Text: George E. Woodberry, “Appendix C,” The Life of Edgar Allan Poe: Personal and Literary (1909), vol. II, pp. 399-417


[page 399, continued:]




[The following abbreviations are used: S. L. M., Southern Literary Messenger; A. Mo., American Monthly: G, M., Gentleman’s Magazine; Gra. M., Graham’s Magazine; S. L. C., Snowden’s Lady’s Companion; God. L. B., Godey’s Lady’s Book; A. W. R., American Whig Review; B. J., Broadway Journal; A. M., Arthur’s Magazine; C. M., Columbian Magazine. The editions of 1840, 1843, 1845, are indicated by those dates only.]

Poe was careful in composition and solicitous for the printed text of his works. He published nearly all his tales repeatedly, both in periodicals and in volumes; and, [page 400:] on each reissue, he revised the text, except when some particular tale appeared nearly simultaneously in two places. The extent of the revision varied; usually he shortened the tale, and simplified, moderated, and harmonized the language, but in some instances while keeping the incidents, dialogue, and ideas intact, he rewrote the tale verbally. “The Imp of the Perverse” and “The Tell-tale Heart” are examples of such minute correction. He seems never to have regarded any form as final, but made new changes on the margin of the last printed copy. The following list shows the date and place of publication of each tale, so far as known, in chronological order of composition, so far as can be conjectured on safe grounds. The three tales of which in respect to these points there is no certain knowledge were either from manuscript in Griswold’s hands, an unlikely hypothesis except in one instance, or from periodicals of which no file exists, such as “The Flag of Our Union, “or from obscure publications which have escaped search.

1. MS. Found in a Bottle. Baltimore Saturday Visiter, Oct. 12, 1833; S. L. M., Dec. 1835; The Gift, 1836; 1840; B. J. ii, 14.

2. The Assignation (The Visionary). God. L. B., Jan. 1834; S. L. M., July, 1835; 1840; B. J. i, 23.

3. Berenice. S. L. M., March, 1835; 1840; B. J. i, 14.

4. Morella. S. L. M., April, 1835; 1840; B. J. i, 25.

5. Lionizing. S. L. M., May, 1835; 1840; 1845; B. J. i, ii.

6. Hans Pfaall. S. L. M., June, 1835; 1840.

7. Bon-Bon. S. L. M., Aug. 1835; 1840; B. J. i, 16.

8. Shadow A Parable (Fable). S. L. M., Sept. 1835; 1840; B. J. i, 22. [page 401:]

9. Loss of Breath. S. L. M., Sept. 1835; 1840; B. J. “26.

10. King Pest. S. L. M., Sept. 1835; 1840; B. J. ii, 15.

11. Metzengerstein. S. L. M., Jan. 1836; 1840.

12. Due de L Omelette. S. L. M., Feb. 1836; 1840; B.J. ii, 14.

13. Four Beasts in One (Epimanes). S. L. M., March, 1836; 1840; B. J. ii, 22.

14. A Tale of Jerusalem. S. L. M., April, 1836; 1840; B. J., ii, 11.

15. Mystification (Von Jung). A. Mo., June, 1837; 1840; B. J. ii, 25.

16. Silence — A Fable (Siope). Baltimore Book, 1839; 1840; B. J. ii, 9.

The “Tales of the Folio Club,” submitted to the Committee on the Prize Tale for the Baltimore “Saturday Visiter,” before Oct. 12, 1833, and sent to Carey & Lea, Philadelphia, before November, 1834, was made up out of the above titles. “Lionizing” and “The Visionary” are stated to have been among the tales submitted to the Committee, in an editorial note (S. L. M., Aug. 1835), and “Siope” and “Epimanes” are mentioned as among the tales in Carey & Lea’s hands, Sept. n, 1835 (Poe to Kennedy).

The note referred to adds, “The Tales of the Folio Club are sixteen in all, and we believe it is the author’s intention to publish them in the autumn.” The sixteenth tale of the Folio Club is in doubt. Latrobe mentions “A Descent into the Maelstrom” as among the “Tales of the Folio Club” in 1833, but he probably confused it with “MS. Found in a Bottle.” When Carey & Lea returned Poe’s manuscript, one tale was missing and seems not to [page 402:] have been found (Carey & Lea to Poe). This may have been the sixteenth tale in question. The most satisfactory hypothesis is that the sixteen titles above made up the “Tales of the Folio Club.” A brief introduction to these tales, found among the Griswold MSS., and entitled “The Folio Club,” was published in “The Virginia Poe,” ii, xxxvi-xxxix. The volume, not being published by Carey & Lee, was offered by Poe to Harper & Brothers through J. K. Paulding, and by them declined through him, March 3, 1836 (Paulding to White), and also directly, June, 1836 (Harper & Brothers to Poe). It was also offered to another New York house, and its London publication considered, but the documents in the case are unpublished.

17. Ligeia. The American Museum, Sept. 1838; 1840; B. J. ii, 12.

18. How to Write a Blackwood Article (The Signora Zenobia). The American Museum, Dec. 1838; 1840; B. J. ii, i.

19. A Predicament (The Scythe of Time). A Pendant to the preceding tale. The American Museum, Dec. 1838; 1840; B. J. ii, 1.

20. The Devil in the Belfry. The (Philadelphia) Saturday Chronicle and Mirror of the Times, May 8, 1839; 1840; B. J. ii, 18.

21. The Man That Was Used Up. G. M., Aug. 1839; 1840; 1843; B. J. ii, 5.

22. The Fall of the House of Usher. G. M., Sept. 1839; 1840; 1845.

23. William Wilson. G. M., Oct. 1839; The Gift, 1840; 1840; B. J. ii, 8.

24. The Conversation of Eiros and Charmion. G. M., Dec. 1839; 1840; 1845. [page 403:]

25. Why the Little Frenchman Wears his Hand in a Sling. 1840; B. J., ii, 9.

“Tales of the Arabesque and Grotesque,” 2 v., Philadelphia, Lea & Blanchard, 1840, was published in Dec. 1839, and included all the above titles.

26. The Business Man (Peter Pendulum). G. M., Feb. 1840; B. J. ii, 4.

27. The Man of the Crowd. G. M., Dec. 1840; 1845.

28. The Murders in the Rue Morgue. Gra. M., April, 1841; 1843; 1845.

29. A Descent into the Maelstrom. Gra. M., May, 1841; 1845. Cf. supra, i, 284, Poe to Snodgrass, where he speaks of the tale as just written.

30. The Island of the Fay. Gra. M., June, 1841; B. J. ii, 13.

31. The Colloquy of Monos and Una. Gra. M., Aug. 1841; 1845.

Poe offered Lea & Blanchard, Aug. 13, 1841, eight later pieces to be added to the “Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque” in a second edition; “the later pieces will be eight in number, making the entire collection thirty-three” (Poe to Lea & Blanchard). The offer was declined Aug. 16, 1841 (Lea & Blanchard to Poe).

32. Never Bet the Devil your Head. Gra. M., Sept. 1841; B. J. ii, 6.

33. Three Sundays in a Week (A Succession of Sundays). The (Philadelphia) Saturday Evening Post, Nov. 27, 1841; B. J. i, 19.

34. Eleonora. The Gift, 1842; B. J. i, 21.

35. The Oval Portrait (Life in Death). Gra. M., April, 1842; B. J. i, 17. [page 404:]

36. The Masque of the Red Death. Gra. M., May, 1842; B. J. ii, 2.

37. The Landscape Garden. S. L. C, Oct. 1842; B. J. ii, 11 . Afterwards incorporated with “The Domain of Arnheim.”

38. The Mystery of Marie Roget. S. L. C., Nov., Dec., Feb. 1842-43; 1845.

39. The Pit and the Pendulum. The Gift, 1843; B. J. i, 20.

40. The Tell-tale Heart. The Pioneer, Jan. 1843; B. J. ii, 7.

The titles, 26-40, are given in a footnote to Hirst’s Life of Poe (Phil. Saturday Museum, March 4, 1843) as a list of the tales written since the publication of the edition of 1840. The article, which was inspired by Poe and reflects his opinion, says: “All the best of Mr. Poe’s prose tales have been published since the issue of the volumes,” etc.

“The Prose Romances of Edgar A. Poe,” No. i (pp. 40), paper cover, Philadelphia, George B. Zieber & Co., 1843, was published in the summer, and included 20, 28. The edition is of great rarity.

41. The Gold Bug. The (Philadelphia) Dollar Newspaper, June 21-28, 1843; 1845.

42. The Black Cat. The (Philadelphia) United States Saturday Post, Aug. 19, 1843; 1845.

43. The Elk (Morning on the Wissahiccon). The Opal, 1844.

44. A Tale of the Ragged Mountains. God. L. B., April, 1844; B. J. ii, 21.

45. The Spectacles. (Sent to Home, April, 1844.) B. J. ii, 20. [page 405:]

46. Diddling Considered as one of the Exact Sciences. B. J. ii, 10.

47. The Balloon Hoax. The (New York) Sun, April 13, 1844.

48. Mesmeric Revelation. C. M., Aug. 1844; 1845.

49. The Premature Burial. The (Philadelphia) —— , Aug. 1844; B. J. i, 24.

50. The Oblong Box. God. L. B., Sept. 1844; B. J. ii, 23.

51. The Angel of the Odd. C. M., Oct. 1844.

52. Thou Art the Man. God. L. B., Nov. 1844.

53. The Literary Life of Thingum-Bob. S. L. M., Dec. 1844; B. J. ii, 3.

54. The Purloined Letter. The Gift, 1845; 1845.

55. The System of Dr. Tarr and Prof. Fether. Gra. M., Nov. 1845.

The titles, 41-55, except 47 and 53, are given as the tales written since Hirst’s list, and of these 48-50, 52, 54, 55, are marked as unpublished, May 28, 1844 (Poe to Lowell), — “about sixty altogether including the Grotesque and Arabesque. “The titles, 45, 46, were, therefore, pub lished earlier than in the “Broadway Journal” or the failure to mark them as unpublished may have been due, certainly in the case of No. 45, to Poe’s having sent them to England. The title, 49, was published not later than Aug. 1844, as extracts from it appeared in the “Rover” at the end of that month, and were introduced by the words, “A writer in one of the Philadelphia papers recently gave,” etc. Poe must have had in mind more tales than he mentioned, as by June, 1844, he had prepared a complete collection, which was even larger in number. He then wrote: “Setting aside, for the present, my criticisms, poems, and miscellanies (sufficiently numerous)

[page 406:] my tales are, in number, sixty-six. . . . I have them prepared in every respect for the press” (Poe to Anthon). At that date, Poe had published forty-seven tales, 1-47; and, according to this statement, there were then unpublished nineteen tales, of which the titles of eight only, 48-55 are known. The remaining titles are, in all, thirteen only, of which eleven would be required to justify Poe’s statement. In other words, unless there were tales that never appeared at all, the statement of Poe to Anthon would involve the conclusion that he wrote only two tales after June, 1844. It is obvious that he included some of his miscellanies under the term, “Tales.” The collection was offered to Harper & Bro thers through Anthon, and declined Nov. 1844 (Anthon to Poe).

56. The Thousand and Second Tale. God. L. B., Feb. 1845; B. J. ii, 16.

The titles, 26-56, except 46, are given as the tales written since the publication of the edition of 1840, in a footnote to Lowell’s biography of Poe, Graham’s Maga zine, Feb. 1845.

“Tales,” New York, Wiley & Putnam, 1845, appeared about July of that year, and included 5, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 38, 41, 42, 48, 54. Poe wrote, Aug. 9, 1846, “The last selection of my tales was made from about seventy by Wiley & Putnam’s reader, Duyckinck “(Poe to Cooke). It appears that the selection was made from the Anthon list, or else in the two years the number had not much increased. A reviewer of this volume, how ever, evidently inspired by Poe, says, — “To our own knowledge he has published at least seventy-five or eighty tales.” [page 407:]

57. Some Words with a Mummy. A. W. R., April, 1845; B. J. ii, 17.

The title, 57, was mentioned in the “Columbian Magazine,” January, 1845: “Notice to Correspondents. The following articles are accepted. . . . Some Words with a Mummy.”

58. The Power of Words. Democratic Review, June, 1845; B. J. ii, 16.

59. The Imp of the Perverse. Gra. M., July, 1845; Mayflower, 1846.

60. The Case of M. Valdemar. A. W. R., Dec. 1845; B. J. ii, 24.

61. The Sphinx. A. M., Jan. 1846.

62. The Cask of Amontillado. God. L. B., Nov. 1846.

63. The Domain of Arnheim. C. M., March, 1847. The tale embodies and develops “The Landscape Garden.”

64. Mellonta Tauta. God. L. B., Feb. 1849.

65. Hop-Frog. The Flag of Our Union, 1849.

66. X-ing a Paragrab. Unknown.

67. Landor’s Cottage. Unknown. Sent to the Metropolitan toward the end of 1848.

68. Von Kempelen and His Discovery. Unknown. Sent to Duyckinck about March 1, 1849.

Notwithstanding the discrepancy between the number of tales mentioned by Poe in his letters to Lowell, Anthon, and Cooke, and the number that can be traced as existing at the dates on which he wrote, there is little reason to believe that this is not well-nigh a complete list. The fragment entitled “The Light-house,” given above in Appendix B, was the only manuscript relating to the tales, beside the Introduction to the Folio Club, found in the [page 408:] Griswold MSS. The absence of any title, other than those included above, in his correspondence or the publications of the time, discredits the hypothesis that any important compositions were lost among his manuscripts, and it is incredible that any editor suppressed such manuscripts after his death, though unpublished matter exists in some collections. He probably included in his calculation all the tales he had written or was engaged upon, and possibly some of his miscellanies. It is clear that he found publication difficult and often long-delayed, and also that his productivity in this kind of composition almost ceased in the last four years of his life, as at other times it had shown a low degree of vitality. The average number of tales written each year, from 1833 to 1846, is between four and five, but it was higher at both the beginning and the end of the period, and from 1837 to 1841 fell to two, which is nearly as low as from 1846 to 1849; in the first of these periods Poe was other wise occupied in book-making and editing, and in the second in criticism and lecturing.

Of these tales, the following were reprinted abroad in Poe’s lifetime: “The Fall of the House of Usher,” in “Bentley’s Miscellany”; “The Purloined Letter,” in Chambers “Edinburgh Journal”; “Mesmeric Revelation,” in the “Popular Record of Modern Science,” London; “The Case of M. Valdemar,” in the same, and in “Mesmerism In Articulo Mortis “(paper”), London, 1846; and “The Murders in the Rue Morgue “and other tales, translated in La Commerce and La Quotidienne and collected in Les Contes d’Edgar Poe, 1846.

Of Poe’s original contribution to foreign periodicals no trace has been found. He was from the first anxious to publish in England; after the Harpers had declined the [page 409:]

“Tales of the Folio Club,” he corresponded with a New York house, having a London agency, with respect to the issue of the book in both countries. The letters have not been shown to me, but I am allowed to say that such is their contents. In 1842, at Philadelphia, he enlisted the interest of Dickens in finding an English publisher for a volume of Tales (supra, i, 328), but without avail. Wiley & Putnam, by an arrangement with the Harpers presumably, issued “Arthur Gordon Pym” with a London imprint in 1838 and 1841, and a pirated edition appeared in 1844. The same firm, when they became Poe’s American publishers, also regularly issued the “Tales,” 1845, “The Raven and Other Poems,” 1846, and “Eureka,” 1848, with a London imprint.

The account of Poe’s connection with foreign periodicals is less clear, but interesting, and comes wholly from himself. The first mention is in a letter to Snodgrass, September n, 1839: “I have made a profitable engagement with Blackwood’s Mag., and my forthcoming Tales are promised a very commendatory Review in that Journal from the pen of Professor Wilson.” He returned to the subject, June 17, 1841: “It was only six weeks since that I had the opportunity I wished of sending a copy to Professor Wilson, so as to be sure of its reaching him directly. Of course I must wait some time yet for a notice, — if any there is to be.” Meanwhile he mentioned a connection with D’Israeli in a letter to Cooke, September 21, 1839: “You read my most intimate spirit like a book, and with the single exception of D’Israeli I have had communication with no other person who does.” He spoke again of the subject of magazine publication in his manuscript memorandum furnished to Griswold, March 29, 1841: “Lately have written articles continuously for [page 410:] two British journals whose names I am not permitted to mention.” In Hirst’s sketch of him in the “Saturday Museum,” March 4, 1843, written from information furnished by Poe, there is a more modified statement of his British connection, with new revelations; “Besides the works mentioned he is the author of . . . a work of fiction in two volumes under a nom-de-plume, never acknowledged; also two papers on American topics for a Parisian critical journal, with one or two anonymous articles in a British periodical, and several also anonymous in an American Quarterly.” In 1844 he sent one article to Home, in furtherance of his old ambition (supra ii, 50), without success. No article has been identified as by him in any English periodical or journal, but no systematic search has been made; and there is no other indication that he contributed to a journal in Paris.


Poe’s revision of the poems was even more persistent and minute than in the case of the tales, and his republication of them more often repeated. He was especially solicitous also to have them copied into newspapers. The following list shows the date and place of publication of each poem, so far as known, in the chronological order of their issue, with notes on the order of composition so far as can be conjectured on reasonable grounds. In several instances revision occurred very late during his life, notably in his marginal correction of the Lorimer-Graham copy of 1845, and also elsewhere; where Griswold’s text, 1850, differs from the last publication, known to him, there is no reasonable ground to doubt that he had manuscript authority in every case, among the Poe papers [page 411:] given into his hands as literary executor; on the other hand, there were final printed texts unknown to Griswold. There is no such example in literature of poetic elaboration as is contained in the successive issues of these poems as here listed.

[The following abbreviations are used: Y. L. G., The Yankee and Bos ton Literary Gazette; B. J., Broadway Journal; G. M., Burton’s Gentle man’s Magazine; A. C., Atkinson’s Philadelphia Casket; S. L. M., Southern Literary Messenger; S. M., Philadelphia Saturday Museum; Gra. M., Graham’s Magazine; A. W. R., American Whig Review; Pio., The Pioneer; S. V., Baltimore Saturday Visiter; S. E. P., Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post; God. L. B., Godey’s Lady’s Book; A. M., Bal timore American Museum; E. M., New York Evening Mirror; M. M., Missionary Memorial; H. J., Home Journal; C. M., Columbian Maga zine; U. M., Union Magazine; S. U. M., Sartain’s Union Magazine; F. U., Flag of Our Union; N. Y. T., New York Tribune; Gr. 1842, Griswold, “Poets and Poetry of America,” 1842. The editions of 1827, 1829, 1831, 1845, are indicated by those dates only.]

1827. 1. Tamerlane. 1827; extracts in Y. L. G., Dec. 1829; 1829; 1831; 1845.

2. Song (I saw thee on thy bridal day). (To —— ), 1827, with same title, and 1829; B. J. ii, n; 1845.

3. Dreams. 1827.

4. Spirits of the Dead. (Visit of the Dead), 1827; 1829; G. M., July, 1839.

5. Evening Star. 1827.

6. A Dream within a Dream. (Imitation), 1827; extract in Y. L. G., Dec. 1829; (To —— ), 1829; incorporated in Tamerlane, 1831. The title is Griswold’s.

7. Stanzas. (No title), 1827. The title is Stedman’s.

8. A Dream. (No title), 1827; 1829; B. J. ii, 6; 1845. [page 412:]

9. “The happiest day, the happiest hour.” (No title), 1827.

10. The Lake. To ——. (The Lake), 1827; 1829; incorporated in Tamerlane, 1831, but not in 1845; 1845; M. M., 1846.

The titles, 1-10, represent Poe’s work previous to his nineteenth year. The Wilmer MS. is intermediate between 1827 and 1829, and to the same period properly belongs the poem, “Alone,” copied into a Baltimore album, March 17, 1829, and first published in “Scribner’s Magazine,” Sept. 1875; a poem of the same title occurs in the Wilmer MS., but it is half indecipherable, and wholly different in matter, being related to title 15.

1829. 11. To Science. (No title), 1829; A. C., Oct. 1830; 1831; S. L. M., May, 1836; B. J. ii, 4; 1845. The title is, Sonnet — To Science, in all.

12. Al Aaraaf. Extracts in Y. L. G., Dec. 1829; 1829; 1831; extracts in S. M., March 4, 1843; 1845.

13. To ——. (The bowers whereat in dreams I saw.) 1829; B. J. ii, ii; 1845.

14. To the River . 1829; G. M., Aug. 1839; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. ii, 9; 1845.

15. To ——. (I heed not that my earthly lot.) (To M —— ), 1829; 1845.

16. Fairyland. Extract in Y. L. G., Sept. 1829; 1829; 1831; G. M., Aug. 1839; B. J. ii, 13; 1845.

17. Romance. (Preface), 1829; (Introduction), 1831; S. M., March 4, 1843 , B. J.; 8; 1845.

The titles, 11-17, represent Poe’s work during his army life and the summer following, that is, from the age of [page 413:] eighteen to that of twenty-one. It may include earlier work not used in 1827, but this is unlikely.

1831. 18. To Helen. 1831; S. L. M., March, 1836; Gra. M., Sept. 1841; S. M., March 4, 1843; 1845.

19. Israfel. 1831; S. L. M., Aug. 1836; Gra. M., Oct. 1841; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. ii, 3; 1845.

20. The City in the Sea. (The Doomed City), 1831; (The City of Sin), S. L. M., Aug. 1836; A. W. R. (sub-title, A Prophecy), April, 1845; B. J. ii, 8; 1845.

21. The Sleeper. (Irene), 1831, and with same title, S. L. M., May, 1836; Gr., 1842; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. i, 18; 1845.

22. Lenore. (A Paean), 1831, and with same title, S. L.M., Jan. 1836; Pio., Feb. 1843; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. ii, 6; 1845.

23. The Valley of Unrest. (The Valley Nis), 1831, and with same title, S. L. M., Feb. 1836; A. W. R., April, 1845; B . J. ii, 9; 1845.

The titles, 18-23, represent Poe’s work from the age of twenty-one to that of twenty-two and a few months; like the titles, 1-17, they are properly juvenilia, their present highly finished forms being due to repeated and mature revision.

1833. 24. The Coliseum. S. V., 1833; S. L. M. (with sub-title, A Prize Poem), Aug. 1835; and, also with sub-title, S. E. P. June 12, 1841; (Coliseum), Gr., 1842; S.M., March 4, 1843; B. J. ii, i; 1845.

1834. 25. To One in Paradise. (No title), God. L. B. (in The Visionary), Jan. 1834, and S. L. M. (in [page 414:] the same), July, 1835; (To lanthe in Heaven), G. M., July, 1839; Tales (in The Visionary), 1840; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. i, 19; B. J. (in The Assignation), i, 23; 1845.

1835. 26 Hymn. (No title), S. L. M. (in Morella), April, 1845, and (in the same tale G. M., Nov. 1839, Tales, 1840, and B. J. i, 25; (Catholic Hymn), B. J. ii, 6, and with same title, 1845.

27. To F . (To Mary), S. L. M., July, 1835; (To One Departed), Gra. M., March, 1842, and with same title, S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. i, 17; 1845.

28. To F——s S. O——d. (Lines Written in an Album), S. L. M., Sept. 1835; ( To ——); G. M., Aug. 1839; (To F——), B. J. ii, 10; 1845.

1836. 29. Scenes from Politian. (Scenes from an Unpublished Drama), S. L. M., Dec. 1835-Jan. 1836; 1845.

1837. 30. Bridal Ballad. S. L. M., Jan. 1837; (Ballad), S. E. P., July 31, 1841; (Song of the Newly-Wedded), S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. ii, 4; 1845.

31. To Zante. S. L. M., Jan. 1837; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J., 2; 1845. The title is Sonnet to Zante, in all.

The titles, 24-31, represent Poe’s work for six years, up to the time of his going North. The order of composition may be conjectured as follows: 27, probably the same with the “poem of six or eight verses, addressed to Mary ——,” his inamorata, in a Baltimore paper, 1833, [page 415:] but it should be noted that the title, To M——, occurs as 15, in 1829; 25, 26, 24, 29, the tales and the drama having been written in Baltimore; 28, the lines having been originally addressed to Eliza White, of Richmond; with 30, 31, uncertain as to date. Both 27 and 28 were later addressed to Mrs. Frances Sargeant Osgood, of New York. The title, 30, seems an expansion of 2, and both were doubtless poetic growths from his early romance with Miss Royster; the poem given in S. L. M., Aug. 1835, as an unpublished Scotch ballad is connected with 30, prob ably the first draft of the theme, and if this conjecture be accepted, the date of 30 would naturally be later than Aug. 1835, and both 30 and 31 may have been written in Richmond; otherwise, there is nothing from Poe’s hand, in poetry, except 28, during the year and a half of his residence there.

1839. 32. The Haunted Palace. A. M., April, 1839; (no title), G. M. (in The Fall of the House of Usher), Sept. 1839, and Tales (in the same), 1840; Gr., 1842; S. M., March 4, 1843; ( no title), Tales (as before), 1845; 1845.

1840. 33. Silence. (Silence. A Sonnet), G. M., April, 1840; (Sonnet — Silence), S. M., March 4, 1843, and with same title, B. J. ii, 3; 1845.


34. The Conqueror Worm. Gra. M., Jan. 1843; S. M., March 4, 1843; B. J. i, 21; B. J. (in Ligeia), ii, 12; 1845.

1844. 35. Dreamland. Gra. M., June, 1844; B. J. i, 26; 1845.

1845. 36 — The Raven. E. M., Jan. 29, 1845; A. W. R., Feb. 1845; B. J. i, 6; S. L. M., March, 1845. [page 416:]

37. Eulalie. A. W. R. (sub-title, A Song), July, 1845, and also with sub-title, B. J. ii, 5, and 1845.


38. To M. L.’s . H. J., March 13, 1847. Addressed to Mrs. Mary Louise Shew.

39. Ulalume. A. W. R. (sub-title To ———— ), Dec. 1847; H. J., Jan 1, 1848 — The text is Griswold, 1850.

1848. 40. To ————. (To ), C. M., March, 1848. Addressed to Mrs. Shew. The text is Griswold, 1850.

41. An Enigma. (Sonnet.) U. M., March, 1848. Sent to Mrs. Sarah Anna Lewis, Nov. 27, 1847.

42. To Helen. (To —— ), U. M., Nov. 1848. Addressed to Mrs. Helen Whitman. Sent to Bayard Taylor, June 15, 1848. The text is Griswold, 1850.

1849. 43. A Valentine. S. U. M., March, 1849; F. U., 1849. Addressed to Mrs. Frances Sargeant Osgood. MS. dated Feb. 14, 1846.

44. For Annie. F. U., April, 1849; H . J., April 28, 1849; sent to Mrs. Richmond, March 23, 1849. The text is Griswold, 1850.

45. To my Mother. F. U., 1849. Mentioned May, 1849. The text is Griswold, 1850.

46. Annabel Lee. N. Y. T., Oct. 9, 1849; S. L. M., Nov. 1849; S. U. M., Jan. 1850.

47. The Bells. S. U. M., Nov. 1849.

48. Eldorado. Griswold, 1850.

The order of composition of the titles, 38-48, may be conjectured as follows: 43, 39, 38, 40, 41, 42, 47, 44, with [page 417:] 45, 46, 48, uncertain as to date. “Ulalume” is, by conjecture, the poem described by Mrs. Gove-Nichols, in the summer of 1846, but may have been rewritten. The Bells is mentioned in three states; the first draft, left with Sartain, probably in Sept., 1848, on Poe’s return from Richmond, and 1848, representing the MS. written at Mrs. Shew’s, apparently in the early summer of 1848; the second, mentioned February 8, 1849 (Poe to “Annie”), sent to Sartain about May, 1849; the third, sent to Sartain about Aug. 1849. “Annabel Lee “is first mentioned May, 1849 (Poe to “Annie”), as if then recently written; but Rosalie Poe (Mrs. Weiss, p. 129) professed to have heard it many times at Fordham in 1846, and a gentleman names it (“The Virginia Poe,” i, 312) as recited by Poe in Richmond, 1848; Mrs. Osgood believed it commemorated his wife, and Mrs. Whitman that it referred to herself. Poe sent a “perfect copy” to Griswold about June, 1849 (Poe to Griswold). “To my Mother,” said (Mrs. Weiss, p. 134) to have been written in 1847, is first mentioned May, 1849 (Poe to “Annie “). “Eldorado “is known only in Griswold’s text. The late W. M. Griswold suggested to me that further authentication might be desired, though the copy was doubtless found among Poe’s papers. Mrs. Richmond was sure that it did not appear in “The Flag of Our Union,” and that Poe never mentioned it to her.




[S:0 - LEAPPL, 1909] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Bookshelf - The Life of EAP (G. E. Woodberry) (Appendix C)