), p. 60.
15 See I. B. Cauthen,“Lowell on Poe: An Unpublished Comment,” American Literature 24 (May 1952):230-33, and [J. M. Daniel], “Edgar Allan Poe,” Southern Literary Messenger 16 (Mar. 1850):172-87.
16 There is some disagreement as to the exact color of Poe’s eyes. Most firsthand descriptions give them as either grey or hazel; J. M. Daniel, however, noted that they “seemed to be dark grey; but on closer examination, they appeared in that neutral violet tint, which is so difficult to define” ([Daniel], “Edgar Allan Poe,” p. 179). Marie Louise Shew remembered them as “blue eyes with dark lashes, or bluish grey” (quoted in Miller, ed., Poe Biography, p. 121). Susan A. T. Weiss described them as “large, with long, jet, black lashes,— the iris dark steel-gray, possessing a crystalline clearness and transparency” (Weiss, “The Last Days of Edgar A. Poe,” Scribner’s Monthly 15 [Mar. 1878]:707-16).
17 Weiss,“The Last Days of Edgar A. Poe,” p. 711; [Daniel], “Edgar Allan Poe, ” p. 180.
18 Hiram Fuller, quoted in Sidney P. Moss, Poe’s Major Crisis: His Libel Suit and New York’s Literary World (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1970), pp. 69-70.
19 Thomas W. Higginson, Short Studies of American Authors (New York: Longmans, Green, 1906), pp. 12-13.
20 Quoted in Hervey Allen, Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe, 2 vols. (New York: George H. Doran, 1926), 1:350-51. A large number of descriptions, including Latrobe’s, mention Poe’s habit of dressing entirely in black (“not a particle of white was visible,” remembered Latrobe). This assertion, ­[page 176:] however, may stem more from Poe’s posthumous reputation as a writer of the macabre than from any clear recollection of the man himself — his extant portraits depict him arrayed in a variety of colors. The Osgood canvas, for example, portrays him wearing a chestnut-colored frock coat and a green cravat; in the Smith watercolor he wears a buff-colored vest; two daguerreotypes taken six years apart (fig. 3 and fig. 17) depict him attired in a light-colored greatcoat.
21 The portraits referred to here are the “Inman” likeness (fig. 50) and the painting attributed to James Eddy (q.v.). In the case of the Eddy portrait, the painting’s appraised worth of $7, 000 to $12, 000 was far more than the actual value of the picture, but only a fraction of what would today be commanded by a Poe portrait of indisputable authenticity.
22 E. C. Stedman, “On the Portraits in This Edition,” in Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:257-66.
23 Quoted in Clarence S. Brigham, Edgar Allan Poe’s Contributions to Alexander’s Weekly Messenger (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1943), pp. 20-22.
24 For a long and decidedly bizarre discussion of the mirror-reversal phenomenon in Poe’s daguerreotypes, see Leigh, Poe: The Man, the Master, the Myth, pp. 8-11.

­[page 176, continued:]

Life Portraits and Daguerreotypes

1 Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, p. 31.
2 Stedman’s comment is found in an undated memorandum to George Woodberry, now preserved in the Berg Collection at the New York Public Library. The daguerreotype was used as the frontispiece to vol. 6 of Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works.
3 Quoted in the New York Herald, Feb. 19, 1905, sec. 3, p. 4.
4 Stedman and Woodberry, eds, Works, 10:260.
5 Floyd and Marion Rinhart, The American Daguerreotype (Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1981), pp. 63, 386.
6 George E. Woodberry, “Poe in Philadelphia,” Century Magazine, o.s., 48 (Sept. 1894):725.
7 McKee’s letter was sold at an auction of Stedman’s library and is presently unlocated; see the sales catalogue, The Library . . . of Edmund Clarence Stedman (New York: Anderson Galleries, Jan. 24-25, 1911), lot 2295. A paraphrase of the letter appeared in Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:260.
8 The daguerreotype was described in the Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, Catalogue of the Library of the Late Thomas J. McKee, Part VIII (New York: Feb. 20-21, 1905), p. 1238: “[Lot] 7747 POE, (EDGAR ALLAN). Original Daguerreotype Portrait. 12mo, half length, with light-colored overcoat thrown back from the shoulders. In oval frame, with case (covers detached).” The original Anderson Galleries sales records are currently held by Sotheby’s, New York. However, these files appear to be incomplete; a cursory search of them in 1986 yielded no additional information regarding the present whereabouts of the “McKee” daguerreotype.
9 Citizen Soldier 1 (May 3, 1843):80. Quoted in Dwight Thomas, “Poe in Philadelphia, 1838-1844: A Documentary Record,” Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1978, pp. 506-7.
10 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 1:223, 239. [[Texts of these letters, respectively: Poe to F. W. Thomas, Feb. 25, 1843 (LTR-153); and Poe to J. R. Lowell, October 19, 1843 (LTR-164).]]
11 Quoted in Quinn, Poe, p. 370.
12 [Thomas C. Clarke], “The Late N. P. Willis, and Literary Men Forty Years Ago,” Northern Monthly Magazine 2 (Jan. 1868):237.
13 Century Magazine, o.s., 48 (Oct. 1894):854n.
14 See Joseph J. Moldenhauer, “Beyond the Tamarind Tree: A New Poe Letter,” American Literature 42 (Jan. 1971):468-77.
15 Groce and Wallace, Dict. Artists, p. 488. See also Thomas, “Poe in Philadelphia, 1838-1844,” pp. 51, 53.
16 The watercolor was first reproduced as the frontispiece to the Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, Rarities in English Literature . . . from the Library of a New York Collector (New York, Feb. 6, 1920). It was reproduced a second time in Ichigoro Uchida’s “A. C. Smith’s Portrait of Edgar Allan Poe in the Huntington, ” in Collected Essays, No. 28 (Tokyo: Kyoritsu Junior College, Feb. 1985).
17 Quoted in George E. Woodberry, The Life of Edgar Allan Poe, 2 vols. (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1909), 2:58.
18 The essay was eventually written by James Russell Lowell, sometime after May 1844. See Poe to Lowell, May 28, 1844, in Ostrom, ed., Letters, 1:253-54. [[Text of this letter: Poe to J. R. Lowell, May 28, 1844 (LTR-175).]] ­[page 177:]
19 The Philadelphia city directory for 1844 gives Smith’s address as 86 Chestnut Street, a short distance from the offices of Graham’s Magazine. Smith’s portrait of Poe was cropped sometime before 1870, but it originally depicted the poet seated in what appeared to be an office chair of the period — a fact first observed by E. C. Stedman in his and Woodberry’s edition of Poe’s Works, 10:262. The style of the chair, coupled with Smith’s proximity to the offices of Graham’s, suggests the portrait was painted in the magazines suite.
20 See Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 34, pt. 2 (Nov. 1949), p. 218; and Groce and Wallace, Dict. Artists, p. 585.
21 From Poe’s review of The Gift: A Christmas and New Year’s Present for 1836, in the Southern Literary Messenger 1 (Sept. 1835):780.
22 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 1:246. [[Text of this letter: Poe to J. R. Lowell, March 30, 1844 (LTR-173).]]
23 Quoted in T. C. Latto to Sarah Helen Whitman, Aug. 8, 1870, J. K. Lilly Library, Indiana Univ., Bloomington.
24 Latto to Whitman, Oct. 21, 1870, Lilly Library.
25 Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, Rarities in English Literature . . . from the Library of a New York Collector, p. 21, lot 75.
26 Lillian C. Buttre, The American Portrait Gallery: With Biographical Sketches of Presidents, Statesmen, Military and Naval Heroes, Clergymen, Authors, Poets, Etc., Etc., 3 vols. (New York: J. C. Buttre, [1877]), 2:pl. 20. See also Catalogue of Engravings, for Sale by J. C. Buttre, Publisher, Engraver and Plate Printer (New York, 1884), p. 38.
27 Whitman, Poe and His Critics, p. 35.
28 Southern Literary Messenger 17 (Apr. 1851):253. Thompson was specifically referring to John Sartain’s mezzotint of the Osgood portrait (fig. 26).
29 Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:259.
30 Osgood was presumably introduced to Poe by his wife, Frances Sargent Osgood, who did not make Poe’s acquaintance until Mar. 1845, when they met at the Astor House in New York City. Samuel Osgood may not have been living in New York between 1847 and 1849 — see Anna Wells Rutledge, ed., The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1807-1870: Cumulative Record of Exhibition Catalogues (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1955), p. 156, which gives his address during those years as Walnut Street, above 8th, Philadelphia.
31 John Sartain, “Reminiscences of Edgar Allan Poe,” Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine 43 (Mar. 1889): 411-15.
32 Algernon Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary Contributors . . . 1769-1904, 8 vols. (1905-6; rpt. [8 vols. in 4] New York: Burt Franklin, 1972), 6:27.
33 No full account of Osgood’s life has yet been written; the statement quoted, and most of the biographical data which follow, are taken from B. B. Thatcher’s “Lines in the Life of an Artist,” in The Boston Book, Being Specimens of Metropolitan Literature (Boston: Light & Horton, 1836), pp. 253-64. Here Osgood’s name is never given in full, but he is identified on p. 256 as “Sam” and on p. 264 as “Osgood.” References to dates, locations, and several portraits by the artist — particularly those of Martin Van Buren and Sir Isaac Coffin — make the identification quite unmistakable. See also H. W. French’s Art and Artists in Connecticut (Boston: Shepard & Lee, 1879) p. 60, which is highly unreliable as to dates; also Eben Putnam and Ira Osgood, A Genealogy of the Descendants of John, Christopher, and William Osgood (Salem, Mass.: Salem Press, 1894), pp. 191-92.
34 Boston Book, p. 263.
35 Quoted in Rufus W. Griswold, ed., The Works of the Late Edgar Allan Poe, 4 vols. (New York: J. S. Redfield, 1850-56), 3:xxxviii.
36 See, for example, H. F. Harrington, “Poe Not to Be Apotheosized,” The Critic, n.s., 4 (Oct. 3, 1885):157-58. John Evangelist Walsh, in his Plumes in the Dust (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1980), advances the ludicrous notion that Poe was the illegitimate father of Mrs. Osgood’s second child, Fanny Fay. Walsh’s assertion that the Osgood portrait was copied from the “Whitman” daguerreotype (fig. 17) is equally baseless, but was apparently contrived to support his theory concerning Fanny Fay’s paternity.
37 Mrs. M. E. Porter, quoted in Phillips, Poe: The Man, 2:997. Porter’s original statement is preserved in the Phillips Papers.
38 The Osgoods’ retention of the portrait is indicated by Samuel’s note of Sept. 7, 1850, cited in n. 39, below. ­[page 178:]
39 Rufus W. Griswold Collection, Mss. 788, Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Boston Public Library.
40 See Sarah Helen Whitman to John Ingram, Feb. 11, 1874, in Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, pp. 19-25. See also Moldenhauer, “Beyond the Tamarind Tree: A New Poe Letter,” pp. 468-73.
41 Whitman, Poe and His Critics, p. 36. See also Caroline Ticknor, Poe’s Helen (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1916), p. 182.
42 Theodore Bolton and Harry B. Wehle, American Miniatures, 1730-1850 (1927; rpt. Garden City, N.Y: Garden City Publishing Co., 1937), p. 91.
43 William H. Gerdts, Jr., Painting and Sculpture in New Jersey (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1964), pp. 46-47.
44 Walt[er H.] McDougall, This Is the Life! (New York: Knopf, 1926), pp. 12, 66.
45 Huntington Library (HM 1187), San Marino, Calif.
46 Clawson to Phillips, Oct. 29, 1917, Phillips Papers.
47 See the sale catalogue, Books from the Library of the Late Frederic R. Halsey and Other Collections (New York: Anderson Galleries, Feb. 17-19, 1919), p. 194, lot 789; Thomas O. Mabbott, ed., “The Letters of George W. Eveleth to Edgar Allan Poe,” Bulletin of the New York Public Library 26 (Mar. 1922):195n.
48 Annotated copy of the Halsey and Other Collections catalogue, Pattee Library, Pennsylvania State University, State Park.
49 New York City Directory for 1844 & 1845 (New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1844), p. 223. For the address of N. P. Willis (in 1845) and the Broadway Journal, see Phillips, Poe: The Man, 2:984, 1028.
50 Spirit of the Times, a Chronicle of the Turf, Agriculture, Field Sports, Literature and the Stage 14 (Dec. 21, 1844), p. 516. I am indebted to Robin Bolton-Smith, Associate Curator at the National Museum of Art, Washington, D.C., for calling my attention to this article.
51 This according to a note prefixed to “Portraits and Autographs of Edgar Allan Poe,” a unique, handprinted volume now preserved at the Huntington Library. Also see the American Art Association sale catalogue, The Augustin Daly Collection, Part III (New York, Mar. 28-29, 1900) lot 5015.
52 Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, The Collection of the Late Peter Gilsey (New York, Mar. 18, 1903), p. 287. The daguerreotype is catalogued as follows: “[Lot] 2414 POE (EDGAR ALLAN). Original Daguerreotype Portrait, accompanied by a photograph made from it. 12mo. Very fine. (As one piece.) The reproduction was made for Mr. Gilsey’s private use.” An annotated copy of the catalogue, in the Pattee Library, states that the daguerreotype was purchased by an order bid submitted before the sale, making it unlikely the buyer’s name was announced during the auction.
53 Quoted in Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:339.
54 Mabbott, ed., Collected Works, 1:409-12.
55 [Mary Elizabeth Bronson LeDuc], “Recollections of Edgar A. Poe,” Home Journal, whole no. 754, July 21, 1860, p. 3.
56 Mrs. LeDuc’s note, which is now bound into a volume containing an autograph letter from Poe to her father, Prof. C. P. Bronson, is essentially a paraphrase of her 1860 reminiscence for the Home Journal: “I had taken a child’s fancy for making a collection of Dagguerotypes [sic] of living Poets and asked Poe to sit for one for me which he did about the same time the note [from Poe to Prof. Bronson] was written, and this picture was said by both Mrs. Clem [Clemm] and the Poet to be the most life like of any that had ever been made. It is certainly the best I have ever seen — both picture and note have been in my possession ever since” (W. H. Koester Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin.)
57 Thomas O. Mabbott, ed., Merlin, Baltimore, 1827, Together with Recollections of Edgar A. Poe by Lambert A. Wilmer (New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1941), pp. 29-30.
58 Phillips published the likeness in Poe: The Man (1:553) with the highly misleading caption “From a photograph owned by Mrs. E. A. Poe, given family by John P. Kennedy, Esq.” The “Mrs. E. A. Poe” mentioned by Phillips was not Virginia Clemm Poe but a distant relative by marriage. The photograph owned by John P. Kennedy was not the original “Daly” daguerreotype but evidently a carte-de-visite reproduction. The retouched copy photograph used in Phillips’s book is now in the Koester Collection at the University of Texas at Austin; it is inscribed on the verso. “Edgar Allan Poe from photo of picture owned by Mr. Kennedy and given family of Poe. ­[page 179:] Courtesy of Mrs. Edgar Allan Poe, Baltimore, Md., 1918.”
59 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 22.
60 Sarah Heywood, the sister of Annie L. Richmond, quoted in Quinn, Poe, p. 588.
61 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:373. [[Text of this letter: Poe to Mrs. M. L. Shew, June 1848 (LTR-273).]]
62 Whether the overdose was deliberate or accidental is still a matter of debate among Poe scholars, although Poe himself, in a letter to Annie L. Richmond, stated emphatically that it was deliberate. See Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:400-403. [[Text of this letter: Poe to Mrs. A. L. Richmond, November 16, 1848 (LTR-286).]]
63 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 348.
64 See the statement of William Pabodie in William F. Gill’s Lotos Leaves (Boston: W. F. Gill, 1875), p. 300. The Earl House would later figure in Poe’s tale “Von Kempelen and His Discovery.”
65 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, pp. 319-21. Mrs. Whitman’s mention of “these portraits” presumably refers to the several copies of the “Ultima Thule” daguerreotype then in existence.
66 Whitman to Ingram, Oct. 25, 1875, in Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, pp. 344-49. For an analysis of Poe’s movements during his visit to Providence, see Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:403-4.
67 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 348.
68 Hervey Allen, Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe, 2 vols.. (New York: George H. Doran, 1926), 2:782. Allen mistook the “Stella” daguerreotype (fig. 21) for the “Ultima Thule” daguerreotype and reproduced it as such in Israfel, 2:facing 779.
69 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, pp. 94, 321.
70 Most early daguerreotype cameras (though not all) produced laterally reversed images of the sitter; in the making of a copy daguerreotype, the mirror-reversal effect would be redoubled, producing a visually correct image. The fact that these four versions of the “Ultima Thule” image bear an identical abrasion implies that all four were based on a common ancestor.
71 For a more detailed discussion, see commentary on the “Dodge” daguerreotype.
72 The postscript to Mrs. Whitman’s letter of Mar. 4, 1874, to John Ingram refers to a lithograph, probably Perrassin’s, made from “the original daguerre . . . in 1857 or 1858” (Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, pp. 59-60). However, Mrs. Whitman’s own copy of the Perrassin lithograph, now preserved at the John Hay Library, Brown University, is accompanied by a note, apparently recent, stating that it was drawn about 1869 from a painting by John Arnold (1834-1909).
73 Miller, ed., Poe Biography, p. 223.
74 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 79.
75 Woodberry, Life of Poe, 2:281-82.
76 Mary Gove Nichols, “Reminiscences of Edgar Allan Poe,” Sixpenny Magazine, Feb. 1863, reprinted in Woodberry, Life of Poe, 2:432-39.
77 Cited in Sarah Coleman to Nora Perry, Oct. 29, 1895, Edmund C. Stedman Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University.
78 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 22.
79 Ibid., p. 76.
80 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:400. [[Text of this letter: Poe to Mrs. S. H. Whitman, November 14, 1848 (LTR-285).]]
81 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 94. In a letter to Ingram two years later, the elderly Mrs. Whitman retracted all of her earlier statements concerning the date of the sitting, remarking, “I am now convinced that I must have been mistaken as to the time. . . . & now I feel sure that it was on his next visit to Providence, early in December [1848], that this second Providential portrait was taken” (pp. 382-83). However, the reasoning behind Mrs. Whitman’s retraction is vague, and her overall statement has the ring of an afterthought. Since Poe wears nearly identical garments in both the “Whitman” and “Ultima Thule” daguerreotypes, it seems likely the two images were indeed taken within days of each other, in mid-November 1848, as Mrs. Whitman had originally asserted.
82 A clipping from the Providence Daily Journal, dated only 1847, is now preserved in the John Hay Library at Brown University. It reads: “Mr. M[asury] is not connected with any other Daguerreotype rooms in this city, and would be happy to see his friends at his new rooms, directly opposite the Post Office, 19 Westminster St.” On the same page, Hartshorn countered with an advertisement reading: “HARTSHORN’S (late Masury & Co.’s) Gallery of Colored Miniatures, is still in successful operation at 25 Market St., second story.” City directories show that by the time of Poe’s visits to Providence both men were back in business at 25 Westminster Street. About 1850 Masury again left Hartshorn, reopening his studio at 19 Westminster Street. ­[page 180:]
83 Coleman to Stedman, Nov. 1, 1895, Stedman Papers.
84 Note dated Nov. 14, 1904, in the John Hay Library, Brown University.
85 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 22..
86 Ibid., p. 76.
87 Ibid., pp. 470-71.
88 Brigham to Henry Van Hoessen (Brown University Librarian), Dec. 8, 1941, carbon copy, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.
89 For a reproduction, see Quinn, Poe, facing p. 574.
90 John Henry Ingram, ed., The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, 4 vols. (Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1874-75), 1:frontispiece. Ingram’s preface (1:vii) states: “[The] portrait prefixed to the present volume — the first engraved port. of Edgar Poe worthy of that name — is taken from a photograph in my possession, by Messrs. Coleman and Remington. The photograph is acknowledged by Poe’s personal acquaintances to be an excellent likeness, and has been faithfully reproduced by the engraver.”
91 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 226.
92 See, for example, Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, pp. 53-54.
93 Miller, ed., Poe Biography, p. 153.
94 The inscription is unsigned, but Annie Richmond’s delicate chirography is unmistakable (cf. Mrs. Richmond’s several letters to Maria Clemm, preserved in the Pratt Library).
95 For a more detailed discussion, see commentary on Harrison’s alleged portrait of Poe.
96 Miller, ed., Poe Biography, pp. 154-55.
97 Frederick W. Coburn, “Poe as Seen by the Brother of Annie,” New England Quarterly 16 (Sept. 1943):468-76.
98 The photograph and a paraphrase of its inscription were published in the May 1897 issue of The Bookman (5:209). The photograph was owned at that time by Walter Leon Sawyer of Boston, a children’s book author, who presumably received it from Annie Richmond or a member of her family.
99 Mrs. Lewis’s comments are contained in two letters of John Ingram to Sarah Whitman, respectively dated Sept. 4 and Nov. 30, 1874 (see Miller, ed., Whitman’s June 2, 1875, letter to Ingram, in which she obliquely refers to Mrs. Lewis’s daguerreotype as having been made “six months” after one of the two plates known to have been taken in Providence in mid-November 1848 (p. 301).
100 The Lowell directories were published biennially, leaving us with only a fragmented view of that city’s daguerreotype trade. The eight Lowell daguerreotypists whose names have been ascertained are: George C. Gilchrest (or Gilchrist), William S. Gove, Benson C. Hazelton (or Hazeltine), Samuel P. Howes, M. Morton Peake, James and Timothy Pearson, and Andrew J. Simpson. See The Lowell Directory and Almanac for 1847 (Lowell: Oliver March, 1847) and The Lowell Directory and Business Key, for 1849 (Lowell: Oliver March, 1849).
101 Mrs. Richmond’s use of the word artist may be telling, for at least one Lowell daguerreotypist was precisely that: Samuel P. Howes (d. 1881) was active not only as a photographer but also as a professional portrait painter and miniaturist. He seems to have begun his career in Boston, where he worked as an artist between 1829 and 1835; in 1837 he continued his trade in nearby Lowell. Approximately ten years later he opened a daguerreotype studio on Merrimack Street, maintaining it until 1856. In 1857-60 he was active as a photographer in San Francisco, but before 1870 returned to Lowell to resume his career as a portrait painter. The Lowell city directory for 1875-76 describes him merely as an “artist” with a studio at 112 Merrimack Street — the same address he had occupied when Poe visited Lowell three decades earlier.

    George C. Gilchrest also seems a likely candidate for authorship of the “Annie” and “Stella” daguerreotypes. Evidently the most successful daguerreotypist in Lowell, Gilchrest was able to maintain a career as a photographer for some thirty years after these unusually skillful likenesses were taken — long after his peers had abandoned the field for other professions. City directories show that in 1849 he operated a daguerreotype parlor at 82 Merrimack Street; in the 1875-76 directory he is described as a “photographist” working at 92 Merrimack Street and residing in Centralville, a Lowell suburb.

    Two other daguerreotypists are worthy of consideration here. Andrew J. Simpson and James M. Pearson both operated studios in Lowell during the late 1840s; both were still living there in the mid-1870s, ­[page 181:] when Mrs. Richmond opened her correspondence with John Ingram. By that time, however, Simpson had given up photography for a trade in “music and musical instruments”; Pearson, a grocer, may have abandoned the craft as early as 1848 and probably not later than 1850. See The Lowell Directory 1875-76 (Lowell: Joshua Merrill & Son, 1875); Ichigoro Uchida, “The Daguerreotypes of Edgar Allan Poe Taken in New England in 1848, ” offprint from Collected Essays, No. 25 (Tokyo: Kyoritsu Junior College, Feb. 1982), pp. 1-4, 13; Rinhart, The American Daguerreotype, pp. 392, 396, 409.
102 Mrs. Richmond’s letter is dated merely “June 15” but was evidently written in 1856. See Richard Hart and Arthur Hobson Quinn, eds., Edgar Allan Poe: Letters and Documents in the Enoch Pratt Free Library (New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1941), pp. 58-60.
103 Shortly after visiting Mrs. Pierce’s residence, Joyce wrote from aboard his private railway car that he “could not resist” the daguerreotype of Poe, and immediately instructed one of his aides to send Mrs. Pierce $500 for the plate, plus $2500 for eleven original watercolors by John James Audubon (Letter of D. G. Joyce to Mr. Leffingwell, Dec. 4, 1920, courtesy of John J. Hanzel, Hanzel Galleries, Chicago). See also Photographica 5 (Oct. 1973):5, citing a June 1920 letter from Mrs. Pierce.
104 Hanzel Galleries sale catalogue, The Collection Formed by the Late David Gage Joyce (Chicago, Sept. 21-22, 1973), lot 140.
105 Providence Sunday Journal, Feb. 16, 1975, p. 8.
106 Miller, ed., Poe Biography, p. 120.
107 Ibid., p. 197.
108 Although there is no firm documentation on this point, it has been traditionally assumed that Poe intended the daguerreotype as a gift for Mrs. Lewis. It is equally possible, however, that the Lewises obtained the daguerreotype from Poe’s mother-in-law, Maria Clemm, who was a frequent guest in the Lewis household during the late 1840s and early 1850s.
109 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 133.
110 Ibid., p. 455.
111 Ibid., pp. 305-6.
112 John H. Ingram, “Edgar Allan Poe and ‘Stella,’ ” Albany Review 1 (July 1907):417-23.
113 John H. Ingram, “Edgar Poe and Some of His Friends,” London Bookman 35 (Jan. 1909):165.
114 A partial listing of the stolen items appeared in the Library Journal 99 (Mar. 15, 1974):720.
115 For a detailed account of the theft and its aftermath, see Edmund Berkeley, Jr., “Archival Security: A Personal and Circumstantial View,” Georgia Archive 4 (Winter 1976):3-19.
116 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:455. [[Text of this letter: Poe to Mrs. M. Clemm, July 19, 1849 (LTR-327).]]
117 Sartain, “Reminiscences of Edgar Allan Poe,” p. 413.
118 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:458-59. [[Text of this letter: Poe to Mrs. M. Clemm, August 28-29 (?), 1849 (LTR-330).]]
119 Basil L. Gildersleeve to Mary E. Phillips, June 17, 1915, typewritten extract dated Nov. 14, 1921, Poe Museum, Richmond.
120 Information on Pratt is culled from the following sources: Julian Cavalier, American Castles (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1973), pp. 115-17; Mary W Scott, Houses of Old Richmond (New York: Crown Publishers, n.d.), p. 286; Photographic Art-Journal 2 (Oct. 1851):235-36; Rinhart, The American Daguerreotype, p. 406.
121 Cavalier, American Castles, pp. 115-17. The castle was demolished in 1957. The legend that Poe sometimes stayed as a guest here is whimsy; the castle was not built until 1853, four years after Poe’s death. For an engraved illustration of Pratt’s daguerreotype gallery, see the Photographic Art-Journal 2 (Oct. 1851):235; reproduced as a “rare old print” in Phillips, Poe: The Man, 2:1450.
122 Thomas Dimmock, “Notes on Poe,” Century Magazine, o.s., 50 (June 1895): 315-16.
123 [John R. Thompson], “The Editor’s Table,” Southern Literary Messenger 23 (Nov. 1856):395. Thompson, like Dimmock, presumably obtained his information directly from Pratt.
124 Southern Literary Messenger 17 (Apr. 1851):253.
125 According to Dimmock, the plate was exhibited with the caption “Edgar Allan Poe — taken three weeks before his death.”
126 “We are indebted to Messrs. Sanxay & Chalmers, the successors of W. A. Pratt in his well known Richmond Daguerrean Gallery, for an excellent Daguerreotype ­[page 182:] of the late Edgar Allan Poe. . . . The likeness is very perfect, and as the only accurate one in existence of the greatest genius of his time, possesses a great value. At the very moment it was handed to us, we were reading of the movement on foot in New York to build a monument to Poe, who lies in the Fayette street burial-ground, at Baltimore, without a mark to designate his grave” ([Thompson], “The Editor’s Table,” p. 395).
127 For a discussion of the daguerreotype’s provenance, see the Princeton University Library Chronicle 12 (Winter 1951):83-87; Woodberry, Life of Poe, 2:frontispiece caption.
128 Mabbott, ed., Merlin, Baltimore, 1827, Together with Recollections of Edgar A. Poe by Lambert A. Wilmer, pp. v-vi.
129 It has sometimes been stated, quite erroneously, that Poe himself presented the daguerreotype to Mrs. Shelton. William A. Pratt’s statements, as quoted in the Century Magazine, o.s., 50 (June 1895):315-16, make it certain that this was not the case.
130 Bendann himself seems to have been largely responsible for this misapprehension. See his note appended to Sara S. Rice’s Edgar Allan Poe: A Memorial Volume (Baltimore: Turnbull Bros., 1877), p. viii.
131 Valentine to John H. Ingram, Sept. 28, 1874, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 171. So far as is known, Valentine’s statue was never completed.
132 It accompanied George E. Woodberry’s “Poe in New York,” in the Century Magazine, o.s., 48 (Oct. 1894):854-66.
133 Mary G. Traylor to James Southall Wilson, May 30, 1945, typewritten extract, Poe Museum, Richmond.
134 The Independent 56 (May 5, 1904):1013.

­[page 182, continued:]

Apocryphal Portraits

1 Dictionary of American Biography s.v. “Sartain, John”; Wendy Wick Reaves, ed., American Portrait Prints (Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1984), pp. 135-61.
2 For a reproduction, see Burton Pollin, “Edgar Allan Poe and His Illustrators,” American Book Collector, n.s., 2 (Mar./Apr. 1981):5.
3 Whitman, Poe and His Critics, pp. 35-36.
4 [John R. Thompson], “The Editor’s Table,” Southern Literary Messenger 17 (Apr. 1851):253.
5 See Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:258-59. The engraving served as the frontispiece to vol. 1.
6 United States Magazine 4 (Mar. 1857):262.
7 [R. H. Stoddard], “Edgar Allan Poe,” National Magazine, Devoted to Literature, Art, and Religion 2 (Mar. 1853):193-200.
8 James F. Carr and Mantle Fielding, Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors and Engravers (New York: James F. Carr, 1965), p. 143.
9 From Poe’s review of The Gift . . . for 1836, in the Southern Literary Messenger 1 (Sept. 1835):780.
10 Groce and Wallace, Dict. Artists, p. 286.
11 E. C. Stedman, “Edgar Allan Poe,” Scribner’s Monthly 20 (May 1880):107-24.
12 Whitman, Poe and His Critics, pp. 35-36.
13 Quoted in Hervey Allen, Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe, 2 vols. (New York: George H. Doran, 1926), 2:896.
14 Undated clipping, ca. 1859, Valentine Museum, Richmond.
15 L. Moody Simms, Jr., “John Blennerhassett Martin, William Garl Brown, and Flavius James Fisher: Three Nineteenth-Century Virginia Portraitists,” Virginia Cavalcade 25 (Autumn 1975):72-79.
16 Quoted in Dwight Thomas and David K. Jackson, The Poe Log: A Documentary Life of Edgar Allan Poe (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1987), p. 822.
17 Edward Valentine to Sarah Valentine, Apr. 7, 1863, Valentine Museum.
18 Blair Bolling to Edward Valentine, July 19, 1893, Valentine Museum.
19 Quoted in John H. Birss, “Poe in Fordham: A Reminiscence,” Notes and Queries 173 (Dec. 18, 1937):440.
20 Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 5:frontispiece; Phillips, Poe: The Man, 1:641.
21 Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:260-61.
22 Phillips, Poe: The Man, 2:1591.
23 For example, see the caption accompanying a wood-engraved ­[page 183:] derivative of the Halling portrait published in the New York Daily Graphic 4 (Nov. 16, 1875):1. Cf. Allen, Israfel, 2:479.
24 Stedman and. Woodberry eds., Works, 10:260-61.
25 Amelia Poe to John H. Ingram, Apr. 29, 1895, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 396.
26 Phillips, Poe: The Man, 1:641, 2:1591.
27 James A. Harrison, ed., The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, 17 vols. (New York: George D. Sproul, 1902), 4:frontispiece.
28 Sara S. Rice, Edgar Allan Poe: A Memorial Volume (Baltimore: Turnbull Bros., 1877), p. vii. For the “Davidson” daguerreotype, see Appendix A, “Copy Daguerreotypes.”
29 Thomas D. Davidson to William H. Browne, Mar. 13, 1876, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore.
30 S. D. Lewis to Sara S. Rice, Dec. 11, 1876, Pratt Free Library.
31 E. C. Stedman, “Edgar Allan Poe,” p. 108.
32 Groce and Wallace, Dict. Artists, p. 612.
33 Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:259.
34 J. Delancey Ferguson, “Charles Hine and His Portrait of Poe,” American Literature 3 (Jan. 1932):465-70.
35 J. H. Whitty, “The Hine Portrait of Poe,” Literary Digest International Book Review 4 (Sept. 1926):656.
36 George E. Story to Mary Phillips, July 5, 1917, Phillips Papers.
37 Note of Orrin C. Painter dated Mar. 11, 1914, on the verso of a photograph of Hine’s painting, now in the Koester Collection (item 77.22.4) at the University of Texas at Austin.
38 There are two valuable articles: Robert P. Rushmore’s “Gabriel Harrison: Artist, Writer, and ‘Father of the Drama in Brooklyn,’ ” Journal of Long Island History 18 (Spring 1982):30-44, and Grant B. Romer’s “Gabriel Harrison — the Poetic Daguerrean,” Image 22 (Sept. 1979):8-18.
39 Quoted in Romer, “Gabriel Harrison,” p. 18.
40 “Edgar A. Poe: Reminiscences of Gabriel Harrison, an Actor, Still Living in Brooklyn,” New York Times — Saturday Review of Books and Art, Mar. 4, 1899, p. 144.
41 Quoted in a letter of John W. Lindenbusch, Director of the Long Island Historical Society, to Robert Bretz, Aug. 17, 1966, George Eastman House, Rochester.
42 “Edgar A. Poe: Reminiscences of Gabriel Harrison,” p. 144.
43 Repeated efforts to locate the portrait since 1981 have been unsuccessful. That the portrait remained in the society’s collections until at least 1966 is indicated by the letter from Lindenbusch cited in n. 41, above.
44 Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, Library of . . . Edmund Clarence Stedman, Part III (New York, Jan. 24-25, 1911), lot 2289. At that time the replica carried a penciled note from Stedman: “This copy was made for me E. C. Stedman in March 1896 by the said Gabriel Harrison now surviving & in his 78th year.”
45 Harrison to Clemm, Dec. 1, 1864, Pratt Free Library.
46 Harrison to Clemm, Jan. 31, 1865, quoted in James A. Harrison, ed., Complete Works of Poe, 17:433-34.
47 For the text of Pratt’s statement, see commentary on the “Thompson” daguerreotype.
48 In his Jan. 31, 1865, letter to Maria Clemm (cited in n. 46, above) Harrison referred to Poe as being alive in 1850; Poe, of course, had died in 1849.
49 Pratt Free Library.
50 Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, Library of . . . Edmund Clarence Stedman, lots 2288 and 2289.
51 Baltimore Sun, Nov. 9, 1941, unpaged clipping in the Pratt Free Library; Parke-Bernet Galleries sale catalogue, Rare Books, Original Drawings, Autograph Letters and Manuscripts, Collected by the Late A. Edward Newton (New York: Oct. 29-30, 1941), lot 70.
52 John A. Joyce, Edgar Allan Poe (New York and London: F. T. Neely, 1901), p. 78.
53 Humphrey’s Journal of the Daguerreotype, June 15, 1853, quoted in Beaumont Newhall, The Daguerreotype in America, rev. ed. (New York: Dover, 1976), p. 57.
54 For a discussion of Brady’s misrepresentations, see Harold F. Pfister, Facing the Light: Historic American Portrait Daguerreotypes (Washington, D.C.: National Portrait Gallery, 1978), pp. 33-38. ­[page 184:]
55 George A. Townsend, “Still Taking Pictures: Brady, the Grand Old Man of American Photography, ” New York World, Apr. 12, 1891, p. 26. For a fanciful account of the alleged sitting, see Roy Meredith, Mr. Lincoln’s Camera Man (1946; rpt. New York: Dover, 1974), pp. 30-32.
56 The advertisement is reproduced in Pfister, Facing the Light, p. 36.
57 Chandos Fulton, “Portraits of Poe,” Home Journal, Mar. 12, 1873, unpaged clipping, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 563.
58 Yale University Library Gazette 33 (Apr. 1959):187.
59 J. H. Whitty, “A Newly Discovered Portrait of Edgar Allan Poe,” Literary Digest International Book Review 1 (Oct. 1923):47.
60 Jean C. Harris, Edouard Manet: Graphic Works (New York: Collector’s Editions, 1970), pp. 24-26. See also Marcel Guérin, L’Oeuvre Grave de Manet (Paris: Librarie Floury, 1944), pl. no. 55.
61 Baudelaire to Felix Nadar, May 1859, quoted in the Metropolitan Museum of Art catalogue, Manet, 1832-1883 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1983), p. 161.
62 Edgar Allan Poe, Le Courbeau, trans. Stéphane Mallarmé (Paris: Richard Lesclide, 1875).
63 Manet, 1832-1883, p. 163.
64 Harris, Manet: Graphic Works, p. 24.
65 Manet, 1832-1883, p. 160.
66 Harris, Manet: Graphic Works, p. 26.
67 Manet, 1832-1883, p. 162n.
68 Les Poèmes d’Edgar Poe, traduction de Stéphane Mallarmé, avec portrait et fleuron par Edouard Manet (Bruxelles: Edmond Deman, 1888).
69 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 378.
70 Groce and Wallace, Dict. Artists, pp. 58, 242.
71 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 452.
72 Ibid.
73 “Notes on Art and Archeology,” The Academy: A Weekly Review of Literature, Science, and Art 11 (Jan. 13, 1877):40.
74 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 470.
75 Ibid., p. 471.
76 Dictionary of American Biography s.v. “Cole, Timothy.”
77 Cole to Mary E. Phillips, Apr. 8, 1915, Phillips Papers.
78 Cole to Phillips, Apr. 5, 1915, Phillips Papers.
79 Charles Tatman to Clarence S. Brigham, Mar. 15, 1932, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.
80 E. Bénézit, Dictionaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs s.v. “Chifflart, Nicolas-François.”
81 This was a reprint of the four-volume Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, published in London by John C. Nimmo in 1884. The Nimmo edition did not carry the Chifflart likeness; in its place was an etching by Ben Damman, evidently derived from the “Stella” daguerreotype (fig. 21).
82 Ashley St. James, “The Vallotton Portrait of Poe,” Poe Messenger 8 (Spring 1978):1-4.
83 Christian Brinton, “Felix Vallotton,” The Critic 42 (Apr. 1903):325-40.
84 St. James, “The Vallotton Portrait of Poe,” p. 3.
85 Brinton, “Felix Vallotton,” p. 338.
86 St. James, “The Vallotton Portrait of Poe,” pp. 1-3.
87 Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:257-58.
88 Duval’s letter to George Woodberry, dated Aug. 4, 1884, has not been found among Woodberry’s correspondence, preserved at Columbia and Harvard universities. See Mabbott, ed., Collected Works, 1:548n.
89 Duval’s affiliation with Pinkerton is recorded in Poe’s Apr. l, 1841, letter to Thomas A. Wyatt; see Joseph J. Moldenhauer, “Beyond the Tamarind Tree: A New Poe Letter,” American Literature 42 (Jan. 1971):468-77.
90 Francis Howard, “On a Portrait of Edgar Allan Poe,” Anglo-Saxon Review 4 (Mar. 1900):95-97.
91 Theodore Bolton, “Catalogue of the Paintings of Henry Inman,” supplement to Art Quarterly 3 (Autumn 1940):401-18.
92 Christie, Manson and Wood sale catalogue, Pictures by Old Masters and Historical Portraits, the Property of the Late Francis Howard, Esq. (London, Nov. 25, 1955), lot 95. Annotated copy in the Frick Art Reference Library, New York. ­[page 185:]
93 Christie’s East sale catalogue, 19th and 20th Century American Paintings, Drawings, Watercolors, and Sculpture (New York, Oct. 5, 1983), lot 11.
94 Phillips, Poe: The Man, 1:431.
95 Robert C. Vose to Frank M. Camp, Oct. 4, 1927, The Athenaeum, Philadelphia.
96 Invoice dated Oct. 14, 1927, from “The Hayloft” (Whitemarsh, Penn.), The Athenaeum, Philadelphia.
97 Cited in Vose to Camp, Oct. 4, 1927.
98 Phillips, Poe: The Man, 2:1627-28.
99 George Chapellier to Clarence S. Brigham, Mar. 1, 1944, American Antiquarian Society.
100 Richmond Portraits in an Exhibition of Makers of Richmond, 1737-1860 (Richmond: Valentine Museum, 1949), p. 159.
101 Ibid.
102 Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, p. 30.
103 J. H. Whitty to Mary E. Phillips, Aug. 31, 1914, typescript, James H. Whitty Papers, William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
104 Mabbott, ed., Collected Works, 1:570n.
105 Information on Whitty is based on a biographical sketch prefacing the Whitty Papers at Duke University.
106 Mabbott to Mrs. Ralph Catterall, July 15, 1949, Valentine Museum.
107 Edward Valentine to John H. Ingram, May 18, 1875, quoting a letter of R. C. Ambler dated Dec. 14, 1874, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 228.
108 John Carl Miller, “Poe’s Sister Rosalie,” Tennessee Studies in Literature 8 (1963):107-17.
109 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 1:83-85. [[Text of this letter: Poe to J. P. Kennedy, February 11, 1836 (LTR-057).]] The painting was not a likeness of Poe but of Kennedy, accompanied by his wife and sister-in-law.
110 T. O. Mabbott, ed., Merlin, Baltimore, 1827, Together with Recollections of Edgar A. Poe by Lambert A. Wilmer (New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1941), p. 28.
111 Mabbott, ed., Collected Works, 1:551.
112 Mabbott to Catterall, July 15, 1949, Valentine Museum.
113 Ostrom, ed., Letters, 1:197. [[Text of this letter: Poe to F. W. Thomas, May 25, 1842 (LTR-134).]]
114 Thomas Sully did at one time paint a portrait of Poe’s mother, Elizabeth Arnold Poe; this fact was first observed by Dr. Bruce V. English in his article “Poe and the Sullys,” in the Poe Messenger 14 (Summer 1984):2-5. It seems somewhat doubtful, however, that this miniature is the one now owned by the Free Library of Philadelphia. See n. 117, below.
115 The register was published by Charles Henry Hart as A Register of Portraits Painted by Thomas Sully, 1801-1871 (Philadelphia: Privately printed, 1908).
116 For a listing of source materials related to Sully’s life and work, see Monroe Fabian, Mr. Sully, Portrait Painter: The Works of Thomas Sully (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983).
117 Edward Biddle and Mantle Fielding, The Life and Works of Thomas Sully (Philadelphia: Wickersham Press, 1921), p. 249. The authenticity of the well-known miniature of Poe’s mother, now in the Gimbel Collection at the Free Library of Philadelphia, is questionable — at least as a life portrait. The miniature first came to light in 1875, in the possession of Marie Louise Shew (then Mrs. Roland Houghton), who later forwarded it to John H. Ingram in London. In an Apr. 1875 letter to Ingram, Mrs. Houghton stated that the portrait was a copy, made by herself, after a lost original formerly owned by Poe. See Miller, ed., Poe Biography, pp. 131-32.
118 For example, see Andrew Oliver, Portraits of John Quincy Adams and His Wife (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1970), p. 63.
119 Catalogue of the Memorial Exhibition of Portraits by Thomas Sully (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1922).
120 Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, pp. 30-31.
121 Typewritten memorandum dated July 7, 1949, titled “Likenesses of Poe,” Valentine Museum. Wilson’s comments are in the form of marginal notations in pencil. The notations are unsigned but were evidently written in response to a July 1949 query letter from Mrs. Ralph Catterall, curator of the Valentine Museum.
122 Albert W. Dowling, “Mystery in the Rue Amity: A ‘Sully Portrait of Poe, ’ ” Baltimore Sun Magazine, Nov. 6, 1966, pp. 11-12.
123 Ibid. ­[page 187:]
124 Chester Dale to Thomas M. Beggs, Apr. 10, 1958, Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
125 Sotheby Galleries sale catalogue, Collection of Viscount Lee of Fareham and Others (London, July 17, 1923), lot 55.
126 Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, p. 41.
127 Lillian B. Miller, editor of the Charles Willson Peale Papers, to the author, Sept. 17, 1982.
128 Buck Pennington, “An Examination of the Alleged Poe by Peale,” July 1980, in the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery.
129 Memorandum on mounted copy photograph of the painting, in the Frick Art Reference Library.
130 “Three Portraits Reveal Poe’s Gift as Artist,” New York Times, Sept. 22, 1930, pp. 1 ff.
131 Ibid.
132 New York Times, Oct. 4, 1930, p. 16.
133 David A. Randall, The J. K. Lilly Collection of Edgar Allan Poe: An Account of Its Formation (Bloomington: Lilly Library, 1964), pp 15-21.
134 The legend that Poe once studied lithography under Peter S. Duval in Philadelphia is nonsensical. Duval categorically denied the allegation in his Aug. 4, 1884, letter to George E. Woodberry. See Woodberry’s Edgar Allan Poe (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1885), p. 143n.
135 Randall, J. K. Lilly Collection, p. 21.
136 Quoted in Alfred H. Barr, Matisse: His Art and His Public (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1951), pp. 244-45.
137 Ibid.
138 Prospectus for Poésies de Stéphane Mallarmé; Eaux-Fortes de Henri Matisse (New York: Marie Harriman Gallery, 1932); copy in the Museum of Modern Art Library, New York.
139 Barr, Matisse, p. 246.
140 Ibid.
141 Quoted ibid.
142 Mary C. Corner, J. G. D. Paul et al., Thomas Cromwell Corner (Baltimore: Privately printed, 1940).
143 Typewritten statement dated Jan. 16, 1936, in the files of the Pratt Free Library.
144 Corner and Paul, Thomas Cromwell Corner, unpaged.
145 “Early American Portrait Sale,” American Art News 17 (Jan. 11, 1919):5.
146 In Facts about Poe (p. 50), Amanda Schulte, after describing the Boyle painting at length, concluded that “this portrait though differing in expression from most of the pictures of Poe has his characteristics, except for a slightly firmer chin. . . . There seems to be no reason to doubt its authenticity.” Schulte’s pronouncement is baffling: the provenance of the painting is hopelessly vague and the likeness itself bears not the slightest resemblance to the authenticated images of Poe.
147 Undated clipping in a scrapbook of Poe ephemera, ca. 1923, in the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs, New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations. See also Phillips, Poe: The Man, 1:291.
148 Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, p. 30.
149 Ibid., p. 42.
150 Prosper Guerry to Harry Clemons, Dec. 16, 1931, Univ. of Virginia Library, Charlottesville.
151 L. B. Hatke to R. W. G. Vail, Nov. 7, 1936, American Antiquarian Society.
152 “Of the Artist, E. C. Lewis, nothing is known further than that there was an Artist, Painter of Portraits, but not of much repute, who resided in Philadelphia, contemporary with Poe” (S. V. Henkels & Son sale catalogue no. 1013, lot 31, undated clipping in a scrapbook of Poe ephemera, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs).
153 Ibid.
154 Henry Scarupa, “Alleged Portrait of Poe to Be Auctioned,” Baltimore Sun, May 29, 1982, unpaged clipping in the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery.

­[page 186, continued:]

Lost Portraits

1 Quoted in Quinn, Poe, p. 82.
2 Marie Louise Shew (then Mrs. Houghton) to John H. Ingram, Mar. 28, 1875, in Miller, ed., Poe Biography, pp. 115-16.
3 Marie Louise Houghton to John H. Ingram, May 2, 1875, ibid, p. 135. ­[page 187:]
4 In her May 2, 1875, letter to Ingram (note 3, above), Mrs. Houghton stated that Poe’s letter to his wife was preserved in his “deguerotype.” The letter remained in Mrs. Houghton’s care until about 1875, when she apparently sent the original, followed by a transcript copy, to Ingram in London. But Ingram would later assert that he had received only the copy, not the original, and the present whereabouts of this singularly valuable letter remain unknown. For the letter’s text, see Ostrom, ed., Letters, 2:318. [[Text of this letter: Poe to Mrs. V. C. Poe, June 12, 1846 (LTR-232).]]
5 Houghton to Ingram, Jan. 23, 1875, in Miller, ed., Poe Biography, p. 99.
6 Richard H. Hart and Arthur Hobson Quinn, eds., Edgar Allan Poe: Letters and Documents in the Enoch Pratt Free Library (New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1941), pp. 58-60.
7 Quoted in William Dunlap, History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States, 3 vols. (1834; rpt. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965), 3:194-95.
8 Julia M. Sully to Mary E. Phillips, Mar. 8, 1918, Phillips Papers.
9 Editorial on Sully, entitled “Splendid Pictures — Virginia Genius’ ” in the Richmond Whig, Oct. 16, 1849, typewritten extract, Valentine Museum, Richmond.
10 R. M. Sully to J. H. Whitty, Mar. 27, 1896, James H. Whitty Papers, William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.
11 Julia M. Sully to Mary E. Phillips, Oct. 7, 1917, Phillips Papers. In this letter Miss Sully attributes the raid on her aunt’s house to one of McClellan’s subordinates, Daniel V. Sickles.
12 Quoted in Landon C. Bell to Mary E. Phillips, Mar. 14, 1918, Phillips Papers.
13 Ibid., Mar. 11, 1918, Phillips Papers.
14 Ibid., Feb. 26, 1918, Phillips Papers.
15 Hervey Allen, Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe, 2 vols. (New York: George H. Doran, 1926), 2:767n.
16 Quoted in Bell to Phillips, Mar. 11, 1918, Phillips Papers. See also Bell’s Mar. 28, 1918, letter to John S. Patton, published as “Two Poe Portraits,” University of Virginia Alumni Bulletin, 3d ser., 12 (Jan. 1919):106-7.
17 Quinn, Poe, p. 65.

­[page 187, continued:]

Appendix A: Copy Daguerreotypes

1 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 459.
2 Mrs. Lewin’s comments are cited in a letter of Charles Tatman to Clarence S. Brigham, Mar. 15, 1932, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.
3 A Society’s Chief Joys (Worcester: American Antiquarian Society, 1969), p. 87. Here the daguerreotype is mistakenly attributed to S. W. Hartshorn and is described as having been a gift from Sarah H. Whitman to Mr. and Mrs. Lewin.
4 Parke Bernet sale catalogue, Rare Books & Manuscripts . . . Mainly from Private Collectors (New York, Dec. 9-10, 1952), pp. 146-47, lot 568. A miniature of Poe on ivory, offered for sale as lot 569, is a derivative of the “Ultima Thule” daguerreotype; it is now owned by the Free Library of Philadelphia.
5 “Quoth the Raven,” Yale University Library Gazette 33 (Apr. 1959):169.
6 E. C. Stedman, “Edgar Allan Poe,” Scribner’s Monthly 20 (May 1880):108n.
7 Quoted ibid. This widely reprinted description of the “Ultima Thule” image has occasionally been misattributed to E. C. Stedman.
8 Ellen Morgan Frisbie, Henry Sylvester Cornwell, Poet of Fancy: A Memoir (New London: Privately printed, 1906), p. 16.
9 James Southall Wilson, “Famous Picture of Poe Is Placed on Exhibition,” New York Times, Oct. 8, 1933, sec. 10, p. 12.
10 Kingsley’s original letter to Miss Greene is unlocated at present. Handwritten extracts, however, were made during the 1950s by Beaumont Newhall and are preserved in the files of the George Eastman House, Rochester.
11 Caroline Ticknor, Poe’s Helen (New York: Scribner’s, 1916), pp. 167-68.
12 Mrs. Whitman seems to refer to the picture in one of her letters to Miss Robins, promising, “I will send you the daguerre or a photograph from it very soon” (Whitman to Robins, Apr. 26, [1861], Elizabeth Robins Papers, Fales Library, New York University).
13 Ossian Dodge to John H. Ingram, June 1, 1875, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 230.
14 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 303. ­[page 188:]
15 Ibid., p. 317.
16 Ibid., pp. 319-21.
17 Ibid., pp. 326-27.
18 Dodge to Ingram, Nov. 7, 1875, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 257.
19 Miller, ed., Poe’s Helen, p. 455.
20 Information on the “Bonney” daguerreotype courtesy of William F. Stapp, Curator of Photographs, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
21 The daguerreotype manufacturers J. M. L. and W. H. Scovill did not adopt the trademark “SCOVILL MFG. CO. EXTRA” until 1850, and evidently abandoned it after 1854. See Floyd and Marion Rinhart, The American Daguerreotype (Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1981), p. 425.
22 Arthur H. Quinn and Richard Hart, eds., Edgar Allan Poe: Letters and Documents in the Enoch Pratt Free Library (New York: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1941), pp. 58-60.
23 News and Notes of the Museum & Library of Maryland History 11 (Jan./Feb. 1982):1. See also Photographica 14 (Nov. 1982):2.
24 Schulte and Wilson, Facts about Poe, pp. 53-54.
25 Letter of Mrs. George H. Pierce, June 2, 1920, cited in Photographica 5 (Oct. 1973):5.
26 Rinhart, American Daguerreotype, p. 424.
27 A. P. Root to E. C. Stedman, Nov. 30, 1894, Edmund C. Stedman Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University.
28 Root to Stedman, Feb. 8, 1896, Stedman Papers.
29 Stedman and Woodberry, eds., Works, 10:259.
30 Anderson Galleries sale catalogue, The Library of . . . Edmund Clarence Stedman (New York: Jan. 24-25, 1911), lot 2287.
31 Thomas Dimmock, “Notes on Poe,” Century Magazine, o.s., 50 (June 1895):315.
32 Quoted in the Baltimore American, Feb. 9, 1896, unpaged clipping, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 902.
33 Thomas D. Davidson to William H. Browne, Mar. 13, 1876, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore.
34 William H. Browne to John H. Ingram, Mar. 17, 1876, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 287.
35 Davidson to Browne, Dec. 9, 1876, Pratt Free Library.

­[page 188, continued:]

Appendix B: Portraits of Virginia Clemm Poe

 1 Quinn, Poe, p. 528.
2 Miller, ed., Poe Biography, p. 100.
3 Mrs. Houghton’s surviving correspondence with John Ingram is published in its entirety in Miller, ed., Poe Biography, pp. 88-145.
4 N. H. Morison to John H. Ingram, Apr. 28, 1880, Poe-Ingram Collection, item 349.
5 For a reproduction, see Quinn, Poe, facing p. 524.
6 Annotated copy photograph of the painting, Frick Art Reference Library, New York.
7 Ibid.
8 “Three Portraits Reveal Poe’s Gift as Artist,” New York Times, Sept. 22, 1930, p. 1.

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Notes:

None.


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[S:1 - PDEAP, 1989] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Bookshelf - The Portraits and Daguerreotypes of Edgar Allan Poe (M. J. Deas) (Notes)