Edgar Allan Poe — “Four Beasts in One”





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Location - Under development.

Date - Under development.


Under development.


Reading and Reference Texts:

Reading copy:

  • “Four Beasts in One” — reading copy


Historical Texts:

Manuscripts and Authorized Printings:

  • Text-01 — “Epimanes” — early 1833— (Although we have the “Buckingham” manuscript, we may speculate that there must have been an earlier form as the copy sent to the Buckinghams is clearly a clean copy. It may also be surmised that Poe must have retained a manuscript as the Buckinghams appear never to have returned Poe’s letter, and Poe would need to have a copy of the text, which was later printed in the Southern Literary Messenger. This manuscript is lost, but this version is presumably recorded in Text-02.)
  • Text-02 — “Epimanes” — May 4, 1833— “Buckingham” manuscript — (Mabbott text A)
  • Text-03 — “Epimanes” — March 1836— Southern Literary Messenger — (Mabbott text B)
  • Text-04 — “Epimanes” — about 1839 — (although these pages in the Duane copy of the Southern Literary Messenger show no sign of changes, the version published in TGA shows verbal modifications, which suggests an intermediary form. It is likely, therefore, that Poe made changes in copies other than those which were ultimately owned by Duane, and that those copies have not been located and possibly have not survived. Poe appears to have attempted to erase his changes in the Duane copies, and it is possible that a copy exists in which these erased changes have been overlooked. This missing text is presumably reflected in text-05.)
  • Text-05 — “Epimanes” — 1840 — TGA — (Mabbott text C)
  • Text-06 — “The Homocameleopard” — 1842 — manuscript title revision in TGAPP (volume II, which seems to have had revisions by Poe, is lost, but this version is presumably recorded in Text-06)
  • Text-07 — “Four Beasts in One” — December 6, 1845 — Broadway Journal — (Mabbott text D) (For Griswold’s 1850 reprinting of this text, see the entry below, under reprints.)



  • Four Beasts in One” — 1850 — WORKS — Griswold reprints Text-06  (Mabbott text E)  (This is Mabbott’s copy-text)
  • “Four Beasts in One” — 1867 — Prose Tales of Edgar Allan Poe, second series (New York: W. J. Widdleton), pp. 169-176 (This collection is extracted from the 1850-1856 edition of Poe’s Works. It was reprinted several times.)
  • “Four Beasts in One” — 1874 — Works of Edgar A. Poe, edited by J. H. Ingram (vol. II, pp. 385-393) (This collection was subsequently reprinted in various forms)


Scholarly and Noteworthy Reprints:

  • “Four Beasts in One” — 1894-1895 — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 4: Tales, ed. G. E. Woodberry and E. C. Stedman, Chicago: Stone and Kimball (4:92-102) (This collection was subsequently reprinted in various forms)
  • Four Beasts in One; the Homo-Cameleopard” — 1902 — The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 2: Tales I, ed. J. A. Harrison, New York: T. Y. Crowell (2:203-213, and 2:375-377)
  • Epimanes (Four Beasts in One)” — 1978 — The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 2: Tales & Sketches I, ed. T. O. Mabbott, Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (2:117-130)
  • “Four Beasts in One— The Homo-Cameleopard” — 1984 — Edgar Allan Poe: Poetry and Tales, Patrick F. Quinn (New York: Library of America), pp. 181-188


Comparative Texts:

Instream Comparative Texts:

  • None.


Plain Text Files for Juxta:

  • None.


Associated Material and Special Versions:

Miscellaneous Texts and Related Items:

  • “Quatre bêtes en une” — (French translation by Charles Baudelaire)
    • “L‘Homme caméléopard ou Quatre bêtes en une” — July 28, 1854 — Le Pays
    • “Quatre bêtes en une” — 1857 — Nouvelles histoires par Edgar Poe, Paris: Michel Lévy frères



  • Heartman, Charles F. and James R. Canny, A Bibliography of First Printings of the Writings of Edgar Allan Poe, Hattiesburg, MS: The Book Farm, 1943.
  • Itoh, Shoko, “Urbanity in Poe,” Chu-Shikoku Studies in American Literature (1986), 22:5-13.
  • Lecompte, C. “ ‘The Homeo-Cameleopard’ ou la mort de Dieu,” Delta: Revue de Centre d‘Edtdes et le Recherche sur les Ecrivains du Sud aux Etats-Units (1975), 1:83-94.
  • Mabbott, Thomas Ollive, ed., The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe (Vols 2-3 Tales and Sketches), Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1978.
  • Whipple, William, “Poe’s Political Satire,” University of Texas Studies in English (1956), 35:81-95.
  • Wyllie, John Cooke, “A List of the Texts of Poe’s Tales,” Humanistic Studies in Honor of John Calvin Metcalf, Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1941, pp. 322-338.


[S:0 - JAS] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Works - Tales - Four Beasts in One