Edgar Allan Poe — “The Raven”


Reading and Reference Texts:

Reading copy:

  • “The Raven” — reading copy


Historical Texts:

Manuscripts and Authorized Printings:

  • Text-01 — “The Raven” — late 1844, no original manuscript or fragments are known to exist (but this version is presumably recorded in Text-02) — [Having completed the poem, Poe travelled from New York to Philadelphia, probably at the end of 1844 or within the first two weeks of 1845. He originally attempted to sell the poem to his friend George Rex Graham for publication in Graham’s Magazine. Graham, however, not only declined the poem but condemned it, a decision he would come to regret. Graham did collect $15 for Poe, but as charity rather than the purchase price for the poem. In part to correct this mistake in turning down what became an immediate sensation, Graham published Poe’s essay “The Philosophy of Composition” in 1846, in which Poe describes, somewhat imaginatively, the method by which he created the poem. When Poe returned to New York, “The Raven” was then taken to George Hooker Colton, editor and founder of the newly established American Review, who printed it in the second issue, having apparently bought the poem for another $10 or $15. Cullen B. Colton states that all of the manuscripts for items published in the American Review, other than the one of “Eulalie,” were “either lost or stolen,” further stating that “The loss of the original ‘Raven’ manuscript is perhaps the greatest one in American literature and it is very doubtful now whether it will ever turn up”(p. 328, n30). C. B. Colton also notes that the price paid for “The Raven,” based on the authority of Isaac Cowles Colton, was $10 (pp. 324-325). A competing, but perhaps suspicious, claim for ownership of the manuscript is that recorded by S. A. Cuneo. According to Cuneo, Alexander McKelly claimed to have been a printer for the American Review early in 1845, and later in the same year for Graham’s Magazine. Supposedly, McKelly set the poem in type, and kept the manuscript, but later sold it, some time after 1867, with no further details being disclosed. McKelly’s story is perhaps not entirely without merit as he appears to have saved the manuscript of Poe’s “System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether,” which still survives. Mabbott is probably correct, however, in noting that McKelly may have remembered setting the type for Poe’s essay “The Philosophy of Composition,’ which included several quotations from the poem and was printed in Graham’s in 1846 (Mabbott, Poems, 1:364).]
  • Text-02 — “The Raven” — February 1845 — American Review — (Mabbott text A) [About the time of publication in the American Review, Poe apparently sent copies of the proof sheets, with a number of modifications, to J. A. Shea (of the New-York Daily Tribune), N. P. Willis (of the Evening Mirror), C. F. Briggs (of the Broadway Journal), and B. B. Minor (of the Southern Literary Messenger) — see items below. Some minor changes in punctuation made in the printing in the Evening Mirror but not repeated in the other printings, which instead follow the punctuation of the American Review clearly suggest that Poe proof sheets from the American Review to all four periodicals.]
  • Text-03 — “The Raven” — about mid to late January 1845 — (speculated copy of the proof-sheets from the American Review, sent to J. A. Shea with the intent of a reprint that would identify Poe as the author. Although Willis was first to rush the new poem into print, the copy provided to Shea was probably the first Poe sent, and it apparently contained no changes. It lacked, for example, the change of “Wondering” to “Startled” in the eleventh stanza, a change that appears in Text-04, Text-06, and Text-07, and which Poe later requested in a letter to Shea on February 3, 1845, along with one additional change at the end of the prior stanza. It is also the only one of these subsequent reprintings to give “sublunary being” in the seventh stanza, which in all others Poe changed to “living human being,” presumably a change made after he sent his copy to Shea, and one that he neglected to include in his February 3 letter.)
  • Text-03 — “The Raven” — about late January 1845 — (three speculated copies of the proof-sheets from the American Review, sent to N. P. Willis, C. F. Briggs, and B. B. Minor with the intent of a number of reprints that would identify Poe as the author. These copies seem to have had identical changes in the tenth and eleventh stanzas. Although these copies have not survived, they are presumably reflected in, respectively, text-04, text-06 and text-07.)
  • Text-04 — “The Raven” — January 29, 1845 — Evening Mirror — (Mabbott text B) (Poe was still employed by the Mirror as a kind of sub-clerk. He joined the staff of the Broadway Journal about February 21, 1845.)
  • Text-05 — “The Raven” — February 4, 1845 — New-York Daily Tribune — (Mabbott text E) (Noted as “From the American Review for February,” although Poe is given as the author, first acknowledged in the Evening Mirror. This version incorporates the changes Poe requested in his letter to J. A. Shea.)
  • Text-06 — “The Raven” — February 8, 1845 — Broadway Journal — (Mabbott text F)
  • Text-07 — “The Raven” — March 1845 — Southern Literary Messenger — (Mabbott text C, technically appearing out of the proper order as it would have been printed in mid-February at the earliest, and certainly after February 5 as it incorporates material from the New York Express notice of the American Review for February, the notice being printed on that date. This error of sequence is now corrected by placing it after the Broadway Journal printing. Poe appears to have requested the reprint in the Messenger, sending a letter to B. B. Minor. The letter itself has not survived, but is mentioned by Minor in his memoirs of the Messenger. Poe probably sent a copy of the Broadway Journal as the source of the text.)
  • Text-08 — “The Raven” — about October 1845 — (speculated copy of the Broadway Journal, sent to E. A. Duyckink, with changes made in preparation for RAOP. Although this copy has not survived, it is presumably reflected in text-09).
  • Text-09 — “The Raven” — 1845 (issued about November 19, 1845) — RAOP — (Mabbott text J)
  • Text-10 — “The Raven” — probably early-mid 1846 (speculated copy of RAOP with a few minor revisions, used in preparing Text-11. This item may be Text-15 in an early form, although most of the extensive changes ultimately made there are not recorded in the Courier text.)
  • Text-11 — “The Raven” — July 25, 1846 — Saturday Courier (Philadelphia) — (Mabbott text N) (This printing is probably inspired by publicity generated by Poe’s essay “The Philosophy of Composition,” printed in the April issue of Graham’s Magazine. In referring to this printing in 1849, the Courier states that “The copy we give was revised and handed to us by the author himself.”)
  • Text-12 — “The Raven” — about mid-April 1847 — proof sheets of Poets and Poetry of America (8th edition) — (Poe mentions the proof sheets, with his corrections, in an April 19, 1847 letter to Griswold)
  • Text-13 — “The Raven” — May 29, 1847 — Poets and Poetry of America (8th edition) — (Mabbott text P) (The poem continued to appear in later editions)
  • Text-14 — “The Raven” — September 1848 — “Whittaker” manuscript  — (Mabbott text R) (Poe sent the MS to Eli Bowen about the end of September 1848, apparently in reply to a request from Bown for his friend, Dr. Whittaker. Bowen transmitted it to Dr. S. A. Whittaker on September 25, 1848.)
  • Text-15 — “The Raven” — 1846-1849 — RAOP-JLG (manuscript revisions in J. Lorimer Graham copy of RAOP) — (Mabbott text S)  (For Griswold’s printing of this text, see WORKS, under reprints, below)
  • Text-16 — “The Raven” — September 25, 1849 — Semi-Weekly Examiner  — (Mabbott text T)  (This is Mabbott’s copy-text)  (This is generally accepted as the final authorized version of the text. It begins with an introductory note by John M. Daniel. The text was evidently set from Text-15.)


Manuscripts and Authorized Printings (excerpts):

  • The Raven” — February 3, 1845 — manuscript revision of lines 60-66 (in a letter to J. Augustus Shea) — (Mabbott text D)
  • The Raven” — May 24, 1845 — lines 3-4 only (in a review of the poems of William Lord), Broadway Journal — (Mabbott text G)
  • The Raven” — late 1845 or 1846 — manuscript revision of lines 103-108 — (Mabbott text K)
  • The Raven” — April 1846 — several stanzas, and a few isolated lines, quoted in “The Philosophy of Composition,” Graham’s — (Mabbott text M)
  • The Raven” — January 1848 — Southern Literary Messenger (numerous lines quoted in an article by P. P. Cooke, originally requested by Poe for his book on Literary America, which was not completed) — (Mabbott text Q)



  • “The Raven” — February 3, 1845 — New York Morning News  (Apparently reprinted from the Evening Mirror.) (First documented by Claude Richard, Studies in Bibliography, 1968, p. 54, and noted in Poe Newsletter, October 1968, p. 30)
  • “The Raven” — February 8, 1845 — Weekly Mirror
  • “The Raven” — February 8, 1845 — New-York Weekly Tribune
  • “The Raven” — February 8, 1845 — New York Weekly News (Reprint from the Morning News of February 3, 1845, itself reprinted from the Evening Mirror.) (First documented by Tanselle, Studies in Bibliography, 1968, p. 220-223)
  • “The Raven” — February 15, 1845 — Howard District Press (Maryland)
  • “The Raven” — February 15, 1845 — Pennsylvania Inquirer and National Gazette (Philadelphia) (not in H&C. First cited by Tanselle, 1963. Also noted in 1992 “The Poe Catalogue,” of the 19th Century Bookshop, p. 75. The poem appears there under the heading “A Beautiful Poem.”)
  • “The Raven” — February 21, 1845  — The Liberator (issue p. 4, volume p. 32) (Acknowledged as “[From the American Review for February.]” The introductory note quotes the first sentece of the note from the American Review: “The following lines from a correspondent — besides the deep quaint strain of the sentiment, and the curious introduction of some lucicrous touches amdist the serious and impressive, as was doubtless intended by the author — appear to us one of the most felicitious specimens of unique rhyming which have for some time met our eye.” Poe is noted as the author, which was known by this time from the printing in the New York Evening Mirror.
  • “The Raven” — February 22, 1845  — New World  (acknowledged as “From the American Review for Feburary,” with the attribution as “By Quarels.”   (In the February 15, 1845 issue [p. 108], the New World favorably noticed the American Review, commenting: “Edgar A. Poe, we believe under the ‘nom de plume’ of Quarles, gives a wild and shivery poem, which he calls the Raven. It is written in a Stanza unknown before to gods, men, and booksellers, but it fills and delights the ear strangely with its wild and clashing music. Everybody reads the Poem and praises it — justly we think, for it seems to us full of originality and power.”)
  • “The Raven” — February 23, 1845  — Western Literary Messenger, Buffalo, NY
  • “The Raven” — February 23, 1845  — Vermont Phoeniz, Brattleboro, VT (reprinted from the American Review)
  • “The Raven” — March 3, 1845 — Exeter News-Letter and Rockingham Advertiser  (not in H&C. Noted for sale by a dealer on Oct. 9, 2008.) (Reprinted from the Evening Mirror, including Willis’s introductory note as a footnote, and attributed to the “New Mirror.” The poem appears prominently on page 1, near the top of column 1)
  • “The Raven” — April 9, 1846 — the Cadiz Sentinel (Cadiz, OH) (apparently reprinted from the American Review, or another reprint of that text)
  • “The Raven” — 1845 (published by April 19, 1845) — A Plain System of Elocution, by G. Vandenhoff  (second edition, New York) (Although this was an unauthorized reprint, it is the first appearance of the poem in a book. Later editions do not include the poem. It may have been removed by legal pressure.)
  • “The Raven” — June 6, 1845 — Massachusetts Temperance Standard  (not in H&C. Noted for sale by a dealer on Nov. 8, 2000.)
  • The Raven” — June 14, 1845 — Critic — This is essentially a reprint of Text-08  (Mabbott text H)
  • “The Raven” — July 11, 1845 — Cork Examiner (Republic of Ireland)
  • “The Raven” — July 26, 1845 — Littel’s Living Age
  • “The Raven” — March 20, 1845  — Rutland Herald, Rutland, VT (reprinted from the American Review)
  • “The Raven” — March 21, 1845 — London Journal (not in H&C. First cited by Tanselle, 1963.
  • “The Raven” — May 8, 1845  — Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, IN (reprinted from the NY Mirror)
  • The Raven” — December 1845 — Literary Emporium — (Mabbott text L) (The subtitle of this journal is “A Compendium of Religious Literary and Philosophical Knowledge”) (pp. 376-378, the very end of the issue. This appearance is usually found as a bound volume, with no clear indication of the various issue months and often with a title page bearing the imprint date of 1846, but H&C and Mabbott correctly identified the issue as December 1845. At least one copy in wrappers has been seen, but even then it was collected with pages that would have been issued in previous months. (Although Mabbott considers this to be an authorized reprint, it resembles the printing from the Broadway Journal rather than reflecting the recent changes made for RAOP. Had he authorized or requested the reprint, Poe would presumably have provided the most recent version, with a number of notable changes, rather than an earlier, inferior text. Because there is no clear designation of monthly issues in the volume, the presumed date of December 1845 is based on the reprint appearing at the end of the volume for 1845, although it appears that the remaining 5 issues were actually sent out in August 1845. The pages, including “The Raven,” were reissued with a new title page in 1846, still as The Literary Emporium, but now in book form, and again in book form about 1848 as The Pearl Offering. The later issue carries the imprint of H. S. Samuels &. Co.)
  • “The Raven” — May 1, 1846 — World of Fashion: Monthly Magazine of the Courts of London and Paris, Fashions and Literature, Music, Fine Arts, the Opera and Theatres (London) (This reprint was first noted by Douglas Lind, of Southern Illinois University, “An Early Unrecorded London Variant of ‘The Raven’,” Poe Studies, 2010, 80-85.)
  • “The Raven” — September 2, 1846  — North-Carolina Standard, Raleigh, NC
  • “The Raven” — December 1846 — Ladies Wreath and Literary Gatherer (Boston)
  • “The Raven”— 1848 — Literary Annual (This item is listed by H&C, p. 116. The subtitle of this journal is “A Compendium of Religious Literary and Philosophical Knowledge.” It may be a reprint of the Literary Emporium of 1845 noted above.)
  • “The Raven” — November 1, 1848 — Dollar Newspaper
  • “The Raven” — about November 1848 — Hartford Weekly Gazette (This paper was edited by Rufus White Griswold — not to be confused with Rufus Wilmot Griswold, the person who edited Poe’s works in 1850 and wrote the malicious memoir of Poe. Poe mentions the reprint of the poem in a November 26, 1848 letter to Sarah Helen Whitman.)
  • “The Raven” — May 26, 1849  — the Polynesian, Honolulu, HI, p. 4, top of col. 1 (reprinted from the American Review, including the introductory note)
  • “The Raven” — June 1849 — Lawrence Messenger (MA) (noted by Ljungquist. No copies of this item have been located, but the reprint is noted in the Lawrence Courier for June 16, 1849.)
  • “The Raven” — September 12, 1849 — Oquawka Spectator (Printed with the introductory note: “We publish on our first page, this week, one of the most remarkable poems ever written. Mr. Poe has long held the rank of one of our very best poets, and The Raven is in his best style. We bespeak for it a careful perusal. There will be found running through it, clothed in a robe of euphonious rhymes and remarkably appropriate language, an Idea well worthy of the pen of its author — the never-dying existence of the memory.”)
  • “The Raven” — October 9, 1849 — Evening Patriot (Baltimore, MD) (part of an obituary to Poe)
  • “The Raven” — October 9, 1849 — Daily Advertiser (Newark, NJ)
  • “The Raven” — October 10, 1849 — Gazette (Alexandria, VA)
  • “The Raven” — October 12, 1849 — Enquirer (Richmond, VA)
  • “The Raven” — October 12, 1849 — Richmond Whig and Public Examiner (Richmond, VA) (reprinting the obituary from the Evening Patriot)
  • “The Raven” — October 15, 1849 — Daily Republican (Richmond, VA)
  • “The Raven” — October 17, 1849 — Scioto Journal (Chillicothe, OH)  (reprinted from some unspecified Eastern paper)
  • “The Raven” — October 17, 1849 — Louisville Daily Journal (Louisville, KY)  (only a few stanzas)
  • “The Raven” — October 21, 1849 — Mobile Daily Advertiser (Mobile, AL)
  • “The Raven” — October 23, 1849 — Daily Chronicle and Sentinel (Augusta, GA)
  • “The Raven” — October 24, 1849 — Pennsylvania Telegraph (Harrisburg, PA)
  • “The Raven” — November 2, 1849 — True Whig (Mount Vernon, OH)
  • The Raven” — November 3, 1849 — M‘Makin’s Model American Courier (formerly called the Saturday Courier) — (Mabbott text U) (Short introductory notice titled “Poe’s Great Poem,” followed by “The Raven, by the Late Edgar Allan Poe.”)  (This is a reprint of version “N”.)
  • “The Raven” — November 4, 1849 — Literary American (NY) (only 3 stanzas)
  • “The Raven” — November 14, 1849 — Corning Journal (Corning, NY)
  • “The Raven” — November 22, 1849 — Vincennes Gazette (Vincennes, IN)
  • “The Raven” — November 28, 1849 — Lewisburg Chronicle, and the West Branch Farmer (Lewisburg, PA) (vol. VI, no. 35, p. 1, col. 1)
  • “The Raven” — November 1849 — Southern Baptist (Charleston, SC)
  • “The Raven” — December 9, 1849 — Weekly Register (Mobile, AL)
  • “The Raven” — December 15, 1849 — Boston Weekly Museum and Literary Portfolio
  • The Raven” — 1850 — WORKS — Griswold prints the poem from RAOP, with most of Poe’s corrections from RAOP-JLG (Mabbott text W)  (Griswold’s typesetter retains some punctuation, ignoring Poe’s changes, and adds two new errors)
  • “The Raven” — 1850 — Thomas Powell, The Living Writers of America, New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1850, pp. 128-131, omitting several stanzas)
  • “The Raven” — April 18, 1850 — Pennsylvanian Freeman (p. 4) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “The Raven” — 1851 — Parker’s Fourth Reader (The poem is lesson CLXXIV)
  • “The Raven” — 1852 — The String of Diamonds, Gathered from Many Mines, by “A Gem Fancier” (copyright is 1851. It also includes “The Bells,” and many poems by other poets.)
  • “The Raven” — 1852 — Tales and Sketches: to which is added The Raven: A Poem, London, George Routledge & Co.
  • “The Raven” — 1856 — Cyclopedia of American Literature, New York: Charles Scribner
  • “The Raven” — August 22, 1857 — Philadelphia Press (p. 4) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “The Raven” — September 1857 — The Orator
  • “The Raven” — 1858 — Achievements of Americans, Cincinnati: Henry Howe (along with “Annabel Lee”)
  • “The Raven” — 1858 — Poets of the Nineteenth Century (an anthology edited by Poe’s friend Evert A. Duyckinck. “The Raven” is one of Poe’s most-collected poems, appearing in hundreds of anthologies.)
  • “The Raven” — March 27, 1858 — Weekly Champion and Press (p. 4) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “The Raven” — 1859 — Lovell’s Progressive Readers, No. 5, New Haven: Peck, White and Peck  (The subtitle reads: “A Class Book for the use of Advanced Pupils in Public and Private Schools.” It is edited by John E. Lovell. The copyright date is also 1859, suggesting that this was the first edition.)
  • “The Raven” — 1865 — Golden Leaves from the American Poets, collected by John W. S. Hows, New York: Bunce and Huntington (This a common collection of popular poems includes works by Poe, Emerson, Longfellow, J. R. Lowell, F. S. Key, Whittier, and others.)
  • “The Raven” — 1865 — a new year’s greeting in the form of a 7 page booklet, on heavy card stock (printed for the Philadelphia Inquirer. It includes the illustration used in several of the Widdleton editions of the Poems, although the illustration appears slightly different and may be reversed.)
  • “The Raven” — May 1870 — Demorest’s Monthly Magazine vol. Vii, no. 5 (This printing features 10 pleasant but unremarkable vignette illustrations. Not surprisingly, the narrator looks a great deal like Poe.)
  • “The Raven” — 1875 — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol 3: Poems and Essays, ed. J. H. Ingram, Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black (3:1-5)  (Ingram appears to follow Griswold’s text, but drops the “s” from “mortals.” It does not appear that Ingram was aware of the J. L. Graham copy of The Raven and Other Poems with Poe’s corrections.)
  • “The Raven” — September 9, 1904 — Kansas City Star (p. 14) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “The Raven” — June 4, 1911 — Charlotte Observer (p. 19) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “The Raven” — May 2, 1920 — Macon Daily Telegraph (p. 6) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • “The Raven” — August 30, 1921 — Charlotte Observer (p. 10) (this item is noted by George Monteiro, “Fugitive Reprints,” E. A. Poe Review, Fall 2010, p. 162.)
  • and many others


Scholarly and Noteworthy Reprints:

  • “The Raven” — 1895 — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 10: Poems, ed. G. E. Woodberry and E. C. Stedman, Chicago: Stone and Kimball (10:5-11, and pp. 154-159)
  • The Raven” — 1902 — The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 7: Poems, ed. J. A. Harrison, New York: T. Y. Crowell (10:94-100, and 10:208-212)
  • “The Raven” — 1911 — The Complete Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. J. H. Whitty, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. (pp. 7-13, and pp. 192-199)
  • “The Raven” — 1917 — The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. Killis Campbell, Boston: Ginn and Company (pp. 109-114, and pp. 246-259)
  • “The Raven” — 1965 — The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. Floyd Stovall, Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia (pp. 95-99, and pp. 259-266)
  • The Raven” — 1969 — The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe, vol. 1: Poems, ed. T. O. Mabbott, Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (1:350-374)
  • “The Raven” — 1984 — Edgar Allan Poe: Poetry and Tales, Patrick F. Quinn (New York: Library of America) (pp. 81-86) (reprints Text-16)


Comparative Texts:

Instream Comparative Texts:

  • None


Plain Text Files for Juxta:

  • None


Associated Material and Special Versions:

Miscellaneous Texts and Related Items:

  • “Le Corbeau” — (French translation by Charles Baudelaire.)
  • “Der Rabe” — June 11, 1853 — “Literarische Symptome in den Vereinigten Staaten,” Magazin für die Literatur des Auslandes, vol. 43, no. 70, p. 280  (German translation in an article by Elise von Hohenhausen, pp. 279-280)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1856 — Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen (Braunschweig: George Westermann, 1856), vol. 11, no. 19, pp. 185-187 (German translation by Alexander Neidhardt)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1859 — Amerikanische Gedichte [American Poems] (German translation by Friederich Spielhagen)
  • “[The Raven]” — 1857 — “Edgar Allan Poe,” Magazin für die Literatur des Auslandes, 129:513-514  (German translation by Luise von Ploennis.)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1859 — Amerikanische Gedichte [American Poems] (German translation by Friederich Spielhagen)
  • “De Raaf” — 1860 — Holland: Almanak voor 1861 (Amsterdam: Gebr. Kraay, 1860; edited and published by Mr. J. van Lennep) Holland  (Dutch translation by Jacob van Lennep (1802-1868). This version was reprinted in Van Lennep’s Poëtische werken vol. XIII: Mengelpo√ęzy vol. V, Den Haag, Leiden, and Arnhem: resp. Nijhof/Sijthoff/Thieme, posthumous edition, 1872, pp. 71-76.)  (This information was provided by René van Slooten, with some additional details by Ton Fafianie. Apparently, French was widely spoken in the Netherlands and Baudelaire’s translations were easily available.)
  • “Le Corbeau” — 1862 — Contes inédits d‘Edgard Poe (French translation by William Hughes, with a few stanzas reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 41-42.)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1862 — Lieder und Balladenbuch Americanischer und Englischer Dichter, Hamburg (translation by Adolf Strodtmann, a few verses are reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 72-73.)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1864 — Der Rabe, die Glocken, Lenore, Philadelphia  (German translation)
  • [“The Raven, in Latin”] — 1866 — Oxford and London  (Latin translation by  Ludovicus Gidley and Robinson Thornton, from a volume of translations called Fasciculus. The translation of “The Raven” is reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 79-83.)
  • “Le Corbeau” — 1869 — Conte Fantastique, Paris (French translation by Eugène Goubert)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1869 — Philadelphia (German translation by Carl Theodor Eben, reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 60-65)
  • “A Hollo” — 1870 — Budapest (Hungarian Translation by Endrody, from Nagy Szellemek [Great Men], edited by Thomas Szana, reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 74-78.)
  • “Der Rabe” — 1874 — (German translation by Niclas Müller) (New York, printed for N. M¨ller) (English and German texts are printed)
  • “Le Corbeau” — 1875 — French translation by Stèphane Mallarmé, reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 42-48.)
  • “[The Raven”] — 1878 — Vestnik Evropy, III (Russian translation by Konstantin Balmont)
  • “Der Rabe” — February 28, 1880 — Magazine für die Literatur des Auslandes)  (German translation by Betty Jacobson, reprinted by Ingram, The Raven, with Literary and Historical Commentary, London: George Redway, 1885, pp. 66-71.)
  • “De Raaf” — January 22, 1887 — De Nederlandsche Spectator, pp. 31-32  (Dutch translation by Johannes Filippus Malta)
  • “El Cuervo” — 1887 — New York: “La America” Publishing Co)  (Spanish translation by J. A. Perez Bonalde, with many illustrations)
  • “Der Krabb” — July 7, 1891 — Pennsylvania Dutch translation by Henry Lee Fischer, 7 pages, printed in Mapleshade, York, PA)  (copy sold by 19th Century Bookshop, 1992, item 510) (The full text was reprinted in the Times and Dispatch (Reading, PA) about November 1891, part of which was excerpted in American Notes and Queries, November 28, 1891, vol. VIII, p. 47. The full text was also reprinted in The Pennsylvania-German, A Popular Magazine of Biography, History, Genealogy, Folklore, Literature, Etc., Vol IX, no. 8, August 1908, pp. 373-375.)
  • “[The Raven]” — April 1919 — The Feather (New York) (Yiddish translation) (The subtitle of the periodical is “A Monthly Journal Devoted to Literature, Art and Critic[ism]” It was published by the Literary Collegues Group, for which “Aron Carlin” is noted as the Literary Secretary. Everything other than the title page is in Yiddish. Aaron Carlin (1887-ca. 1945?) was a noted Yiddish editor, poet and translator. It is possible that the translation was done by him.)
  • “The Raven” — Sept. 2, 1928 — a facsimile of the first 4 and last 3 stanzas of the 1848 manuscript, printed in the Philadelphia Record, p. 4 (The caption and article do not make clear that the facsimile is only part of the manuscript.)
  • “De Raven” — October 10, 1949 — De Tsjerne (Frisian translation by D. A. Tamminga, reprinted in 1984 by Friese Pers Boekerij, Leewarden, Holland, in an English-Frisian bi-lingual edition)  (This title provided by René van Slooten)
  • “The Raven” — January 1959 — a facsimile of the full 1848 manuscript, printed by Richard Gimbel “Exhibited for the first time at Yale University Library in honor of the 150-th birthday celebration of Edgar Allan Poe.”
  • “The Raven” — 1960 — a reading by Nelson Olmsted on The Raven: Poems and Tales of Edgar Allan Poe, issued on the Vanguard label (VRS-9046, rereleased as VSD-32)
  • “The Raven” — September 1963 — Movie Classics (a comic-book tie-in, published by Dell, to the API movie)
  • “The Raven” — 1999 — atmospheric audio recoding, read by Larry Moss and with organ accompaniment (CD titled “Tales from the Tomb: Frightening Fables from the Darkside,” Laserlight Digital) (included on the same recording is “Spirits of the Dead” and 8 selections of works that are not by Poe)
  • “Le Corbeau” — dated 2009, but available in late 2008 — Poèmes d‘Edgar Allan Poe, Paris: Publibook (translation by Jean Hautepierre)
  • and many others



  • “The Raven” — T. O. Mabbott notes that “A ‘complete manuscript’ reproduced in Muse Anthology of Modern Poetry (New York, 1939) is generally regarded as a recent concoction” (Poems, 1969, p. 364). This manuscript is different from the one in the Gimbel collection (Text-16 above), which is considered authentic, as well as the forgery also in the same collection.
  • “The Raven” — (a forgery by Joseph Cosey, now in the Gimble Collection, Philadelphia Free Public Library)  (This elaborate forgery contains the full poem, on five separate pages, signed at the end “Respectfully Y r Ob t Ser t , Edgar A. Poe.”)



  • Anonymous, “The Croak of the Raven,” Times Literary Supplement, January 23, 1964, no. 3230, p. 6
  • Adams, John F., “Classical Raven Lore and Poe’s Raven,” Poe Newsletter, December 1972, 5:53
  • Baker, Harry T., “Coleridge’s Influence on Poe’s Poetry,” Modern Language Notes, March 1910, 25:94-99
  • Baudelaire, Charles, Baudelaire on Poe, translated and edited by Lois and Francis E. Hyslop, Pennsylvania: Bald Eagle Press, 1952 (includes Baudelaire’s preface to “The Raven”)
  • Bayless, Joy, “Another Rufus W. Griswold as a Critic of Poe,” American Literature, March 1934, 6:69-72
  • Beidy, H. Alois, Mysterie of Poe’s “The Raven,” New York: H. A. Beidy, 1956
  • Burch, Francis F., “Clement Mansfield Ingleby on Poe’s ‘The Raven‘: An Unpublished British Criticism,” American  Literature, March 1963, 35:81-83
  • Caputi, Anthony, “The Refrain in Poe’s Poetry,” American Literature, May 1953, 25:169-178
  • Cargill, Oscar, “A New Source for Poe’s ‘The Raven’,” American Literature, November 1936, 8:291-294
  • Colton, Cullen B., “George Hooker Colton and the Publication of ‘The Raven’,” American Literature, vol. X, no. 3, November 1938, pp. 319-330
  • Comeau, Robert C., “Reading Poe on Salary: Mark Twain’s Use of ‘The Raven,’ ‘Hop-Frog,’ and ‘William Wilson’ in ‘The Facts concerning the Recent Carnival of Crime in Connecticut,” Southern Literary Journal, Fall 1996, 29:26-34
  • Cowell, James L. and Gary Spitzer, “ ‘Bartelby’ and ‘The Raven‘: Parallels of the Irrational,” Georgia Review, 1969, 23:37-43
  • Courson, Della, “Poe and the Raven,” Education, May 1900, 20:566-570
  • Cuneo, Sherman A., “An Interesting Manuscript Find,” Bookman (New York), vol. VII, no. 4, June 1898, pp. 289-296.
  • Dameron, J. Lasley, “Another ‘Raven’ for Edgar Allan Poe,” Notes & Queries, January 1963, 208:21-22
  • Farrant, Timothy and Alexadra Urakova, “From ‘The Raven’ to ‘Le Cygne’: Birds, Transcendance, and the Uncanny in Poe and Baudelaire,” E. A. Poe Review, Vol. 15, no. 2, Autumn 2014, pp. 156-174.
  • Forsythe, Robert S., “Poe’s ‘Nevermore‘: A Note,” American Literature, January 1936, 7:439-452
  • Fussell, Edwin, “Poe’s ‘Raven‘; or How to Concoct a Popular Poem from Almost Nothing at All,” English Language Notes, September 1964, 2:36-39
  • Granger, Byrd Howell, “Devil Lore in ‘The Raven’,” Poe Newsletter, December 1972, 5:25-26
  • Gravely, William H., Jr., “Christopher North and the Genesis of ‘The Raven’,” Publications of the Modern Language Association, March 1951, 66:149-161
  • Green, Andrew, “Essays in Miniature: ‘The Raven’,” College English, December 1942, 4:194
  • Green, George, “The Composition of ‘The Raven’,” Aberystwyth Studies (Wales), 1932, 12:1-20
  • Griffis, William Elliot, “Behind the Mystery of Poe’s ‘Raven’,” New York Times Book Review, January 20, 1924, p. 2
  • Heartman, Charles F. and James R. Canny, A Bibliography of First Printings of the Writings of Edgar Allan Poe, Hattiesburg, MS: The Book Farm, 1943.
  • Jackson, Joseph, “Poe’s Signature to ‘The Raven’,” Sewanee Review, July 1918, 26:272-275
  • Jones, Joseph, “ ‘The Raven’ and ‘The Raven‘: Another Source of Poe’s Poem,” American Literature, May 1958, 30:185-193
  • Kerlin, R. T., “Weiland and ‘The Raven’,” Modern Language Notes, December 1916, 31:503-505
  • King, Clement, “Poe’s ‘The Raven’,” Mentor, September 1922, 10:9
  • Lees, Daniel E., “An Early Model for Poe’s ‘Raven’,” Papers on Language and Literature, 1970, 6:92-95
  • Legler, Henry Edward, Poe’s “The Raven”: Its Origins and Genesis: A Compilation and Survey, Wausau, WI: Philosopher Press, 1907
  • Mabbott, Thomas Ollive, “First Publication of Poe’s ‘Raven’,” Bulletin of the New York Public Library, August 1943, 47:581-584
  • Mabbott, Thomas Ollive, “Poe’s ‘The Raven‘: First Inclusion in a Book,” Notes & Queries, October 9, 1943, 185:225
  • Mabbott, Thomas Ollive, ed., The Collected Works of Edgar Allan Poe (Vol 1 Poems), Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969.
  • McCarthy, Kevin, “Another Source for ‘The Raven‘: Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding,” Poe Newsletter, October 1968, 1:29
  • McVicker, Cecil Don, “Poe and ‘Anacreon‘: A Classical Influence on ‘The Raven’,” Poe Newsletter, October 1968, 1:29
  • Merivale, Patricia, “The Raven and the Bust of Pallas: Classical Artifacts and the Gothic Tale,” PMLA, 1974, 89:960-990
  • Moore, John Robert, “Poe’s Readings of Anne of Geirstein,” American Literature, January 1951, 22:493-496
  • Morgan, Mrs. Edmund Nash, “The Poe Revival,” Book-Lover, March-April 1903, 4:53-56
  • Norstedt, George, “Prototype of ‘The Raven’,” North American Review, December 1927, 224:692-701
  • Orvell, Miles D., “ ‘The Raven’ and the Chair,” Poe Newsletter, December 1972, 5:54
  • Person, Leland S., Jr., “Poe’s Composition of Philosophy: Reading and Writing The Raven’,” Arizona Quarterly, 1990, 46:1-15
  • Richard, Claude, “Another Unknown Early Appearance of ‘The Raven’,” Poe Newsletter, October 1968, 1:30
  • Routh, James, “Notes on the Sources of Poe’s Poetry: Coleridge, Keats, Shelley,” Modern Language Notes, March 1914, 29:72-75
  • Savoye, Jeffrey A., “Discarding the Literary Emporium,” Edgar Allan Poe Review, Spring 2013, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 101-109 (This article gives a general history of the Literary Emporium, with its very complicated publication history, and properly identifies the printing as merely another unauthorized reprint.)
  • Stein, Allen F., “Another Source for ‘The Raven’,” American Notes & Queries, 1971, 9:85-87
  • Steward, Charles D., “A Pilfering by Poe,” Atlantic Monthly, December 1958, 202:67-68
  • Tanselle, G. Thomas, “Two More Appearances of ‘The Raven’,” Papers of the Bibliography Society of America, 2nd Quarter of 1963, 57:229-230
  • Tanselle, G. Thomas, “An Unknown Early Appearance of ‘The Raven’,” Studies in Bibliography: Papers of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1963, 16:220-223
  • Triplett, E. B., “A Note on Poe’s ‘The Raven’,” American Literature, November 1938, 10:339-341
  • Varnado, S. L., “Poe’s Raven Lore: A Source Note,” American Notes & Queries, 1968, 7:35-37
  • Weber, Jean-Paul, “Edgar Poe on the Theme of the Clock,” La Nouvelle Revue Francais (August-September 1958), 68:301-311 and 69:498-508.
  • Whitty, James Howard, “The First and Last Publication of Poe’s ‘The Raven’,” Publishers Weekly, October 17, 1936, 130:1635


[S:0 - JAS] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Works - Poems - The Raven