Edgar Allan Poe — “Annabel Lee”


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Reading and Reference Texts:

Reading copy:


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Historical Texts:

Manuscripts and Authorized Printings:

This poem was only published after Poe’s death, and therefore all of the authorized texts are in the form of manuscripts. Several of these manuscripts served as the source for subsequent printings, beginning with Griswold’s obituary of Poe in the New-York Daily Tribune of October 9, 1849. All of the manuscripts are fair-copy drafts, featuring a clean text with no corrections. All include Poe’s name in a byline, suggesting that Poe intended them for publication. About May 5, 1849, Poe wrote to Annie Richmond, promising to send a copy of “Annabel Lee” soon, but it does not appear that he did so in the few months between the letter and his death in Baltimore.

The dates for the manuscripts, and the order of an evolving text that such dates imply, may be misleading. It may be presumed that the poem was composed in late April or early May, and that all of the surviving manuscripts were written out at about the same time, in anticipation of Poe’s southern tour to drum up support for his Stylus magazine. Given Poe’s troubles in Philadelphia, it seems unlikely that he wrote out any of the copies there. The similarity of the manuscripts, all written in the same brown ink on the blue paper that Poe often used at this period, and in a neat hand, suggest a series copied over a short sequence of a few hours or days, with the slight differences between them representing a poem that was still not quite finished in his mind. (It may be worth repeating that while the manuscripts do have some minor changes between them, both verbally and in terms of punctuation, all of the manuscripts are clean fair copies and none of them overtly record a sequence of changes. Consequently, it is difficult to apply the usual assumption of Poe’s final preference in a particular draft merely based on the date that it was handed to someone. If he had all of the drafts at the same time, it is possible that he selected what he might have considered the “best” version and sent that to Griswold as that would appear in the most durable form of a book rather than an ephemeral periodical.

  • Text-01 — “Annabel Lee” — late May 1849
    • Text-01a — “Annabel Lee” — late May 1849 — “Griswold” manuscript  (Mabbott text A)  (This is Mabbott’s first copy-text for the poem) (The manuscript is written in brown ink on the front side only of two quarto sheets of off-white or faded pale blue, lightly-ruled paper. The two sheets have been joined to form a roll manuscript, as was Poe’s habit. The second sheet begins with the line “The angels, not half so happy in Heaven.” A photographic facsimile of the title and first 3 stanzas of this manuscript was printed by Thomas O. Mabbott in The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe - Volume I: Poems, Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1969, on the inverse of the page facing p. 353.) Poe sent the manuscript to Rufus Wilmot Griswold (1815-1857) in a letter, along with a manuscript of “For Annie,” with the idea that they would be included in the next revised edition of The Poets and Poetry of America. For Griswold’s three printings of this manuscript, see his texts for the New-York Daily Tribune, The Poets and Poetry of America and WORKS. The manuscript passed from Griswold’s estate to his exectuor, George Henry Moore (1823-1892), and eventually back to Griswold’s son, William McCrillis Griswold (1853-1899), and remained with the family until it was donated to the Harvard Library. The cataloging code assigned by Harvard is MS AM 233.6. According to the catalog acquisition entry, it was: “Deposited by Mrs. Arthur W. Locke, Mrs. Arthur W. Fletcher, Mrs. Roger Griswold Esq., and Merrill Griswold Esq.; 1949 Oct. 20; Gift 1952 Dec. 12.”)
    • Text-01b — “Annabel Lee” — late 1849 — Poets and Poetry of America (10th edition, dated 1850)  (Mabbott text J) (Savoye, in 2018, argues that this text was already set in type by October 1849, imposing a house style in regard to capitalization. Poe could never have had any opportunity to read or approve of changes made in this text, which makes its authority entirely secondary to that of the manuscript, which fortunately has survived. Without any special authority, this text is technically a mere reprint, but is included in this bibliography chiefly because it is directly based on the manuscript, with editorial impositions.)
    • Text-01c — “Annabel Lee” — October 9, 1849 — New-York Daily Tribune  (The “Ludwig” obituary)  (Mabbott text G) (Savoye, in 2018, argues that this text was based on the poem as it was prepared for The Poets and Poetry of America, adopting changes made for that printing even though they were not present in the manuscript and were not part of the house style of the Tribune. As for the text in The Poets and Poetry of America, on which it is based, this printing has no special authority of its own, and is technically a mere reprint, but is included in this bibliography chiefly to clarify its relationship to the manuscript.)
    • Text-01d — “Annabel Lee” — 1850 — WORKS — (Mabbott text L) (Savoye, in 2018, argues that this text was based on the poem as it was prepared for The Poets and Poetry of America, adopting changes made for that printing even though they were not present in the manuscript and were not part of the house style of the WORKS. As for the text in The Poets and Poetry of America, on which it is based, this printing has no special authority of its own, and is technically a mere reprint, but is included in this bibliography chiefly to clarify its relationship to the manuscript.)
  • Text-02 — “Annabel Lee” — June 1849 — “Moore” manuscript — (Mabbott text B) (The manuscript is written in brown ink on the front side only of two quarto sheets of light-blue, unlined paper. The two sheets have been joined to form a roll manuscript, as was Poe’s habit. The second sheet begins with the line “The angels, not half so happy in Heaven.” The combination of the two sheets measures 44.8cm long x 19.6cm wide.) About the end of May 1849, before leaving New York on his southern tour, Poe gave the manuscript to John W. Moore, a bookkeeper of the Merchant’s Exchange in New York city. Moore passed ownership of the manuscript to a niece, Mary Elizabeth Chisolm (1852-1925), in Canada, who married Dr. Donald Duncan MacDonald (1858-1927), of Petitcodiac, N. B., Canada. The manuscript was subsequently acquired by Dr. Van Buren Thorne (1870-1935), of New Brunswick, before 1909, by which time he had moved to New York City (see New York Times, January 17, 1909), and later by William M. Elkins (1882-1947), a prominent and wealthy collector who presumably purchased it from Thorne. It was donated to the Poe Foundation in 1950, at the death of Elizabeth “Lisa” C. Norris Elkins (1898-1950), the widow of W. M. Elkins. The designation of a repository for the manuscript was actually a matter for the Orphan’s Court of Philadelphia on May 27, 1952 (see Philadelphia Inquirer, May 28, 1952, p. 48, cols. 1-2). This manuscript is now in the Gimbel collection of the Philadelphia Free Public Library.
  • Text-03 — “Annabel Lee” — July 1849 — “Hirst” manuscript — (Mabbott text C) (The manuscript is written in bronw ink on one side of two sheets of pale blue, lightly lined paper, pasted together between the first three and the final three stanzas. Poe gave this manuscript to H. B. Hirst when he was in Philadelphia, on his way south to promote his magazine plans. It was sold at auction by Hirst’s descendants in 1921 (item 564, sale price was $1,200.) The manuscript is currently in the Huntington Library, San Marion, CA.
  • Text-04 — “Annabel Lee: A Ballad” — July 1849
    • Text-04a — “Annabel Lee: A Ballad” — July 1849 — “Sartain” manuscript — (Mabbott text D) (for Sartain’s printing of this manuscript, see his text for Sartain’s”) (The manuscript measures 50.3 cm x 21 cm. It is written on two sheets of blue, lined paper, pasted together between the first four and the final two stanzas. On the verso is the note “$5 / paid.”) The manuscript (MA 620) is now in the collection of the Morgan Pierpont Library, in New York City. According to the Morgan Library catalog entry, the mansucript was acquired in 1850 from John S. Hart, an editor of Sartain’s by an unknown collector, who retained it until at least 1897. It was purchased by J. Pierpont Morgan in 1909, through New York book dealer George Herbert Richmond. (As a complication to the provenance, Richmond died on Nov. 17, 1904.)
    • Text-04b — “Annabel Lee” — January 1850 — Sartain’s — (Mabbott text K) (printed from the “Sartain” manuscript) (Poe could never have had any opportunity to read or approve of changes made in this printing, making its authority entirely secondary to that of the manuscript, which fortunately has survived. Without any special authority, this text is technically a mere reprint, but is included in this bibliography chiefly because it is presumably based on the manuscript.)
  • Text-05 — “Annabel Lee” — September 26, 1849
    • Text-05a — “Annabel Lee” — September 26, 1849 — “Thompson” manuscript — (Mabbott text E)  (This is Mabbott’s second copy-text for the poem) (For the two printings from this manuscript, see the Richmond Examiner proof sheets, and the Southern Literary Messenger) The manuscript was reproduced in facsimile by George E. Woodberry in The Life of Edgar Allan Poe: Personal and Literary, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909, II, between pages 352 and 353. The final stanza of the manuscript is reproduced in facsimile in R. H. Stoddard’s article on “Edgar Allan Poe” from Harper’s Monthly Magazine, September 1872, 268:562. Stoddard was Thompson’s literary executor, with full access to his papers. Unique among the manuscripts for this poem, it presents the text as two separate sheets of approximately the samne size, 18.5cm wide by 24.75cm tall. Like the other manuscripts, the ink is brown, the paper was pale blue, and like the Moore copy, unlined. For the second page, the final stanza was originally written on a separate sheet, and has been pasted to the bottom of the second page. There is no evidence that all of the pages were at one point joined as a single scroll. Not evident in the Woodberry facsimile, the appended leaft with the final stanza shows some minor smears and staining, of uncertain origin. They may have been present when Poe first created this manuscript, or they may have appeared in later mishandling, although it is interesting that they seem to be limited to this partial leaf. According to a letter written by Bashford Dean (1867-1928) to the New York Times, dated Jan. 17, 1909 and published on January 18, 1909, the manuscript was inherited from Thompson by a second cousin, Mr. Isaac Michael Dyckman (1813-1899), and loaned by his widow, Mrs. Frances Blackwell Brown Dyckman (1832-1914) to Columbia University. Mrs. Bashford Dean was Mary Alice Dyckman (1869-1950), one of two daughters of Isaac and Frances Dyckman. Dean is in error, however, in describing the way that Dyckman obtained the manuscript, for there appears to be no documented relationship between the two families. Instead, it is known that Dyckman purchased the manuscript at an auction of books and autographs from the library of John R. Thompson, sold by Bangs, Merwin & Co. in New York on June 20, 1873. The manuscript was tipped in an 1858 illustrated edition of Poe’s poems, published by J. S. Redfield. Along with the lot, for which Dyckman paid $180, was a letter from Poe to Thompson of December 7, 1848 (see New York Evening Post, June 21, 1873, p. 2, middle of col. 3). After Mrs. Dyckman’s death, the manuscripts were owned by her daughter, Fanny Fredericka Dyckman (1871-1951) (Mrs. Alexander McMillan Welch), who left them to Columbia University about 1951. The manuscript is now part of the collection of the Butler Library of Columbia University, in New York.
    • Text-05b — “Annabel Lee” — about September 1849 — Richmond Examiner proof sheets — (Mabbott text F) (Poe could never have had any opportunity to read or approve of changes made in this printing, making its authority entirely secondary to that of the manuscript, which fortunately has survived. Without any special authority, this text is technically a mere reprint, but is included in this bibliography chiefly because it is presumably based on the manuscript.)
    • Text-05c — “Annabel Lee” — November 1849 — Southern Literary Messenger — (Mabbott text H) (As for the Examiner text, Poe could never have had any opportunity to read or approve of changes made in this printing. Without any special authority, this text is technically a mere reprint, but is included in this bibliography chiefly because it is presumably based on the manuscript, and because Thompson made several incorrect statements about the authority of his text.)

 

Reprints:

This poem was widely reprinted in October 1849 as part of an obituary for Poe. Both “Annabel Lee” and “The Bells” were alternately given the status of “Poe’s last poem,” although the last poems actually composed appear to have been “Annabel Lee” and “Sonnet to My Mother.”

  • “Annabel Lee” — October 13, 1849 — Gazette of the Union, Golden Rule, and Odd Fellow’s Family Companion (vol. XI, no. 15, p. 240, col. 2) (apparently reprinted from the New York Tribune, based on the fact that it cites the Tribune and quotes two sentences from the obituary notice before giving the full poem.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 13, 1849 — Literary World, New York
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 13, 1849 — McMakin’s Model American Courier, Philadephia, PA (Although this article is by H. B. Hirst, and Hirst owned a copy of an original manuscript of the poem, this text was reprinted by the editor, and taken from Griswold’s obituary of Poe in the New York Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 16, 1849 — Richmond Enquirer (Richmond, VA), vol. XLVI, no. 48, p. 4 (reprinted as part of the obituary from the Tribune, acknowledged)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 16, 1849  — New-York Tribune (California edition)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 16, 1849 — Troy Post, Troy, NY
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 16, 1849  — Evening Post (New York, NY), vol. XLVII (no issue number), p. 1, col. 7 (with the introductory note: “The following beautiful poem is said to have been the last thing written by Poe, whose death it was our painful duty to announce only a week since. Nothing that ever came from his pen better illustrates his unsurpassing mastery of the rythm and melody of English verse.” This note was repeated in some other reprints.) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 18, 1849 — Boston Emancipator and Republican, Boston, MA
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 18, 1849 — Lynchburg Virginian, Lynchburg, VA (reprinted as part of the “Ludwig” obituary from the Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 19, 1849 — Tri-Weekly American, Lowell, MA  (Reprinted from NY Tribune)
  • Annabel Lee” — October 20, 1849 — Home Journal  (Reprinted in N. P. Willis’s article “The Death of Poe,” in quoting from the “Ludwig” obituary from the Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 20, 1849 — Albion, New York, NY
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 20, 1849 — Gem of the Prairie, Chicago, IL
  • Annabel Lee” — October 20, 1849  — New-York Weekly Tribune
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 20, 1849 — Saturday Evening Post (Philadelphia)  (reprinted as part of the “Ludwig” obituary from the Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 20, 1849 — Raleigh Register (Raleigh, NC) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 22, 1849 — Rochester Democrat, Rochester, NY
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 22, 1849 — Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 23, 1849 — Evening Mirror (NY)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 23, 1849 — New York Republican, Troy, NY
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 24, 1849 — Dollar Newspaper (Philadelphia)  (reprinted as part of the “Ludwig” obituary from the Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 24, 1849 — Weekly Raleigh Register (Raleigh, NC) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 25, 1849 — Buffalo Daily Republic (Buffalo, NY), vol. 3, whole no. 838, p. 3, top of col. 2 (with the brief introductory note: “On leaving New York for Virginia, Mr. Poe handed the following beautiful poem, in manuscript, to a friend, and it is probably his last production.”) (Reprinted from the New York Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 27, 1849 — Boston Weekly Museum and Literary Portfolio (reprinted as part of an obituary from the New York Metropolis)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 27, 1849 — Havana Journal (Havana, NY) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 29, 1849 — New Orleans Weekly Delta, New Orleans, LA
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 29, 1849 — Daily Toledo Blade, Toledo, OH
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 31, 1849 — Cleveland Plain Dealer, Cleveland, OH
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 31, 1849 — Marysville Tribune, Marysville, OH  (probably reprinted from NY Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 1849 — Western Literary Messenger, Buffalo, NY (published by Calvin F. S. Thomas)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 1, 1849 — Pittsfield Sun, Pittsfield, MA
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 2, 1849 — Lebanon Western Star, Lebanon, OH
  • “Annable [[Annabel]] Lee” — November 3, 1849 — Portland Transcript (ME) (Vol. XIII)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 3, 1849 — Hartford Weekly Times, Hartford, CT  (Reprinted from the New York Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 3, 1849 — Freeman’s Journal (Cooperstown, NY), vol. XLII, no. 10, p. 1, col. 1 (with the brief introductory note: “The following beautiful lines were written by the late Edgar A. Poe, a few days before his death.”) (Reprinted from the New York Tribune)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 3, 1849 — Pittsburgh Saturday Visiter, Pittsburgh, PA
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 3, 1849 — Portland Transcript, Portland, ME
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 3, 1849 — Literary Union, Syracuse, NY  (Reprinted as part of the “Ludwig” obituary)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 5, 1849 — Gazette and Courier (Greenfield, MA) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 7, 1849 — Painesville Telegraph, Painesville, OH
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 7, 1849 — New Hampshire Gazette and Republican Union, Portsmouth, NH
  • “[Annabel Lee]” — November 8, 1849 — Vincennes Gazette, Vincennes, IN
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 9, 1849 — Daily Chronicle and Sentinel, Augusta, GA
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 10, 1849 — Freeman’s Journal (Cooperstown, NY), vol. XLII, no. 12, p. 1, col. 1
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 10, 1849 — Sunbury American (Sunbury, PA) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 12, 1849 — Nova Scotian, Halifax, Nova Scotia
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 13, 1849 — Weekly Democrat, Chicago, IL  (by “the late E. A. Poe”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 14, 1849 — Rome Citizen, Rome, NY
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 16, 1849 — Schenectady Reflector, Schenectady, NY, vol. XV, no. 46, p. 1, col. 2 (with the heading “The Last Lines of Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 17, 1849 — Poughkeepsie Journal (Poughkeepsie, NY) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 23, 1849 — Indiana State Weekly Journal, Indianapolis, IN
  • “Annabel Lee” — December 6, 1849 — Jacksonville Republican (Jacksonville, AL), vol. 13, no. 46, p. 1, col. 3 (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 20, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — December 7, 1849  — Port Gibson Herald and Correspondent (Port Gibson, MS) (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 20, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — December 12, 1849  — Madison County Whig (Cazenovia, NY), vol. IX, no. 43, p. 1, col. 2 (with the same introductory note as the New York Evening Post, unacknowledged (This version has “so merry in Heaven” instead of “so happy in Heaven.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1850 — The Present or a Gift for the Times, Manchester, New Hampshire, edited by F. A. Moore
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1850 — Thomas Powell, The Living Writers of America, New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1850, pp. 126-127
  • “Annabel Lee” — February 9, 1850 — New England Washingtonian, Boston, MA
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1852 — Tales of Mystery and Imagination and Humour; and Poems, London: Henry Vizetelly (An undated edition appears about the same time, published by Charles H. Clark and Samuel Orchart Beeton, and their name appears as publisher for the second series), first series pp. 246-247. (with no woodcut illustration) (this poem was omitted in some later printings)
  • “Annabel Lee” — April 5, 1851 — Cecil Whig (Elkton, MD), vol. X, no. 37, p. 1 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — July 28, 1852 — Lancaster Ledger (Lancaster, SC), vol. 1, no. 25, p. 4 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — January 1, 1853 — North Carolinian (Fayetteville, NC), vol. 3, no. 18, p. 4 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — January 19, 1853 — Semi-weekly North-Carolina standard (Raleigh, NC), vol. 13, whole no. 723, p. 4 col. 6. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1853 — Thalatta: A Book for the Sea-Side, Boston: Ticknor, Reed, and Field, pp. 188-189 (This is a collection of poetry by various authors, from Bryant to Wordsworth, all with some kind of sea connection. This poem is the only Poe item in the collection.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1853 — An Offering to Beauty, Lowell: Merrill and Straw (The full title of this ornately bound book is: An Offering to Beauty: Composed of the Choicest Descriptions of Female Loveliness, Virtue, Accomplishments, Attractions, and Chams; Comprising the Poetry of Woman, edited by J. W. Hanson. Poe’s poem appears on pp. 226-228.)
  • Annabel Lee” — February 1854 — Graham’s  (reprinted in a biographical notice, pp. 216-225)
  • Annabel Lee” — February 1854 — Southern Literary Messenger (a reprint of the poem as a short item in Thompson’s “Editor’s Table,” repeating Thompson’s earlier text and with the incorrect assertion that it reflected Poe’s final preferences.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — February 10, 1854 — Melbourne Banner (Melbourne, Australia), p. 4. (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated January 17, 2017)
  • “Annabel Lee” — March 16, 1854 — Jeffersonian (Stroudsburg, PA), vol. 14, no. 19, p. 1 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — March 24, 1854 — Wheeling Daily Intelligencer (Wheeling, VA), p. 2, col. 3 (reprinted from the SLM for February 1854, including an introductory note) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 20, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — April 1854 — North-Carolina University Magazine (vol. III, p. 116, col. 1) (signed as "by Edgar Allan Poe")
  • “Annabel Lee” — May 2, 1854 — Schenectady Cabinet (Schenectady, NY), vol. XLIV, no. 44, p. 1, col. 4 (Poe is acknowleded as author, but apparently not reprinted from the SLM) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated December 21, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — May 31, 1854 — Yazoo Democrat (Yazoo City, MS), vol. 10, no. 30, p. 4 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — August 19, 1854 — Daily Minnesota Pioneer (St. Paul, MN), vol. 1, no. 94, p. 3 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — March 8, 1856 — Freeman’s Journal (Sydney, Australia) (mysteriously ascribed only to L.) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated January 17, 2017)
  • “Annabel Lee” — August 19, 1858 — San Andreas Independent (San Andreas, CA), vol. 2, no. 15, p. 3 col. 3. (acknowledged as by “E. A. Poe.”) (It begins with a short introduction of praise: “There are some things which escape the ‘common lot,’ and fade not, nor perish with the lapse of years. Among them are the rare jewels in the crown of genius. We recognize in this arrangement, the just recompense which Heaven has kindly given to those who, living, ‘gave to misery all they had — a tear — that, dying, they should find a friend in immortality. The following is one of the brightest of those rare jewels, as its author was one who suffered most poignantly of all the unhappy children of song. In rythm [[rhythm]], pathos, and elegant simplicity, ‘Annabel Lee’ is unapproachable. It presents a nicer combination of beauties than any other lyric in the language, and merits annual re-production in every publication in the country.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1858 — Achievements of Americans, Cincinnati: Henry Howe  (along with “The Raven”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — March 21, 1859 — Wheeling Daily Intelligencer (Wheeling, VA), vol. 7, no. 177, p. 4 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — February 5, 1864 — Gold Hills Daily News (Gold Hills, NV), vol. 1, no. 98, p. 1 col. 6. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 8, 1864  — Home Journal
  • “Annabel Lee” — February 16, 1865 — Weekly Pioneer and Democrat (St. Paul, MN), vol. 16, 33, p. 1 col. 6. (It is introduced by the short statement: “The following beautiful poem would have given immortality to the name of its author EDGAR ALLEN [[ALLAN]] POE, even if all his other great works had perished.”
  • “Annabel Lee” — March 31, 1865 — Bedford Gazette (Bedford, PA), vol. 8, 35, p. 1 col. 2. (It is introduced by the same note as in the Weekly Pioneer and Democrat, without acknowledging it as a reprint.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1865 — Golden Leaves from the American Poets, collected by John W. S. Hows, New York: Bunce and Huntington (This common collection of popular poems includes works by Poe, Emerson, Longfellow, J. R. Lowell, F. S. Key, Whittier, and others.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — February 17, 1866 — Otago Witness (New Zealand), p. 140 (a typographical error in this text has “Yes; this was the season ...” instead of “Yes; this was the reason ...”) (this entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated January 17, 2017)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1867 — Roses and Holly, a Gift-Book for all the Year (published by J. B. Lippincott)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1868 — Chimes for Childhood: A Collection of Songs for Little Ones, Dana Estes, ed., Boston: Lee & Shepard (pp. 92-95) (reprinted 1871)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 1, 1869 — Delaware Gazette (Delaware, OH), vol. 51, 28, p. 1 col. 4. (acknowledged as by “Edgar A. Poe.”)
  • Annabel Lee” — 1875 — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol 3: Poems  and Essays, ed. J. H. Ingram, Edinburgh, Adam and Charles Black (3:18-19)
  • “Annabel Lee” — June 23, 1877 — Public Ledger (Memphis, TN), vol. 24, no. 99, p. 1 col. 2. (Acknowledged as by “Edgar Allan Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1883 — Surf and Wave, or, the Sea as Sung, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell and Co. (this poem is one of two by Poe included in this collection, the other being “The City in the Sea”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — April 3, 1884 — Belmont Chronicle (St. Clairsville, OH), vol. 24, no. 14, p. 4 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — September 17, 1891 — Wood County Reporter (Grand Rapids, WI), vol. 34, no. 38, p. 7 col. 1. (acknowledged as by “Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 1889 — Current Literature (vol. 3, p. 326) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — August 10, 1899 — Republican Herald (Phoenix, AZ) (p. 6) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — March 10, 1901 — Richmond Dispatch (Memphis, TN), whole no. 15,585, p. 13 col. 2. (printed as part of an article about the recent rediscovery of Poe’ 1836 marriage bond.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 25, 1902 — Baltimore County Union (Towson, MD), vol. 53, whole no. 1972, p. 1 col. 2. (acknowledged as by “Edgar Allan Poe.”)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 6, 1907 — The State (Columbia, SC) (p. 26) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — January 17, 1909 — the New York Times (facsimile of the manuscript given to John W. Moore)
  • “Annabel Lee” — November 14, 1920 — Macon Daily Telegraph (p. 6) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1927 — Los Angeles, CA: privately printed by Chester Troan for William Andrews Clark, Jr. (an edition limited to 50 numbered copies) (with Poe’s middle name misspelled on the title page as “Allen.” the pages are double leaves, folded at the top.)
  • Annabel Lee — December 17, 1935 — Chillicothe Ohio: Old Capitol Book Shop (a very curious item, which is, as stated, “printed on the outside margins of an old book Two-Hundred and Fifty years old.” The newer book was printed in a limited run of 100 numbered copies, and the edge of the text of the old book can be seen running along the bottom of each page. The new book is edited by David K. Webb, and originally sold for $5. It measured 3 1/2 inches wide by 5 1/4 inches high, with 20 pages. The text of the old book appears to be German, and it would have been printed in 1680 on heavy rag paper.)
  • and many others

 

Scholarly and Noteworthy Reprints:

  • Annabel Lee” — 1894-1895 — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 10: Poems, ed. E. C. Stedman and G. E. Woodberry (Chicago: Stone and Kimball), 10:41-42 and 10:186
  • Annabel Lee” — 1902 — The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 7: Poems, ed. J. A. Harrison (New York: T. Y. Crowell), 10:117-118 and 10:218-221  (The full text of the “Griswold” manuscript is given in the notes)
  • Annabel Lee” — 1911 — The Complete Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. J. H. Whitty (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.), pp. 80-82 and pp. 242-244
  • Annabel Lee” — 1917 — The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. Killis Campbell (Boston: Ginn and Company), pp. 134-135 and pp. 293-297
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1965 — The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. Floyd Stovall (Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia), pp. 124-125 and pp. 287-290
  • Annabel Lee” — 1969 — The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 1: Poems, ed. T. O. Mabbott (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), 1:468-481  (Mabbott prints two versions of the poem)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1984 — Edgar Allan Poe: Poetry and Tales, ed. Patrick F. Quinn (New York: Library of America), pp. 102-103 (reprints the text from Text-06b)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 2004 — The Selected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. G. R. Thompson (New York: W. W. Norton & Co.), pp. 75-76
  • “Annabel Lee” — 2015 — The Annotated Poe, ed. Kevin J. Hayes (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), pp. 393-395

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Comparative and Study Texts:

Instream Comparative and Study Texts:

  • Annabel Lee” — Comparative Text (“Griswold” manuscript and derrived texts)
  • Annabel Lee” — Comparative Text (“Sartain” manuscript and Sartain’s Magazine)
  • Annabel Lee” — Comparative Text (“Thompson” manuscript and SLM)
  • Annabel Lee” — Comparative Text (All MSS, traditional order)
  • Annabel Lee” — Comparative Text (All MSS, speculative order)

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Associated Material and Special Versions:

Miscellaneous Texts and Related Items:

  • “[Annabel Lee]” — (1857 — “Edgar Allan Poe,” Magazin für die Literatur des Auslandes, 130:519-520.)  (German translation by Luise von Ploennis.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1862 — Lieder und Balladenbuch amerikanischer und englischer Dichter der Gegenwart, Hamburg: Hoffman and Campe, pp. 48-49 (translation by Adolf Strodtmann. This entry was provided to the Poe Society by Ton Fafianie, in an e-mail dated October 11, 2018)
  • “Annabel Lee” — about 1890 — London: National Institute for the Blind  (a special printing in Moon type, similar to Braille in that it was intended for blind readers, but a very different system based more closely on a simplified Roman alphabet, developed by Dr. William Moon in the mid-1840s.)
  • “[Annabel Lee]” — April 1919 — The Feather (New York) (Yiddish translation, considerably abbreviated) (The subtitle of the periodical is “A Monthly Journal Devoted to Literature, Art and Critic[ism]” It was published by the Literary Collegues Group, for which “Aron Carlin” is noted as the Literary Secretary. Everything other than the title page is in Yiddish. Aaron Carlin (1887-ca. 1945?) was a noted Yiddish editor, poet and translator. It is possible that the translation was done by him.)
  • “Annabel Lee” — October 6, 1941 — for a radio broadcast on The Mercury Theater of the Air show, read by Orson Welles.
  • “[Annabel Lee]” — October 1949 — De Tsjerne, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. ???-??? (Dokkum, Netherlands, published by J. Kamminga) (Frisian translation by Dam Jaarsma)  (This title provided by René van Slooten)
  • “Annabel Lee” — 1960 — a reading by Nelson Olmsted on The Raven: Poems and Tales of Edgar Allan Poe, issued on the Vanguard label (VRS-9046, rereleased as VSD-32)
  • “Annabel Lee” — dated 2009, but available in late 2008 — Poèmes d‘Edgar Allan Poe, Paris: Publibook (translation by Jean Hautepierre)

Forgeries:

  • “Annabel Lee” — (full manuscript, on two connected sheets, each measuring 4 5/16 x 7 inches, with 1/2 inch of each overlapping, and forming, in total height, 13 inches. The text is written in what appears to be dark brown ink, running from left to right edges, on only one side of the page, apparently in an attempt to imitate Poe’s use of roll manuscripts. There are some fold creases, and light staining. The paper is described as “light green tinted,” but may be an oddly faded blue. To a casual observer, the manuscript provides a convincing appearance, but is clearly a careful copy of the Thompson manuscript, reproduced in facsimile by Woodberry, 1909, 2:352, based on the unique reading of the final line of that manuscript. (The manuscript given to John W. Moore was given in facsimile in the New York Times, January 17, 1909.) Poe’s name appears in the byline, near the top, and at the bottom, where the page is slightly torn, revealing “[Ford]ham New York.’ The fragment was offered as a genuine Poe manuscript by New England Book Auctions, Sale Number 366, October 21, 2008, as item 206, with an estimate of $30,000-$50,000, but was promptly retracted from sale over doubts about its authenticity. It was in the collection of Richard Oinonen, who died in 2001, and is probably the work of Joseph Cosey. It may have been kept by Mr. Oinonen as an example of a forgery by someone who was notably notorious in the field, especially for his Poe forgeries. It bears a strong resemblance to a forgery of “The Black Cat,” offered in the same sale as item 204.)

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Bibliography:

  • Booth, Bradford A., “The Identity of ‘Annabel Lee‘,” College English, October 1945, 7:17-19
  • Brown, Wallace C., “The English Professor’s Dilemma,” College English, April 1944, 5:380-385
  • Empric, Julienne H., “A Note on “Annabel Lee‘,” Poe Studies, June 1973, 6:26
  • Gross, Seymour L., “The Reflection of Conrad Aiken’s ’Strange Moonlight’,” Modern Language Notes, March 1957, 72:185-189
  • Heartman, Charles F. and James R. Canny, A Bibliography of First Printings of the Writings of Edgar Allan Poe, Hattiesburg, MS: The Book Farm, 1943.
  • Law, Robert A., “A Source of ‘Annabel Lee‘,” Journal of English and Germanic Philology, October 2, 1922, 21:341-346
  • Mabbott, Thomas Ollive, ed., The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe (Vol 1 Poems), Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969.
  • Melton, W. F., “Some Autobiographical Notes in Poe’s Poetry,” South Atlantic Quarterly, April 1912, 11:175-179
  • Routh, James, “Notes on the Sources of Poe’s Poetry: Coleridge, Keats, Shelley,” Modern Language Notes, March 1914, 29:72-75
  • Savoye, Jeffrey A., “The Captial Warning of ‘Annabel Lee’,” Edgar Allan Poe Review, Autumn 2018, 19:287-289

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[S:0 - JAS] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Works - Poems - Annabel Lee