Text: George E. Woodberry, “Chapter 05,” The Life of Edgar Allan Poe: Personal and Literary (1909), vol. I, pp. 135-187


[page 135, unnumbered:]

Chapter V


POE left Baltimore in midsummer, apparently without regret, for he owed little gratitude to that city, nor did he ever return to it to live, although there he was destined to die and be buried. He went directly to Richmond, to the scene and associates of his boyhood, to the MacKenzies where his sister Rosalie still lived, and to other friends and houses of his past; nor did he doubt that, in spite of the changes in his lot, life there would be pleasant to him: he may have thought that his literary position would compensate for his loss of social pretension and the consideration that attaches to wealth, or even that his old acquaintance would be advantageous to him. Before his departure from Baltimore a plan had been made by which the family of which he had long been one should be kept together and have its home with him in new surroundings. He may have feared that separation would cast him back into that despondency from which he had lately arisen, though he had fallen into it when they [page 136:] were by, and in making a new start he may have craved their encouragement and protection, in view of his own temptations and dangers. Virginia had idolized him from childhood, and Mrs. Clemm had no one else to look to for support. It was proposed to keep the family united by a marriage of Poe with his cousin, and it was so determined.

He entered at once on his duties as “an assistant to Mr. White, in the office of the magazine he was not nominally an editor until later at a salary of ten dollars a week. It was not high pay, but the position he held was a good opening, and well adapted to his talents. He had been highly praised for his tales. Kennedy cheered and spurred him; Paulding had called him “decidedly the best of all our young writers,” and added, “I might add all our old ones, with one or two exceptions”; and others, who were the literary autocrats of the day, paid their passing tribute. The Southern press welcomed him loudly, with here and there a word of protest, which represented one phase of public taste, against the “Germanism” of the early tales, by which he was becoming known. His fortunes, however regarded, were in bright contrast to his immediate past; but a few weeks after his arrival [page 137:] all this was as naught. An obstruction arose in his engagement with his cousin, and he lost his place through intemperance. He had suffered, from whatever cause, a characteristic nervous breakdown.

The engagement between Edgar and his cousin Virginia had come to the ears of his relative, Neilson Poe, who, himself a third cousin to both, had recently married her half-sister, also his third cousin; and, led by his wife, who thought Virginia too young to marry (as indeed she was, having been born August 15, 1822,(1) and consequently hardly turned of thirteen years), he offered to Mrs. Clemm to take the child into his family and care for her until she should be eighteen, when, if she desired to marry Edgar, she would be free to do so. It does not appear what disposition was to be made of Mrs. Clemm. Poe, to whom the offer was communicated, wrote(2) to Mrs. Clemm, August 29, imploring her not to consent to separate him from Virginia, and appealing to her pity for himself in such terms that his sincerity [page 138:] cannot be questioned. Some days later he wrote to Mr. Kennedy as follows: —

RICHMOND, September 11, 1835.

DEAR SIR, — I received a letter yesterday from Dr. Miller, in which he tells me you are in town. I hasten, therefore, to write you — and express by letter what I have always found it impossible to express orally — my deep sense of gratitude for your frequent and effectual assistance and kindness. Through your influence Mr. White has been induced to employ me in assisting him with the Editorial duties of his Magazine at a salary of $520 per annum. The situation is agreeable to me for many reasons — but alas! it appears to me that nothing can now give me pleasure — or the slightest gratification. Excuse me, my dear Sir, if in this letter you find much incoherency. My feelings at this moment are pitiable indeed. I am suffering under a depression of spirits such as I have never felt before. I have struggled in vain against the influence of this melancholy — You will believe me, when I say that I am still miserable in spite of the great improvement in my circumstances. I say you will believe me, and for this simple reason, that a man who is writing for effect does not write [page 139:] thus. My heart is open before you — if it be worth reading, read it. I am wretched, and know not why. Console me, — for you can. But let it be quickly — or it will be too late. Write me immediately. Convince me that it is worth one's while — that it is at all necessary to live, and you will prove yourself indeed my friend. Persuade me to do what is right. I do not mean this. I do not mean that you should consider what I now write you a jest — oh, pity me! for I feel that my words are incoherent — but I will recover myself. You will not fail to see that I am suffering under a depression of spirits which will ruin me should it be long continued. Write me then, and quickly. Urge me to do what is right. Your words will have more weight with me than the words of others — for you were my friend when no one else was. Fail not — as you value your peace of mind hereafter.

E. A. POE.

Mr. White desires me to say that if you could send him any contribution for the “Messenger” it would serve him most effectually. I would consider it a personal favor if you could do so without incommoding yourself.

I will write you more fully hereafter. I see [page 140:] “The Gift” [Miss Leslie's Annual for 1836] is out. They have published “The MS. found in a Bottle” (the prize tale you will remember), although I not only told Mr. Carey myself that it had been published, but wrote him to that effect after my return to Baltimore, and sent him another tale in place of it (“Epimanes”) . I cannot understand why they have published it — or why they have not published either “Siope” [“Silence”] or “Epimanes” [“Four Beasts”].

Mr. White is willing to publish my Tales of the Folio Club — that is, to print them. Would you oblige me by ascertaining from Carey & Lea whether they would, in that case, appear nominally as the publishers, the books, when printed, being sent on to them, as in the case of [Kennedy's] “H[orse] S[hoe] Robinson”? Have you seen the [Locke s] “Discoveries in the Moon”? Do you not think it altogether suggested by “Hans Phaal”? It is very singular, but when I first purposed writing a Tale concerning the Moon, the idea of Telescopic discoveries suggested itself to me — but I afterwards abandoned it. I had, however, spoken of it freely, and from many little incidents and apparently trivial remarks in those Discoveries, I am [page 141:] convinced that the idea was stolen from my self. Yours most sincerely,


To this painful letter Mr. Kennedy replied: —

BALTIMORE, September 19, 1835.

MY DEAR POE, — I am sorry to see you in such plight as your letter shows you in. It is strange that just at this time, when everybody is praising you, and when fortune is beginning to smile upon your hitherto wretched circum stances, you should be invaded by these villainous blue devils. It belongs, however, to your age and temper to be thus buffeted — but be assured, it only wants a little resolution to mas ter the adversary forever. Rise early, live generously, and make cheerful acquaintances, and I have no doubt you will send these misgivings of the heart all to the Devil. You will doubtless do well henceforth in literature, and add to your comforts, as well as to your reputation, which it [page 142:] gives me great pleasure to assure you is every where rising in popular esteem.

Can't you write some farces after the manner of the French Vaudevilles? If you can (and I think you can), you may turn them to excellent account by selling them to the managers in New York. I wish you would give your thoughts to this suggestion. More than yourself have re marked the coincidence between “Hans Phaal” & the “Lunar Discoveries,” and I perceive that in New York they are republishing “Hans” for the sake of comparison. Say to White that I am over head in business, and can promise never a line to living man. I wish he would send me the “Richmond Whig” containing the reply to the defense of Capt. Reed. Tell him so.

I will write to Carey & Lea to know if they will allow you to publish the “Tales of the Folio Club” in their name. Of course you will understand that if they do not print them they will not be required to be at the risk of the printing expenses. I suppose you mean that White shall take that risk upon himself, and look for his indemnity to the sale. My own opinion is that White could publish them as advantageously as Carey. [page 143:]

Write to me frequently, and believe me very truly yours, JOHN P. KENNEDY.(1)

It was, apparently, while this correspondence was going on that Poe lost his place, and he may not have received this last letter when he left Richmond and arrived at Baltimore. There he pleaded his suit in person, and on September 22 took out a license in that city for the marriage.(2) It has been said, on the authority of Mrs. Clemm's conversation taken down in shorthand, that the ceremony was performed by the Rev. John Johns, at Old Christ Church, and that the next day Poe returned to his duties.(3) If this was actually the case the matter was kept very private. There is no complete legal proof of the marriage; but this is not conclusive against its having taken place, as the marriage records of Old Christ Church were badly kept and are very [page 144:] defective. It is certain, however, that Poe so far succeeded in his entreaties that the proposal of Neilson Poe was rejected; it may never have been seriously considered.

Poe now wrote repentantly to Mr. White, but nothing more is known of this incident than is contained in this reply: —

RICHMOND, September 29, 1835.

DEAR EDGAR, Would that it were in my power to unbosom myself to you in language such as I could on the present occasion wish myself master of. I cannot do it and therefore must be content to speak to you in my plain way. That you are sincere in all your promises I firmly believe. But, Edgar, when you once again tread these streets, I have my fears that your resolve would fall through, and that you would again sip the juice, even till it stole away your senses. Rely on your own strength, and you are gone! Look to your Maker for help, and you are safe! How much I regretted parting with you is un known to any one on this earth except myself. I was attached to you — and am still — and willingly would I say return, if I did not dread the hour of separation very shortly again.

If you could make yourself contented to take [page 145:] up your quarters in my family or in any other private family where liquor is not used, I should think there were hopes of you. But if you go to a tavern, or to any other place where it is used at table, you are not safe. I speak from experience.

You have fine talents, Edgar — and you ought to have them respected as well as yourself. Learn to respect yourself, and you will very soon find that you are respected. Separate yourself from the bottle, and bottle-companions, forever! Tell me if you can and will do so, and let me hear that it is your fixed purpose never to yield to temptation. If you should come to Richmond again, and again should be an assistant in my office, it must be especially understood by us that all engagements on my part would be dissolved the moment you get drunk. No man is safe that drinks before breakfast. No man can do so and attend to business properly.

I have thought over the matter seriously about the autograph article, and have come to the conclusion that it will be best to omit it in its present dress. I should not be at all surprised, were I to send it out, to hear that Cooper had sued me for a libel. The form containing it has been ready for press three days — and I have been just as [page 146:] many days deciding the question. I am your true friend, T. W. WHITE.(1)

Poe returned with Mrs. Clemm and Virginia, and the three boarded together at the same house. The publication of the magazine had been temporarily suspended, but after its reissue in December, instead of being known simply as an assistant, he had editorial charge; he was thus spurred to his utmost, in the company of his own, and surrounded by friends and goodwishers. The happier state of affairs was soon reflected in his correspondence with Kennedy:

RICHMOND, Jan. 22, 1836.

DEAR SIR, — Although I have never yet acknowledged the receipt of your kind letter of advice some months ago, it was not without great influence upon me. I have, since then, fought the enemy manfully, and am now, in every respect, comfortable and happy. I know you will be pleased to hear this. My health is better than for years past, my mind is fully occupied, my pecuniary difficulties have vanished, I have a fair prospect of future success in a word all is right. I shall never forget to whom all this happiness is in great degree to be attributed. I [page 147:] know without your timely aid I should have sunk under my trials. Mr. White is very liberal, and besides my salary of $520 pays me liberally for extra work, so that I receive nearly $800. Next year, that is at the commencement of the second volume, I am to get $1000. Besides this I receive, from Publishers, nearly all new publications. My friends in Richmond have received me with open arms, and my reputation is extending — especially in the South. Contrast all this with those circumstances of absolute despair in which you found me, and you will see how great reason I have to be grateful to God — and to yourself.

Some matters in relation to the death of Mrs. Catherine Clemm, who resided at Mount Prospect, four miles from Baltimore, render it necessary for me to apply to an attorney, and I have thought it probable you would be kind enough to advise me ... [the omitted passage refers to legal details]. Mrs. Clemm, the widow of William Clemm, J r ., is now residing under my protection at Richmond. She has two children who have an interest in this one fifth — one of them, Virginia, is living with her here — the other, Henry, is absent (at sea) . ... Mrs. Clemm wishes me (if possible) to be appointed the guardian of her [page 148:] two children. Henry is seventeen and Virginia fifteen. ... I should be glad to have your opinion in regard to my Editorial course in the “Messenger.” How do you like my Critical Notices? I have understood (from the Preface to your Third Edition of “Horseshoe”) that you are engaged in another work. If so, can you not send me on a copy in advance of the publication. Remember me to your family, and believe me with the highest respect and esteem,

Yours very truly, EDGAR A. POE.(1)

BALTIMORE, February 9, 1836.

MY DEAR POE, — ... [The omitted passage refers to the Mrs. Caroline Clemm affair.] I am greatly rejoiced at your success not only in Richmond but everywhere. My predictions have been more than fulfilled in regard to the public favour for your literary enterprises. Let me beg you to set down this praise at its value. As nothing but an incentive to the utmost care and labour for improvement. You are strong enough now to be criticised. Your fault is your love of the extravagant. Pray beware of it. You find a hundred intense writers for one natural one. Some of your bizarreries have been mistaken for [page 149:] satire — and admired too in that character. They deserved it, but you did not, for you did not intend them so. I like your grotesque it is of the very best stamp; and I am sure you will do wonders for yourself in the comic — I mean the serio-tragicomic. Do you easily keep pace with the demands of the magazine? Avoid, by all means, the appearance of flagging. I like the critical notices very well. By the by, I wish you would tell White that he never sent me the November number.

Your letter assures me that you have entirely conquered your late despondency. I am rejoiced at this. You have a pleasant and prosperous career before you, if you subdue this brooding and boding inclination of your mind. Be cheerful; rise early, work methodically — I mean at appointed hours. Take regular recreation every day. Frequent the best company only. Be rigidly temperate both in body and mind — and I will ensure you at a moderate premium all the success and comfort you want. Will you do me a piece of business? ... [The omitted passage refers to the recovery of a portrait.] Yours truly,

JOHN P. KENNEDY.(1) [page 150:]

RICHMOND, February 11, 1836.

DEAR SIR, — I received your kind letter of the 9th about an hour ago. ... [The omitted passage refers to the portrait mentioned.]

You are nearly, but not altogether right in relation to the satire of some of my Tales. Most of them were intended for half-banter, half-satire — although I might not have fully acknowledged this to be their aim even to myself. “Lionizing” and “Loss of Breath” were satires properly speaking, — at least so meant, — the one of the rage for Lions, and the facility of becoming one, the other of the extravagancies of “Blackwood.” I find no difficulty in keeping pace with the demands of the magazine. In the February number, which is now in the binder's hands, are no less than 40 pages of Editorials — perhaps this is a little de trop. There was no November number. ... Mr. W. has increased my salary since I wrote $104 for the present year. This is being liberal beyond my expectations. He is exceedingly kind in every respect. You did not reply to my query touching the “new work.” But I do not mean to be inquisitive. ... [An omitted postscript refers to Kennedy's seal.]

Most sincerely yours, EDGAR A. POE.(1) [page 151:]

The next persons of literary reputation who together with Kennedy were now taking a friendly interest in Poe were Beverley Tucker, of Virginia, the author of “The Partizan Leader,” and John K. Paulding of New York. Their interest was called out by Poe's work in the magazine. The letters of Tucker are long and leisurely, and are here abridged by the omission of the less personal passages in which the ways of publishers and the decay of taste are the prominent topics. Those of Paulding are more fully given, as the matter is of biographical interest. Other writers, especially Mrs. Sigourney, wrote to him in a similar strain.

Tucker made his approaches diplomatically through Mr. White: —

WILLIAMSBURG, November 29, 1835.

MY DEAR SIR, — ... I am much flattered by Mr. Poe's opinion of my lines. ... He will take this and other suggestions of mine kindly. I am interested in him, and am glad he has found a position in which his pursuit of fame may be neither retarded, nor, what is worse, hurried by necessity. His history, as I have heard it, reminds me of Coleridge's; with the example of Coleridge's virtues and success before him, he can need no other guide. Yet a companion by [page 152:] the way to hint that “more haste makes less speed” may not be amiss. Will he admit me to this office? Without the tithe of his genius, I am old enough to be his father (if I do not mistake his filiation, I remember his beautiful mother when a girl), and I presume I have had advantages the want of which he feels. Now, if by aiding you, I can aid him too to disencumber himself of the clogs that have impeded his progress, I shall kill two birds with one stone. Let me tell you then why in the critique I prepared for Green, I said nothing of his Tale. [“MS. Found in a Bottle.”] It was because I thought that had been already praised as much as was good for him. And why? Because I am sure no man ever attained to that distinction to which Mr. P. may fairly aspire by extravagance. He is made for better things than to cater for the depraved taste of the literary vulgar, the most disgusting and impertinent of all vulgarians. Besides, I was disappointed in the tale; not because of the praises I had heard (for I make light of such things), but because Mr. P. had taught me to expect from him something more than the mere physique of the horrible. I had expected that the author of “Morella” on board the Flying Dutchman would have found a Dutch tongue in his head, would have thawed [page 153:] the silence of his shipmates, and have extracted from them a tale of thrilling interest, of the causes of that awful spell which has driven and still drives their ship careering safely through the innumerable horrors he has described. Cannot he rescue her yet from her perils, and send us another bottle full of intelligence of her escape, and of her former history? Cannot he, by way of episode, get himself sent on board of some fated ship, with letters from the spellbound mariners to their friends at home? Imaginations of this sort flocked to my mind as soon as I found him on her decks, and hence I was disappointed. I do not propose that he should work up these materials. He can do better in following the lead of his own fancy. But let him remember that fancy must be servant, not mistress. It must be made the minister of higher faculties. ...

Now one word more. If Mr. P. takes well what I have said, he shall have as much more of it whenever occasion calls for it. If not, his silence alone will effectually rebuke my imper tinence.

Yours truly, B. T.(1)

Poe wrote to him at once, and received a long [page 154:] and friendly reply, of which the first paragraph sufficiently indicates the spirit: —

WILLIAMSBURG, December 5, 1835.

DEAR SIR, — Your letter has just been received, and deserves my thanks. So far from needing apology, it has been taken as a favour, and I have been congratulating myself on the success of my attempt to draw you into correspondence. It is more creditable to your candour than to my criticism that you have taken it so kindly. ...

Respectfully, and with the best wishes, Your obedient servant,

[Signature torn off.](1)

Some of Tucker's criticisms, however, were thought by Poe capable of doing him harm with his employer, and in consequence Tucker again wrote to White: —

WILLIAMSBURG, January 26, 1836.

MY DEAR SIR, — ... Last night I received a letter from Mr. P. by which I learn that you may not feel as much confidence in his capacity for the duties of his station as is necessary for your mutual comfort. This doubt he attributes [page 155:] in part to what must have been a misconstruction by you of one of my letters. That I have not admired all Mr. P.'s productions, as much as some others, and that his writings are not so much to my taste as they would be were I (as would to God I were) as young as he, I do not deny. Thus much I expressed, and this so freely as to show that, had I meant more, I would have said more. You only know me on paper, but I think you can read this point in my character at the distance of sixty miles. I was equally sin cere, I assure you, in what I said in his praise. ... I do not agree with the reading (or rather the writing and printing) public in admiring Mrs. Sigourney & Co., or any of our native poets except Halleck. In this I know I shall stand condemned. But I appeal from contemporaneous and reciprocal puffing to the impartial judgment of posterity. Let that pass. I only mention this to say that Mr. P.'s review of the writings of a leash of these ladies, in your last number, is a specimen of criticism, which for niceness of discrimination, delicacy of expression, and all that shows familiarity with the art, may well compare with any I have ever seen. ...

Mr. P. is young, and I thought him rash. I expressed this full as strongly as I thought it. [page 156:]

I now repeat it, and apply to him the caution given by the God of Poets and Critics to his son when he permitted him to guide the Chariot that lights the world.

“Parce, puer, stimulis, et fortiter utere loris.” ... I write this letter at his request. ...

[Signature torn off.](1)

Paulding, the second new correspondent, was a leading literary light of New York, whose early praise of Poe has already been noticed.

It was natural, therefore, to turn to him with a suggestion that he should become the intermediary to present to the Harpers in New York the “Tales of the Folio Club,” still unpublished by Carey & Lea, with the hope of their issue in that city. Poe at the same time received back from Carey & Lea the manuscripts, of which one tale, not then recovered, was missing. Paulding reported the ill success of his mission to White: —

NEW YORK, March 3, 1836.

DEAR SIR, — I duly received the Book containing the Tales by Mr. Poe heretofore published in the “Messenger,” and have delayed writing to you on the subject until I could communicate the final decision of the Messrs. Harpers [page 157:] as to their republication. By the way, you are entirely mistaken in your idea of my influence over these gentlemen in the transactions of their business. They have a Reader, by whose judgment they are guided in their publications, and like all other traders are governed by their anticipations of profit or loss, rather than any intrinsic merit of a work or its author. I have no influence in this respect, and indeed ought to have none, for my taste does not exactly conform to that of the Public at present. I placed the work in their hands, giving my opinion of it, which was such as I believe I have heretofore expressed to you more than once, leaving them to their own decision.

The[y] have finally declined republishing it for the following reasons: They say that the stories have so recently appeared before the Public in the “Messenger” that they would be no novelty — but most especially they object that there is a degree of obscurity in their application, which will prevent ordinary readers from comprehending their drift, and consequently from enjoying the fine satire they convey. It requires a degree of familiarity with various kinds of knowledge which they do not possess, to enable them to relish the joke; the dish is too refined [page 158:] for them to banquet on. They desire me, how ever, to state to Mr. Poe that if he will lower himself a little to the ordinary comprehension of the generality of readers, and prepare a series of original Tales, or a single work, and send them to the Publishers, previous to their appearance in the “Messenger,” they will make such arrangements with him as will be liberal and satisfactory.

I regret this decision of the Harpers, though I have not opposed it, because I do not wish to lead them into any measure that might be accompanied by a loss, and felt as I would feel for myself in a similar case, I would not press a work of my own on them, nor do I think Mr. Poe would be gratified at my doing so with one of his.

I hope Mr. Poe will pardon me if the interest I feel in his success should prompt me to take this occasion to suggest to him to apply his fine humor, and his extensive acquirements, to more familiar subjects of satire; to the faults and foibles of our own people, their peculiarities of habits and manners, and above all to the ridiculous affectations and extravagancies of the fashionable English Literature of the day, which we copy with such admirable success and servility. [page 159:]

His quiz on Willis, and the Burlesque of “Blackwood,” were not only capital, but what is more, were understood by all. For Satire to be relished, it is necessary that it should be leveled at some thing with which readers are familiar. My own experience has taught me this, in the failure of some efforts of my own formerly.

Be good enough to let me know what disposition I shall make of the work. I am respectfully, Your friend and Servant,


Paulding also wrote directly to Poe, who had apparently requested him to apply to some other New York house.

NEW YORK, March 17, 1836.

DEAR SIR, — In compliance with your wishes it would afford me much pleasure to have pro posed the publication of your book to some one respectable Bookseller of this city. But the truth is, there is only one other who publishes any thing but School Books, religious works, and the like, and with him I am not on terms that would make it agreeable to me to make any proposition of this nature, either in my own behalf or that of another. I have therefore placed your work in the hands of Messrs. Harpers, to forward with a [page 160:] Box of Books they are sending to Richmond in a few days, and I hope it will come safely to hand. I think it would be worth your while, if other engagements permit, to undertake a Tale in a couple of volumes, for that is the magical number. There is a great dearth of good writers at present both in England and this country, while the number of readers and purchasers of books is daily increasing, so that the demand is greater than the supply, in mercantile phrase. Not one work in ten published in England will bear republication here. You would be surprised at their [illegible] mediocrity. I am of opinion that a work of yours would at least bring you a handsome remuneration, though it might not re pay your labors, or meet its merits. Should you write such a work, your best way will be to for ward the MS. directly to the Harpers, who will be, I presume, governed by the judgment of their Reader, who, from long experience, can tell almost to a certainty what will succeed. I am destitute of this valuable instinct, and my opinion counts for nothing with publishers. In other respects you may command my good offices. I am Dr. Sir, Your friend and Serv't,

J. K. PAULDING.[[(1)]] [page 161:]

Harper & Brothers formally declined the vol ume of tales in a letter to Poe, June, 1836, on the same grounds alleged above.

Early in the year the family had entertained a plan to start a boarding-house, and with this in view Poe sent the following letter to George Poe in Alabama: —

RICHMOND, January 12, 1836.

DEAR SIR, — I take the liberty of addressing you in behalf of a mutual relation, Mrs. William Clemm, late of Baltimore — and at her earnest solicitation.

You are aware that for many years she has been suffering privations and difficulties of no ordinary kind. I know that you have assisted her at a former period, and she has occasionally received aid from her cousins, William and Robert Poe, of Augusta. What little has been heretofore in my own power I have also done.

Having lately established myself in Richmond, and undertaken the editorship of the “Southern Literary Messenger,” and my circumstances having thus become better than formerly, I have ventured to offer my aunt a home. She is now therefore in Richmond, with her daughter Virginia, and is for the present boarding at the house of a Mrs. Yarrington. My salary is only [page 162:] at present about $800 per arm., and the charge per week for our board (Mrs. Clemm's, her daughter's, and my own) is $9. I am thus particular in stating my precise situation that you may be the better enabled to judge in regard to the propriety of granting the request which I am now about to make for Mrs. Clemm.

It is ascertained that if Mrs. C. could obtain the means of opening, herself, a boarding-house in this city, she could support herself and daughter comfortably, with something to spare. But a small capital would be necessary for an undertaking of this nature, and many of the widows of our first people are engaged in it, and find it profitable. I am willing to advance, for my own part, $100, and I believe that Wm. & R. Poe will advance $100. If then you would so far aid her in her design as to loan her yourself $100 she will have sufficient to commence with. I will be responsible for the repayment of the sum, in a year from this date, if you can make it convenient to comply with her request.

I beg you, my dear Sir, to take this subject into consideration. I feel deeply for the dis tresses of Mrs. Clemm, and I am sure you will feel interested in relieving them.

[Signature cut off.] [page 163:]

P.'s. I am the son of David Poe, Jr., Mrs. C.'s brother.(1)

George Poe sent the money, but nothing ap pears to have been done. The family history was continued by the public marriage of Poe with his cousin, May 16, 1836. Poe secured Thomas W. Cleland, the son-in-law of his former land lady in Richmond, as his surety, who gave a marriage bond as the law required; and Cleland was further obliging enough to take oath before the deputy clerk, Charles Howard, “that Virginia E. Clemm is of the full age of twenty-one years, and a resident of the said city.”(2) The ceremony was performed on the evening of- the same day at the boarding-house of the family, by the Rev. Amasa Converse, a Presbyterian minister, then editor of the “Southern Religious Telegraph.”(3) Mrs. Clemm, whom the minister remembered as “being polished, dignified, and agreeable in her bearing,” was present, and gave her consent freely; the bride, too, had a pleasing manner, but seemed to him very young.(4) The [page 164:] party then called their friends into the room, where wine and cake were served, and the marriage announced, to their fellow-boarders. Virginia was slightly under fourteen. Poe was twenty-seven.

The boarding-house plan was renewed, under different auspices, in connection with the marriage, and its fortunes are disclosed in the fol lowing letter to Kennedy:

RICHMOND, VA., June 7, 1836.

DEAR SIR, — Having got into a little temporary difficulty I venture to ask you, once more, for aid, rather than apply to any of my new friends in Richmond. Mr. White, having purchased a new house at $10,000, made propositions to my aunt to rent it to her, and to board himself and family with her. This plan was highly advantageous to us, and, having accepted it, all arrangements were made, and I obtained credit for some furniture,&c., to the amount of $200, above what little money I had. But upon examination of the premises purchased, it appears that the house will barely be large enough for one family, and the scheme is laid aside, leaving me now in debt, (to a small amount,) without those means of discharging it upon which I had depended.

In this dilemma I would be greatly indebted [page 165:] to you for the loan of $100 for six months. This will enable me to meet a note for $100 due in 3 months, and allow me 3 months to return your money. I shall have no difficulty in doing this, as beyond this $100 I owe nothing, and I am now receiving $15 per week, and am to receive $20 after November. All Mr. White's disposable money has been required to make his first payment.

Have you heard anything farther in relation to Mrs. Clemm's estate?

Our “Messenger” is thriving beyond all expectations, and I myself have every prospect of success. It is our design to issue, as soon as possible, a number of the Magazine consisting entirely of articles from our most distinguished literati. To this end we have received, and have been promised, a variety of aid from the highest sources, — Mrs. Sigourney, Miss Sedgwick, Paulding, Flint, Halleck, Cooper, Judge Hopkinson, Dew, Governor Cass, J. Q. Adams, and many others. Could you not do me so great a favour as to send me a scrap, however small, from your portfolio? Your name is of the greatest influence in that region where we direct our greatest efforts — in the South.

Any little reminiscence, tale, jeu-d esprit, historical [page 166:] anecdote, anything, in short, with your name, will answer all our purposes, I presume you have heard of my marriage. With sincere respect & esteem, Yours truly,


Whether or not Kennedy acceded to his re quest, the little family took up their abode together, and were temporarily at least well provided for.

Poe's work during these months was brilliantly successful. He contributed personally a large amount of matter. A considerable portion of this had been written before he came to Richmond, especially the tales and poems; he published nearly all his tales, including those that had appeared elsewhere, in the “Visiter,” “Godey's,” and “The Gift”; and of his old poems he reprinted, in forms more or less revised, “Irene,” “A Paean,” “The Valley Nis,” “To Helen,” “To Science,” “Israfel,” “The City of Sin,” from the New York volume; “The Coliseum,” a fragment of “Politian,” from the “Visiter”; and “To —— ,” from his tale in “Godey's.” The new poems were five scenes [page 167:] from the drama “Politian,” the “Hymn” in “Morella,” “To Mary,” “To Eliza,” “To Zante,” and the “Bridal Ballad.”(1) Besides “Politian” he had written but six new poems in six years.

The paucity of Poe's creative work after leaving Baltimore may be laid partly to his lack of leisure; but the first impulse in romance was spent, and his poetic vein was not steadily productive. He never wrote poetry except in seasons of solitary musing, and even in prose his creative faculty was quiescent for long periods. He was an editor now, and largely employed in the correspondence and routine business of the office, or in simply furnishing copy, or attracting public interest by attention to the topics of the hour, especially in noticing books; he was a not less diligent than facile reviewer. In fact, his genius had entered on a new phase.

The real service that the “Messenger” did for Poe, in his development, was that in his work on it he discovered his critical capacity, just as in Baltimore in his garret he had discovered his [page 168:] imaginative genius for prose romance. Without depreciating either the novelty or effect of his sensational tales, or underrating their brilliant part in securing his reputation, it may be said that it was as a critic that Poe made the editorial hit which placed the new Southern monthly at once beside the “Knickerbocker” and the “New Englander” as a national magazine. The tales by themselves might not have done so. At all events, what was new in himself, and now ran its first course, was the power of the critic, and temporarily it monopolized his intellectual life. Through it he became at once notorious. While at Baltimore he had contributed a few slight book notices, but only when he was publicly known as editor did he, to use the expression of a contemporary, “fall in with his broad-axe.” Late in the autumn of 1835 there appeared the loudly-announced, much-bepuffed “Norman Leslie,” one of the popular novels of its day; it was ambitious, crude, and foolish, but its pretentiousness seems the particular quality which led Poe to single it out for an example. In the issue for December, 1835, he subjected it to such scrutiny as had never been known in our country before, and he did his task so trenchantly and convincingly, with such spirit and effect, that the [page 169:] public were widely interested; they bought, read, and looked for more. The Southern press with one voice cried on havoc; they were only too glad to find in their own country a youth with the boldness to rouse and the skill to worry Knickerbocker game; for the young author, Theodore's. Fay, was a pet of the metropolitan litterateurs and an associate editor of the “New York Mirror,” then the best literary weekly of the country. Even if Poe had not been applauded to the echo, he was not of a nature to hesitate in following up a predetermined line of policy; but he soon found a stand making against him. There was some show at first of closing the New York columns, with gentleman-like contempt, to any remonstrance against the insult; but at length the “Mirror,” after several insidious attacks, made one openly, to wit: —

“☞ Those who have read the notices of American books in a certain southern monthly which is striving to gain notoriety by the loudness of its abuse, may find amusement in the sketch, in another page, entitled The Successful Novel. The Southern Literary Messenger knows ☞ by experience ☞ what it is to write a successless novel. ☞”(1) [page 170:]

The sketch referred to was a clever squib in the style of Poe's “Lionizing,” and while satirizing his attention to the minutiƦ of style and his readiness to cry plagiarism somewhat in a jackdaw manner, as if the word were his whole stock in trade, insinuated further that the Harpers had rejected Poe's longer, as the “Mirror” itself had his shorter, effusions. Poe replied with a flat denial: that he “never in his life wrote or published, or attempted to publish, a novel either successful or successless,”(1) — a statement which must be understood as relegating into nonentity the alleged early work of Poe, “An Artist at Home and Abroad.” This trivial incident drew from Poe a statement of the spirit in which he believed himself to be undertaking the reform of criticism, and the grounds of his action: —

“There was a time, it is true, when we cringed to foreign opinion — let us even say when we paid a most servile deference to British critical dicta. That an American book could, by any possibility, be worthy perusal, was an idea by no means extensively prevalent in the land; and if we were induced to read at all the productions of our native writers, it was only after repeated assurances from England that such productions [page 171:] were not altogether contemptible. ... Not so, however, with our present follies. We are be coming boisterous and arrogant in the pride of a too speedily assumed literary freedom. We throw off with the most presumptuous and un meaning hauteur all deference whatever to foreign opinion — we forget, in the puerile inflation of vanity, that the world is the true theatre of the biblical histrio — we get up a hue and cry about the necessity of encouraging native writers of merit we blindly fancy that we can accomplish this by indiscriminate puffing of good, bad, and indifferent, without taking the trouble to consider that what we choose to denominate encouragement is thus, by its general application, precisely the reverse. In a word, so far from being ashamed of the many disgraceful literary failures to which our own inordinate vanities and misapplied patriotism have lately given birth, and so far from deeply lamenting that these daily puerilities are of home manufacture, we adhere pertinaciously to our original blindly conceived idea, and thus often find ourselves involved in the gross paradox of liking a stu pid book the better because, sure enough, its stupidity is American.”(1) [page 172:]

These views were by no means novel or un shared. The periodical press was frequently weighted or padded with essays, reports of lectures, or editorial remarks, endeavoring to ex plain the feebleness of American criticism, and deprecating it. A writer in the “Knickerbocker” itself ascribes many causes, not confined to that period, such as the interests of publishers, the social relations of editors, the wish to encourage the young, the fear of being esteemed unpatriotic, and the like. What distinguished Poe was the audacity with which he took the unenvied post, and the vigor with which he struck. Undoubtedly his worldly fortunes were affected by the enmities he thus made. The New Yorkers never forgave him. Colonel Stone, of the “Commercial Advertiser,” and W. Gaylord Clarke, of the “Philadelphia Gazette,” denounced him, and in the house of his friends the “Newbern Spectator” was an envious foe. But the presumptuous young critic did not therefore withdraw his hand; and though at a time when Gifford and Wilson handed down the traditions of critical style he did not write with the urbanity that now obtains, though he was not choice in his phrase nor delicate in his ridicule, all of his adverse decisions but one (that on “Sartor Resartus”) have [page 173:] been sustained. Moreover, the severity, what is called the venom and heartlessness, of these critiques, has been much exaggerated; as he himself pointed out in a public letter to a con temporary newspaper(1) which had reproached him for severity. There were in all but four like that upon “Norman Leslie” and these were milder than the first, a fact very creditable to Poe when one recollects how loudly he was urged “to hang, draw, and Quarterly,” and how aptly such a literary temper fell in with the proud self-confidence of his nature. His end was justice, if his manner was not courtesy.

In fact, his reputation as a critic would now suffer rather for the mercy he showed than for the vengeance he took. With what hesitancy he suggests that Mrs. Sigourney might profitably forget Mrs. Hemans; with what consideration he hints a fault in Mrs. Ellet, or just notices a blemish in Miss Gould; with what respect he treats Mellen and Gallagher! And if he asserts that Drake had an analogical rather than a creative mind, and insinuates that Halleck's laurel was touched with an artificial green, — these were the names that a lesser man would have let [page 174:] pass unchallenged. The whole mass of this criticism — but a small portion of which deals with imaginative work — is particularly characterized by a minuteness of treatment which springs from a keen, artistic sensibility, and by that constant regard to the originality of the writer which is so frequently an element in the jealousy of genius. One wearies in reading it now; but one gains thereby the better impression of Poe's patience and of the alertness and compass of his mental curiosity. Here and there, too, one sees signs of his own education, as when he praises with enthusiasm Godwin and Coleridge, Bulwer, Disraeli, and Scott; or one finds the marks of his peculiar individuality, the early bent of his mind, as when he mentions the love of analytical beauty in this author, and whispers to the next the secret of verisimilitude by obscuring the improbability of the general in the natural ness and accuracy of the particular. In especial some progress is made in his poetic theory, but this must be treated by itself.

He had reprinted without a signature his “Letter to B——” from the 1831 edition of his poems, with the editorial remark that “of course we shall not be called upon to indorse all the writer's opinions.” To the somewhat bald [page 175:] conclusions there advanced, that poetry should aim at pleasure, and be brief, indefinite, and musical, he now had something to add in a peculiar dialect of German metaphysics and phrenology, then the fashion. The most significant passage is one in which, after identifying “the Faculty of Ideality” with the “Sentiment of Poesy,” he goes on as follows: —

“This sentiment is the sense of the beautiful, of the sublime, and of the mystical. Thence spring immediately admiration of the fair flowers the fairer forests, the bright valleys and rivers and mountains of the Earth and love of the gleaming stars and other burning glories of Heaven — and, mingled up inextricably with this love and this admiration of Heaven and of Earth, the unconquerable desire — to know. Poesy is the sentiment of Intellectual Happiness here, and the Hope of a higher Intellectual Happiness hereafter. Imagination is its soul. With the passions of mankind, — although it may modify them greatly — although it may exalt, or inflame, or purify, or control them — it would require little ingenuity to prove that it has no inevitable, and indeed no necessary coexistence. ... We do not hesitate to say that a man highly endowed with the powers of [page 176:] Causality — that is to say, a man of metaphysical acumen — will, even with a very deficient share of Ideality, compose a finer poem (if we test it, as we should, by its measure of exciting the Poetic Sentiment) than one who, without such metaphysical acumen, shall be gifted, in the most extraordinary degree, with the faculty of Ideality. For a poem is not the Poetic faculty, but the means of exciting it in mankind.”(1)

Poe's meaning may not be entirely plain at first sight, built up as it is out of obscure Coleridgian elements, which he derived mainly from the “Biographia Literaria.” In the plainest words, Poe conceived that beauty, whether natural or imaginary, whether springing from the creative act of God or the creative thought of man, affects the mind as a glimpse of the in finite, and thus excites instantaneous pleasure, and furthermore, by intimating a fuller delight beyond, stimulates men to endeavor to penetrate deeper into the mystery that encompasses them. Beauty is thus a revelation of infinite truth, seized only by the imagination. Poetry consequently, according to Poe's view at this time, makes its highest appeal to the intellect instead of the passions, and requires imagination rather [page 177:] than sympathetic power in both its makers and its readers.

The remainder of his proposition amounts only to saying that one who is able to analyze the elements which give rise to his own experience of the vision that poetry brings, and thus to discern how such moods are caused, can by forethought so select and combine these elements as to arouse the same state in others, whereas one who is merely susceptible to such experience might not be capable of reproducing it with certainty: the latter has the poetic temperament, the former has in addition the analytical power which is necessary to art; one is the creature, the other the master, of his inspiration. All this is a good illustration of the rationalizing by which Poe was accustomed to feed his own vanity indirectly. Did he not possess “analytical power”? Was he not distinguished by “metaphysical acumen”? And through all, too, most noticeable is his constant parroting of Coleridge, who was, taken all in all, the guiding genius of Poe's early intellectual life.

Of more consequence than either Poe's mysticism or his metaphysical acumen, however, was the lesson he learned from Schlegel, and now adduced in support of his pet canon, that poems [page 178:] should be brief. “In pieces of less extent,” he writes, “the pleasure is unique, in the proper acceptation of that term the understanding is employed, without difficulty, in the contemplation of the picture as a whole and thus its effect will depend, in a very great degree, upon the perfection of its finish, upon the nice adaptation of its constituent parts, and especially upon what is rightly termed by Schlegel, the unity or totality of interest.”(1) This is the first expression of Poe's intellectual sense of poetic form, the quality in which his early verse was most defective and his latest most eminent.

The most noted of the transitory articles of a miscellaneous nature that Poe furnished, simply as a magazine writer, was that in which he demonstrated that Maelzel's Chess Player must be operated by human agency, and solved the methods used. The paper was well reasoned, and shows that its author had a quick and observant eye, but it has been vastly overrated, as any one may convince himself by comparing it minutely with Sir David Brewster's “Letters on Natural Magic,” to which it stands confessedly obliged, and from which it is partly paraphrased. An other article, “Pinakidia,” being selections from [page 179:] Poe's commonplace book, is worth a moment's detention for the light it incidentally throws on his habits of quotation. In prefacing the clippings (which by an obvious but very unfortunate misprint are declared to be original instead of not original), he says that in foreign magazines extracts of this sort are usually taken “by whole sale from such works as the Bibliothèque des Memorabilia Literaria, the Recueil des Bon (sic) Pensées, the Lettres édifiantes et Curieuses, the Literary Memoirs of Sallengré, the Mélanges Litéraires (sic) of Suard and André, or the Pièces Intéressantes et Peu Connues of La Place.”(1) These titles must have been taken down at haphazard, for a thorough search of bibliographies fails to reveal the existence of the first two, and the others, apart from their bad French, are incorrectly given. The earmark in this masquerade of borrowed learning is seen in the “Mélanges Litéraires of Suard and André,” — a title evidently noted from the recent translation of “Schlegel's Lectures on the Drama” (which furnished some extracts to the body of the article), for there alone it occurs, the translator having erred in rendering “Suard und Andre” (andere), that is, Suard and others; Poe innocently [page 180:] followed him, and so tripped. The satirical young editor goes on to say that “Disraeli's Curiosities of Literature, Literary Character/ and Calamities of Authors have of late years proved exceedingly convenient to some little American pilferers in this line, but are now be coming too generally known”; and forthwith he takes from this same convenient repertory several fine bits, including nearly all the alleged plagiarisms, of the poets.(1)

Poe might now justly regard his future as bright. The “Messenger” had so prospered under his management that it was an assured success, and was likely to afford him a constantly increasing income. His reputation was steadily growing; the Southern press, with a few exceptions, was vociferous in its praises, and Poe took care that these acclaims should not die away unechoed; he was at all times his own press-agent. He was settled in life; his salary was seven [page 181:] hundred and eighty dollars, and was to be a thousand and forty: he was actively planning for future work; and then there was a sudden change. The first number of the magazine for 1837 announced that, “Mr. Poe's attention being called in another direction, he will decline, with the present number, the editorial duties of the Messenger “; and on a later page Mr. White added that the resignation had taken effect January 3, but would not prevent Poe's contributing articles from time to time. Up to this announcement he had published no tale since the previous April, and no poem since August; of criticism, however, there had been no lack. The October issue was delayed by the illness of both editor and publisher, and the November issue by a press of business, while in the latter there is a very marked shrinking of the space devoted to reviews, and in December there was no number issued. The tide of his published writing had ceased. He had, however, in private, turned again to the vein of invention opened in the “MS. Found in a Bottle,” and had begun a long sea-narrative of adventure, “Arthur Gordon Pym.” He may have been preoccupied with this tale and his delayed reviews. The January number, however, in which his resignation was [page 182:] announced, is crowded with reviews, one third of the matter, about thirty-five octavo pages, being by him, besides the first installment of the seastory, and he had desired that more of the latter should be inserted, a portion having been thrown over to February. It is plain that in view of his departure, both he and Mr. White wished to exhaust all of his copy in hand.

The separation was not suddenly or violently effected. The two parted friends, and Mr. White continued throughout life to speak of Poe with great kindness and warm feeling. When the matter was settled Poe wrote to his old friend Wilmer, whose work he had kindly noticed in the “Messenger” in words that prove his friendship, that if he would come to Richmond the position would be given to him. Two weeks after the official cessation of Poe's editorship White wrote to him a letter showing their personal relations:

January 17, 1837.

MR. POE, — If it be possible, without breaking in on any previous arrangement, I will get more than the 1st portion of “Pym” in — though I much fear that will be impossible. If I had read even ten lines of Magruder's manuscript it would have saved me the expense of [page 183:] putting it in type. It is all words [illegible]. He will have to live a little longer in the world before he can write well enough to please the readers of the magazine. Touching Cary's piece, gratitude to him for pecuniary assistance obliges me to insert it.

You are certainly as well aware as I am, that the last $20 I advanced to you was in consideration of what you were to write for me by the piece. I also made you a promise on Saturday that I would do something more for you to-day, — and I never make even a promise without in tending to perform it, — and though it is entirely out of my power to send you up anything this morning, yet I will do something more sure, before night or early to-morrow — if I have to borrow it from my friends.

Truly yours, T. W. W.(1)

Poe furnished no more installments of the serial.

Kennedy, who should have known the facts, writes: “He was irregular, eccentric, and querulous, and soon gave up his place.”(2) Poe himself afterward said: “For a brief period while I resided in Richmond and edited the ‘Messenger’ [page 184:]

I certainly did give way, at long intervals, to the temptation held out on all sides by the spirit of Southern conviviality. My sensitive temperament could not stand an excitement which was an every-day matter to my companions. In short, it sometimes happened that I was completely intoxicated. For some days after each excess I was invariably confined to bed.”(1)

The only contemporary reference by him to this matter occurs in a business letter, in which, although it was written six days after his resignation went into effect, he accepts the article from Magruder mentioned by White, without any hint that he had ceased to be the editor of the magazine, except that he begs pardon for delay because of “ill health and a weight of various and harassing business.”(2) Mr. White, despite the cold address of his last communication, had been Poe's kindly disposed friend, and must have required on business grounds strong reasons to make him part with the editor who had proved his capacity by helping, in his sphere of the enterprise, to make the “Messenger” the good investment it was; its circulation had gone from five hundred to thirty-five hundred [page 185:] copies. In view of these various facts the obvious grounds for Mr. White's willingness to let him go lay in his editor's failing service and its attendant circumstances in the regimen of his life.

What part, if any, was played in these events by his flirtation with Mr. White's daughter, of which the tradition survives in Richmond, or whether this was a cause of his hasty marriage with Virginia, are matters too obscure to be more than briefly mentioned. From the beginning his marriage was, in a sense, no marriage; it was a family arrangement. His love for his wife was never that of man for woman, and Virginia, on her side, was always contented with the affection shown to a favored child. Poe, himself, was fond of society, mingled with it, danced with much pleasure, used his powers of fascination; he was always a ladies man in Richmond, from the beginning to the end of his career. He was, besides, arrogant and resentful toward those whom he disliked. His social life at the time seems to have been embarrassing to others and unsatisfactory to himself, and he had always had enemies and ill-wishers in the city. In many ways it was natural for him to seek a new residence for his career. [page 186:]

Thus Mr. White's willingness to let him go was only one element in a complicated situation. Poe himself seems to have been willing to go. His rapid and brilliant success had led him to indulge high hopes of his editorial abilities, and he was less solicitous to retain his post. He had received an invitation from Dr. Francis L. Hawks, a North Carolina divine settled in New York City, whose work . he had lately reviewed in the “Messenger,” to contribute to the newly projected “New York Review.” He was irked, editorially, by his subjection to a man, who, however kindly, was his mental inferior; and he was discontented, financially, because he had no proprietary interest nor share in the profits of the magazine. Reputation, merely, and his salary did not seem to him a sufficient reward. He had developed all sides of his genius, and was man -grown. He now centred his worldly ambition on becoming an independent editor of a magazine that he should own wholly or in part. He believed in the financial success so to be won in the magazine-world, and the swift and great development of popular magazines soon after justified his belief. He determined to attempt to realize his dream; and, having a corresponding acquaintance with [page 187:]

Paulding, Anthon, and Hawks, he decided to go to New York, as offering the most favorable opening, and there subsist by hack work until he could execute his plans. He wished to be a great editor, and therefore changed his locality and, with a true sense of the market and the field, went North. The tradition of the magazine is that “Poe besought the proprietor to reinstate him as editor, but Mr. White, in terms firm yet kindly, refused to do so.”(1) Whether Mr. White or he broke the connection is immaterial. He had found the master-current of his own life.


[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 137:]

1  The Records of St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore. The date August 13 has some authority by family tradition.

2  The author has not seen this letter, but is assured by its custodians that such is its character.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 141:]

1  Kennedy MSS. The first part of this letter is curiously like the repentant epistles of Coleridge, and such continued to be Poe's style in similar circumstances; the contrast of the two parts also is a marked trait, and first reveals clearly what might seem a double personality in him, so characteristic was it, and in the end so glaring.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 143:]

1  Griswold MSS.

2  Marriage Records of Baltimore City.

3  Didier, p. 58. The date of marriage is given as September 2. As Mr. Didier knew nothing of the record of the marriage license granted September 22, the error is of a kind to support rather than to discredit the marriage. The license was the last issued that day, and it fails to prove the marriage only because there is no return of the minister officiating; but such a return was not obligatory, and there are several other entries in the records that are similarly incomplete.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 146:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 148:]

1  Kennedy MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 149:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 150:]

1  Kennedy MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 153:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 154:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 156:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 159:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 160:]

1  Griswold MSS.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 163:]

1  Poe to George Poe, MS.

2  Hustings Court Records, Richmond, Virginia.

3  Southern Religious Telegraph, May 20, 1836; Richmond Enquirer, May 20, 1836.

4  Mrs. F. B. Converse to the author, May 20, 1884.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 166:]

1  Kennedy MSS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 167:]

1  To Mary, To ——, To Eliza, and the Bridal Ballad are now known in revised versions, the first three entitled respectively To F——, To One in Paradise, and To F——s S. O——d. To Zante was suggested by a passage in Chateaubriand's Itinéraire de Paris à Jerusalem, already mentioned.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 169:]

1  New York Mirror, April 9, 1836.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 170:]

1  Southern Literary Messenger, ii, 327 (April, 1836).

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 171:]

1  Southern Literary Messenger, ii, 326 (April, 1836).

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 173:]

1  Richmond Courier and Daily Compiler, September 2, 1836. Reprinted in The Virginia Poe, viii, pp. xii-xv.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 176:]

1  Southern Literary Messenger, ii, 328 (April, 1836).

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 178:]

1  Southern Literary Messenger, ii, 113 (January, 1836).

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 179:]

1  Southern Literary Messenger, August, 1836.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 180:]

1  A more curious instance of Poe's mode of dealing with authorities is his note on Israfel, which originally read, “And the angel Israfel, who has the sweetest voice of all God's creatures: Koran.” The passage referred to is not in the Koran, but in Sale's Preliminary Discourse (iv, 71). Poe derived it from the notes to Moore's Lalla Rookh, where it is correctly attributed to Sale. At a later time he interpolated the entire phrase, “whose heart-strings are a lute” (the idea on which his poem is founded), which is neither in Moore, Sale, nor the Koran.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 183:]

1  Griswold MSS.

2  Kennedy MSS.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 184:]

1  Poe to Snodgrass, April 1, 1841, Baltimore American, 1881.

2  Poe to Allan B. Magruder, January 9, 1837, MS.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 187:]

1  The Southern Literary Messenger, 1834-1864. By Benjamin Blake Minor, editor and proprietor from 1843 to 1847. Washington: The Neale Publishing Co., 1905: p. 64.





[S:0 - LEAPPL, 1909] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Bookshelf - The Life of EAP (G. E. Woodberry) (Chapter 05)