Text: Dwight R. Thomas and David K. Jackson, “Biographical Notes,” The Poe Log (1987), pp. xv-xlx


[page xv:]

Biographical Notes
on Persons Mentioned in the Text


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JOHN ADAMS (1773-1825), physician, was the Mayor of Richmond from 1819 until his death in 1825; he officially welcomed Lafayette to the city in late October 1824. Poe and his fellow Junior Volunteers obtained arms from Dr. Adams to serve as Lafayette's bodyguard. Adams was succeeded by Joseph Tate (1795-1839), one of John Allan's neighbors.

JAMES ALDRICH (1810-1856), poet and editor in New York City, had the misfortune to write “A Death-Bed,” a brief poem which Poe believed plagiarized from Thomas Hood's earlier verses “The Death-Bed.” Poe first made the accusation when reviewing Longfellow's The Waif for the New York Evening Mirror of 13-14 January 1845; he repeated it in the 17 February Mirror and the 8 March Broadway Journal, offering additional evidence of Aldrich's guilt.

CHARLES W. ALEXANDER (1796-1866) published several Philadelphia newspapers and magazines, including Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, Alexander's Weekly Messenger, and the Daily Chronicle.

JOHN ALLAN (1779-1834), Poe's foster father, was born on 10 September 1779 in Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland. Shortly before 29 January 1795 he emigrated to Richmond, where he found employment with his uncle, the wealthy merchant William Galt. In 1800 Allan joined with Charles Ellis, another of Galt's employees, to establish the mercantile firm of Ellis & Allan; the partners sold Virginia tobacco to Europe and used the proceeds to purchase a wide variety of European manufactured goods, which they offered for sale in Richmond. On 4 June 1804 Allan became a naturalized American citizen. His first wife was FRANCES KEELING VALENTINE (1785-1829), whom he married on 5 February 1803. The union being childless, the couple took custody of Edgar Poe after his mother's death on 8 December 1811; at this time they were living over the Ellis & Allan store at the northeast corner of Main and Thirteenth Streets. In 1815 Allan returned to Great Britain to open a London office of Ellis & Allan, under the inverted name “Allan & Ellis”; he was accompanied by his foster son, his wife, and her unmarried sister Ann Moore Valentine. Allan's English venture proved unsuccessful; in 1820 he returned to Richmond. In 1824 the firm of Ellis & Allan was dissolved by mutual consent of the partners. With the death of William Galt on 26 March 1825, Allan's financial problems came to an end: he inherited a substantial portion of his bachelor uncle's estate. On 28 June he purchased “Moldavia,” the imposing house at the southeast corner of Main and Fifth Streets formerly owned by the flour miller Joseph Gallego. Although Allan had initially been fond of his foster son Edgar and had taken pains to send him to good schools both in Richmond and in England, differences in temperament between the two became apparent as the boy entered adolescence; their relations were subsequently characterized by friction and misunderstanding. When Poe attended the University of Virginia in 1826, Allan neglected to provide him with sufficient funds to cover his expenses. Poe recklessly attempted to obtain more money by gambling, incurring large debts which Allan then refused to pay. After they quarrelled [page xvi:] angrily on 18 and 19 March 1827, Poe stalked out of the Allan household and went to Boston, enlisting in the United States Army on 26 May. They were temporarily reconciled when Poe returned to Richmond following the 28 February 1829 death of his foster mother. Allan grudgingly helped the young man win an appointment to West Point; for the next several years he sent him sporadic financial assistance as well as occasional letters containing more censure than affection. On 5 October 1830 Allan married LOUISA GABRIELLA PATTERSON (1800-1881) of Elizabethtown, New Jersey; by this second wife he had three sons: John, Jr. (born 1831), William Galt (born 1832), and Patterson (born 1834). Allan died on 27 March 1834, after a lingering illness. In his will he did not mention Poe, but he provided for his illegitimate twin sons born around 1 July 1830 to Mrs. Elizabeth Wills (1780?-1863?) of Richmond. In his youth he had fathered another illegitimate son named Edwin Collier; from 1812 until 1817 he paid the tuition bills sent him by several Richmond schoolmasters for educating the boy.

MARY ALLAN (died 1850), the oldest of John Allan's sisters in Scotland, lived in the family's Bridgegate House in Irvine. The other sisters were AGNES NANCY, who married Allan Fowlds of Kilmarnock in 1799; JANE, who married first a Captain Johnston and later a Mr. Ferguson; and ELIZABETH, who married John Miller of Irvine.

ROBERT T. P. ALLEN (1813-1888) entered West Point with Poe in June 1830. In the autumn of 1834, not long after his graduation, Allen visited Baltimore, where an acquaintance told him that Poe was working in a brickyard. The reminiscence is not altogether implausible: Poe's cousin Henry Clemm seems to have been employed as a Baltimore stonecutter in the mid-1830's.

RICHARD CAREY AMBLER (1810-1877), one of Joseph H. Clarke's students, recalled swimming with Poe in Shockoe Creek and hearing him recite verses satirizing the members of a Richmond debating society. According to Ambler, Thomas Willis White approached him in 1835 or 1836, urging him to persuade Poe to furnish overdue copy for the Southern Literary Messenger. In later life Ambler became a physician and farmer in Fauquier County, Virginia.

CHARLES ANTHON (1797-1867), Professor of Greek and Latin at Columbia, was an early supporter of the Southern Literary Messenger; in the July 1836 number Poe listed him among those authors who had written the magazine to express approval of its book reviews. Poe accorded Anthon an extensive notice in “Autography” (Graham's for November 1841).

ROBERT ARCHER (1794-1877), surgeon in the Army Medical Corps, met Poe at Fortress Monroe early in 1829. Dr. Archer subsequently became president of the Armory Iron Works in Richmond. In 1849, on seeing Poe after church services, he remarked to his niece Susan Archer Talley that the poet's appearance had changed little over the years.

NEIL ARNOTT (1788-1874), Scotch inventor and physician, met John Allan and his family in London. In a 15 May 1821 letter to Allan, then back in Richmond, Dr. Arnott observed that he still had “Master Edgar” (presumably a portrait of Poe) in one of his rooms.


JOHN STRODE BARBOUR (1790-1855), Virginia legislator and congressman, saw Poe as a small child during the summer of 1812, when the Allans were visiting White Sulphur Springs. In 1829 Barbour apparently recommended Poe for West Point.

ELIZABETH BARRETT BARRETT (1806-1861), English poetess, enjoyed considerable popularity in the United States. Poe contributed a long critique of her poetry to the Broadway Journal (4 and 12 January 1845 issues); he subsequently [page xvii:] dedicated The Raven and Other Poems (1845) to her. Miss Barrett often discussed Poe in her letters to ROBERT BROWNING (1812-1889), whom she married in 1846.

CHARLES BAUDELAIRE (1821-1867), French poet, encountered several Poe stories in the Paris periodicals around 1847. He devoted much of his later life to translating Poe's writings.

PARK BENJAMIN (1809-1864) edited the New World, a New York weekly, from October 1839 until March 1844. Thomas Ollive Mabbott and other scholars have attributed to Poe an article headed “Our Magazine Literature” and signed with the initial “L.,” which appeared in the New World on 11 March 1843. It was almost certainly written by Benjamin's cousin Charles Lanman (1819-1895), as reported in William W. Snowden's Ladies’ Companion for April 1843.

NICHOLAS BIDDLE (1786-1844), eminent Philadelphian, was President of the United States Bank. In late 1840 Poe solicited his aid for the proposed Penn Magazine.

ROBERT MONTGOMERY BIRD (1806-1854), Philadelphia novelist and playwright, contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger during Poe's editorship.

JOHN BISCO published the Broadway Journal from 4 January until 24 October 1845.

ANNA BLACKWELL, English authoress, was the sister of Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910), the first woman physician in the United States. Anna boarded at Poe's Fordham cottage around October 1847. In the spring of 1848 she moved to Providence, Rhode Island, where she discussed Poe with Sarah Helen Whitman.

ELAM BLISS, New York publisher, brought out Poe's Poems (1831), as well as an edition of William Cullen Bryant's poetry and Edward V. Sparhawk's Report of the Trial of John Jacob Astor's Claims to Lands in Putnam County (1827).

ELI BOWEN (1824-1868) edited the Columbia Spy, a weekly newspaper in Columbia, Pennsylvania, from 30 November 1843 until 2 December 1844. He engaged Poe as his New York correspondent, publishing the resulting seven dispatches between 18 May and 6 July 1844. On 1 January 1848 Bowen became an editor of the Pottsville, Pennsylvania, Miner's Journal.

MATHEW B. BRADY (ca. 1823-1896), the famous photographer, seems to have been introduced to Poe in Washington in March 1843. He later made a daguerreotype of Poe at his New York studio, possibly in April 1849.

JOHN BRANSBY (1784-1857) was master of the Manor House School at Stoke Newington, near London, which Poe attended in 1818, 1819, and 1820.

CHARLES FREDERICK BRIGGS (1804-1877) was born on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. After an early career as a seaman, he become an author and editor in New York City. A satiric first novel, The Adventures of Harry Franco (1839), established his reputation; he was hereafter known as “Harry Franco.” In December 1844 he reached an agreement with the publisher John Bisco to issue his own weekly magazine, the Broadway Journal. Poe was engaged as a contributor from the opening number of 4 January 1845; on 21 February he became Briggs's co-editor. While Briggs was initially impressed with Poe's ability, he was soon disillusioned because of his partner's drinking and his attacks on Longfellow. In early July Briggs withdrew from the Journal, after having unsuccessfully attempted to purchase Bisco's interest. He subsequently displayed only animosity toward Poe, whom he ridiculed in an unsigned article in the Evening Mirror of 26 May 1846 and in his novel The Trippings of Tom Pepper (1847). Briggs had two notable friends and correspondents, the poet James Russell Lowell and the painter William [page xviii:] Page. In later life he edited Putnam's Monthly Magazine.

CHARLES ASTOR BRISTED (1820-1874), well-to-do New Yorker, graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, England, in 1845. After returning home he wrote for the American Review and other periodicals, simply for his own pleasure.

COTESWORTH P. BRONSON, authority on elocution, commissioned Poe to write a poem he could recite in his lectures; the result was “Ulalume,” completed around October 1847. Bronson's daughter MARY ELIZABETH contributed a valuable reminiscence of Poe to the New York Home Journal of 21 July 1860 (reprinted in American Literature, May 1948).

JAMES BROOKS (1810-1873) edited the New York Morning Express from its commencement on 20 June 1836; the paper subsequently added evening, semiweekly, and weekly editions.

NATHAN COVINGTON BROOKS (1809-1898), Baltimore clergyman, editor, educator, and poet, was intimate with Poe during his residence in that city in the early 1830's. In the summer of 1838 Brooks solicited Poe's contributions for the American Museum, a Baltimore monthly which he edited with Joseph Evans Snodgrass.

DANIEL BRYAN (ca. 1790?-1866), minor poet, served as postmaster of Alexandria, Virginia, from 1820 to 1853. He corresponded with Poe during the summer of 1842.

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT (1794-1878) edited the New York Evening Post. Poe favorably noticed his poetry in the Southern Literary Messenger for January 1837, in Burton's Gentleman's Magazine for May 1840, and in Godey's Lady's Book for April 1846. The two men are known to have conversed at a soiree given by Caroline M. Kirkland, probably in 1845.

JOSEPH TINKER BUCKINGHAM (1779-1861) edited various Boston periodicals, including two monthlies, Polyanthos (1805-1807, 1812-1814) and the New-England Magazine (1831-1834), as well as a newspaper, the Daily Courier (1824-1848).

WILLIAM BURKE and his wife CHRISTIANA were Richmond schoolteachers. Poe entered Burke's “Seminary” for boys on 1 April 1823, during the session which had begun on 2 January. In June 1824 (or 1825) Burke was one of the bystanders who witnessed Poe's swimming feat in the James River. Along with John Hartwell Cocke, at whose Bremo Academy he had formerly taught, Burke may have persuaded John Allan to send Poe to the University of Virginia. Burke wrote two books, The Rudiments of Latin Grammar (1832) and The Mineral Springs of Western Virginia (1842); he translated parts of Virgil's Aeneid for the Southern Literary Messenger.

EBENEZER BURLING (died 1832) probably met Poe at the Richmond school of Joseph H. Clarke in the autumn of 1820; the two boys became intimate companions, as Elmira Shelton recalled in the 19 November 1875 interview she granted Edward V. Valentine. Burling's mother was the widow MARTHA BURLING (died 1846); she operated a Richmond boardinghouse after her husband's death, at the corner of Bank and Ninth Streets in 1819, and in 1821 at Main and Tenth, on Bank Square. His father THOMAS BURLING, a printer, had issued the Virginia Senate Journal [[Virginia Senate Journal]].

CHARLES CHAUNCEY BURR (1815-1883), editor and clergyman, provided Poe with financial assistance during his July 1849 visit to Philadelphia. In the Nineteenth Century for February 1852, Burr defended Poe's character and published excerpts from his last letters to Maria Clemm, written between July and September 1849.

WILLIAM EVANS BURTON (1802-1860), English-born comic actor, emigrated [page xix:] to the United States in 1834, settling in Philadelphia. In July 1837 he issued the first number of Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, with Charles W. Alexander as publisher; in December 1838 he became its sole proprietor. In early May 1839 Burton accepted the offer of Poe's services, hiring him as assistant editor. He regarded Poe simply as an employee, never allowed him any control over the magazine, and refused to publish several of his blistering reviews. Poe was expected to perform proofreading and other trivial chores; Burton had acting engagements which kept him away from Philadelphia for weeks at a time. This unhappy relationship came to an end in late May 1840: Burton advertised his magazine for sale, intending to devote his energies to his new National Theatre, then under construction; Poe assumed that his employment would soon be terminated and consequently made preparations to circulate a prospectus announcing his own proposed journal, the Penn Magazine. When Burton learned of Poe's plan, he promptly fired him.

WILLIAM McCREERY BURWELL (1809-1888) became an editor of DeBow's Review. His recollections of Poe at the University of Virginia, originally published in the New Orleans Times-Democrat of 18 May 1884, were reprinted in the University's Alumni Bulletin for April 1923.

GEORGE BUSH (1796-1859), clergyman and scholar, was Professor of Hebrew at the New York University from 1831 to 1847. Around 1845 he became an enthusiastic Swedenborgian.

ELIZA JANE BUTTERFIELD (1828-1892) was a teacher at the Franklin Grammar School in Lowell, Massachusetts. Poe apparently conducted a brief flirtation with Miss Butterfield during his last visit to Annie Richmond and her family, in late May and early June 1849.


JULIA MAYO CABELL (1800-1860), Richmond matron, was the youngest daughter of Colonel John Mayo and Abigail DeHart Mayo, the uncle and aunt of Louisa G. Patterson (John Allan's second wife). In 1823 Julia married DR. ROBERT HENRY CABELL (1799-1876). Her sister Maria married GENERAL WINFIELD SCOTT (1786-1866). Julia, her husband, and her brother-in-law were friends of Poe.

EDWARD L. CAREY (1806-1845) and ABRAHAM HART (1810-1885) were the principals in Carey & Hart, Philadelphia publishers located at the southeast corner of Chestnut and Fourth Streets. The firm issued the Gift, a popular annual which contained the first printings of Poe's tales “William Wilson” (1840 ed.), “Eleonora” (1842 ed.), “The Pit and the Pendulum” (1843 ed.), and “The Purloined Letter” (1845 ed.).

MATHEW CAREY (1760-1839), printer and bookseller, emigrated to Philadelphia from Ireland in 1784; he soon became the leading American publisher. After his retirement in 1822, his son HENRY CHARLES CAREY (1793-1879) and son-in-law ISAAC LEA (1792-1886) continued his firm under the name Carey & Lea; they published original works by James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, John P. Kennedy, John Neal, and Robert Montgomery Bird. After Henry C. Carey retired in 1838, the business was conducted by Isaac Lea and WILLIAM A. BLANCHARD under the name Lea & Blanchard; around 4 December 1839 they issued Poe's Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque. The firm shared the same building at Chestnut and Fourth with Carey & Hart, an independent but allied concern begun by Henry's brother Edward L. Carey in 1829.

ROBERT CARTER (1819-1879), Boston journalist and abolitionist, served as the coeditor of James Russell Lowell's short-lived monthly, the Pioneer (January-March 1843).

JOSEPH RIPLEY CHANDLER (1792-1880) [page xx:] edited the Philadelphia United States Gazette, a daily newspaper.

WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING (1818-1901), Massachusetts poet and Transcendentalist, was the nephew of the eminent Unitarian clergyman who bore the same name. Although the younger Channing numbered Emerson, Hawthorne, and Thoreau among his friends, his poetry left much to be desired. Poe satirized his first volume of verse in Graham's for August 1843.

THOMAS HOLLEY CHIVERS (1809-1858), grandiloquent Georgia poet, was one of Poe's most devoted admirers. The two men frequently corresponded, with Poe constantly but unsuccessfully urging Chivers (the scion of a wealthy plantation family) to provide financial backing for his magazine projects. Chivers left a detailed reminiscence of several meetings he had with Poe when he visited New York in the summer of 1845.

LEWIS JACOB CIST (1818-1885), Cincinnati poet, contributed a poem entitled “Bachelor Philosophy” to Poe's proposed Penn Magazine.

LEWIS GAYLORD CLARK (1808-1873), editor of New York's Knickerbocker Magazine, often attacked Poe in his “Editor's Table.” His twin brother WILLIS GAYLORD CLARK (1808-1841), a talented poet, edited the Philadelphia Gazette until his untimely death from tuberculosis, on 12 June 1841.

COLIN CLARKE (1792-1881), a graduate of William and Mary, abandoned the practice of law in 1834 and became a farmer in Gloucester County, Virginia. On 11 February 1836 Poe wrote John P. Kennedy that Clarke was “a gentleman of high respectability.”

JOSEPH HANSON CLARKE (1790-1885), a Marylander, conducted a boys’ school in Richmond from 1818 to 1823; he emphasized instruction in English, French, Latin, and Greek. Poe entered Clarke's school soon after his return from England in 1820. The two, master and student, later renewed their friendship in Baltimore, where Clarke spent the rest of his long teaching career.

THOMAS COTTRELL CLARKE (1801-1874), veteran Philadelphia publisher, issued the first number of his Saturday Museum, a weekly newspaper of folio size, on 10 December 1842. Shortly afterwards he agreed to publish Poe's long-planned literary journal, now retitled the Stylus, beginning in July 1843. While Clarke may have felt uncomfortable with Poe's drinking, his motive for withdrawing from the Stylus in May 1843 had more to do with the financial difficulties his own Museum was encountering. His daughter ANNE E. C. CLARKE left an informative account of Poe, which is quoted in John Sartain's Reminiscences of a Very Old Man (1899).

MARIA CLEMM (1790-1871) was born Maria Poe on 17 March 1790, the sister of Edgar's father David Poe, Jr. On 13 July 1817 she married WILLIAM CLEMM, JR. (1779-1826), a Baltimore widower of some social prominence. William's first wife, whom he married on 1 May 1804, had been HARRIET POE (1785-1815), the daughter of George Poe, Sr., and thus Maria's first cousin. William and Harriet had five children: William Eichelberger (born 1806), Josephine Emily (1808-1889), Georgianna Maria (born 1810), Catherine, and Harriet. William and Maria had three children: Henry (born 1818), Virginia Sarah or Maria (1820-1822), and Virginia Eliza (1822-1847). William Clemm, Jr., died on 8 February 1826, leaving his widow with only a negligible estate. Around this time Maria began to provide lodging and nursing for her invalid mother Elizabeth Caimes Poe, who received an annuity of $240. Shortly after Edgar Poe arrived in Baltimore early in May 1829, he called on his aunt and grandmother; in the spring of 1831 he joined their household, then located on Wilks Street (later Eastern Avenue) between Exeter and High. Edgar served as companion [page xxi:] and tutor to Mrs. Clemm's young daughter VIRGINIA ELIZA; his affection for both his aunt and his cousin increased, as did his emotional dependence on them. The death of Elizabeth Cairnes Poe on 7 July 1835 brought an end to the annuity which had been Mrs. Clemm's most reliable means of support. Early in October Edgar took his aunt and her daughter to Richmond, where he had secured employment on the Southern Literary Messenger. On 16 May 1836 Edgar and Virginia were married there; the union proved unusually happy, the partners being bound by a blood relationship as well as by a mutual love which had developed over several years of shared intimacy. Around 20 January 1842, during Poe's residence in Philadelphia, Virginia first suffered the pulmonary hemorrhaging symptomatic of tuberculosis. She died from this relentless disease at Fordham, outside New York City, on 30 January 1847. Mrs. Clemm now devoted herself to caring for Poe, who was prostrated by his wife's death and by his own struggles with ill health, poverty, and alcoholism. His death on 7 October 1849 left the elderly woman without immediate family and without financial resources; in the years following she had no permanent residence, but stayed with a succession of friends who were able to give her free room and board. In the spring of 1863 she gained admission to the Episcopal Church Home in Baltimore; she died in this charitable institution on 16 February 1871.

JOHN HARTWELL COCKE (1780-1866), Virginia scholar and soldier, resided at Bremo Plantation, on the James River north of Richmond. Cocke aided Thomas Jefferson in establishing the University of Virginia; he was a friend and correspondent of John Allan. At the plantation of his brother BOWLER COCKE, the Allans and Poe spent the Christmas holidays in 1811.

GEORGE HOOKER COLTON (1818-1847), Yale graduate, edited the American Review in New York. He purchased “The Raven” for his February 1845 number, paying Poe “not over $20.”

ROBERT TAYLOR CONRAD (1810-1858) was a Philadelphia judge, playwright, and poet. Poe favorably noticed Conrad's writings in his lecture on “American Poetry” (21 November 1843 and subsequent dates) and in an unsigned sketch published in Graham's for June 1844.

PHILIP PENDLETON COOKE (1816-1850), Virginia poet, wrote Thomas Willis White in 1835, praising Poe's earliest contributions to the Southern Literary Messenger (letter quoted in September number). Cooke was one of the few American critics whose opinions Poe respected; the two men corresponded occasionally during Poe's Philadelphia and New York periods. In the January 1848 Messenger Cooke published an appreciative essay on Poe's later writings. His brother JOHN ESTEN COOKE (1830-1886), the novelist, attended Poe's 17 August 1849 lecture in Richmond.

ALEXANDER T. CRANE (born ca. 1829), office boy of the Broadway Journal, left a reminiscence of Poe in the Omaha, Nebraska, Sunday World-Herald of 13 July 1902 (reprinted in Poe Studies, December 1973).

CALEB CUSHING (1800-1879), Massachusetts politician and diplomat, delivered a lecture on Great Britain to the Boston Lyceum on 16 October 1845, immediately before Poe read his poem “Al Aaraaf” to the same audience. Cushing's address, reportedly long and tedious, was hardly a suitable prelude to a poetry reading; it almost certainly contributed to the lukewarm reception accorded Poe.


JOHN MONCURE DANIEL (1825-1865), acerbic editor of the Richmond Semi-Weekly Examiner, was challenged to a duel by Poe around August 1848. A reconciliation occurred in 1849: Daniel objectively reviewed Poe's 17 August and 24 September lectures and printed a revised copy of “The Raven.” After Poe's death Daniel contributed several frank reminiscences of him to the Examiner (9, 12, 19 October 1849); these provided much of the substance for [page xxii:] his longer article in the March 1850 Southern Literary Messenger.

PETER VIVIAN DANIEL (1784-1860) was one of the three members of the Virginia State Council whose aid Poe and the Junior Volunteers solicited in retaining arms issued to them for Lafayette's October 1824 visit to Richmond. Daniel later became an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

FELIX O. C. DARLEY (1822-1888), Philadelphia artist, furnished illustrations for the first printings of “The Gold-Bug” and Thomas Dunn English's The Doom of the Drinker.

RUFUS DAWES (1803-1859), Baltimore poetaster, was the subject of a devastating Poe critique in the October 1842 Graham's.

THOMAS RODERICK DEW (1802-1846), Professor of Economics at William and Mary, became its President in 1836. A frequent contributor to the Southern Literary Messenger, Dew corresponded with Poe about one of his submissions, an “Address” he delivered at the College on 10 October 1836; it appeared in the November Messenger, accompanied by Poe's note.

CHARLES DICKENS (1812-1870), English novelist, received a tumultuous welcome and much fatuous adulation during his first visit to the United States, 22 January to 7 June 1842. In the following autumn he annoyed his former hosts by suing American Notes for General Circulation, a record of his trip which touched upon many national shortcomings, including slavery, prisons, railroads, and tobacco-chewing. Dickens granted Poe two interviews when he stopped in Philadelphia (5-9 March); after he returned to England he sought unsuccessfully to find a London publisher for Poe's stories.

JOHN DIXON, JR. (1768-1805), Richmond printer, was the son of John Dixon, Sr. (died 1791), and Rosanna Hunter Dixon (died 1790). Like his father, the younger Dixon printed the Virginia Gazette. He married SARAH VALENTINE (died 1807), the half sister of Ann Moore Valentine and Frances Keeling Valentine (John Allan's first wife). On 12 January 1795 Dixon assumed the legal guardianship of these two Valentine girls, who had been left orphans. MARY DIXON, his sister, married the merchant John Richard (1762-1824). In 1822 Richard purchased “Moldavia” from the estate of the flour miller Joseph Gallego; in 1825 John Allan purchased the house from Richard's estate. As the Richards were childless, they adopted Caroline Homasett, their niece as well as Gallego's; she married Philip Thornton, who had rescued her from the Richmond Theatre fire on 26 December 1811. Perhaps he was the son of the Dr. Philip Thornton who treated Poe in 1812. ROSANNA DIXON (1801?-1828), daughter of John Dixon, Jr., became the first wife of William Galt, Jr. GEORGE DIXON, JR. (1810?-1840), the son of John's brother George, married Mary I. Poitiaux, one of Michael B. Poitiaux's daughters, in 1833.

JESSE ERSKINE DOW (1809-1850), journalist and poet, was born in Thompson, Connecticut; he joined the United States Navy at an early age. In 1835 and 1836 Dow served on the frigate Constitution (“Old Ironsides”) as private secretary to its controversial commander, Commodore Jesse Duncan Elliott (1782-1845). From 1837 until 1841 Dow held a clerkship in the Post Office Department in Washington. His popular “Sketches from the Log of Old Ironsides,” based on his nautical experiences, appeared in Burton's from July 1839 until April 1840, during Poe's association with the magazine. In May 1840 Dow came to Philadelphia as a witness in the court martial of Commodore Elliott; at this time he often saw Poe, who seems to have introduced him to the novelist Frederick William Thomas. Dow spent the rest of his career in Washington, where he held minor political offices and edited several newspapers [page xxiii:] (the Index, Daily Madisonian, and United States Journal) .

WILLIAM DRAYTON (1776-1846), jurist, preferred the title “Colonel” to that of judge; he earned the former during the War of 1812. From 1825 to 1833 he served in the United States Congress as a representative from South Carolina; there is no truth in the tradition that he was Poe's commanding officer at Fort Moultrie in 1827 and 1828. In the summer of 1833 Drayton settled in Philadelphia; he subsequently assisted Poe, who moved there in early 1838. Poe dedicated his Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque to Drayton.

WILLIAM DUANE, JR. (1808-1882), Philadelphia scholar, was the son of William John Duane (1780-1865), Secretary of the Treasury under President Andrew Jackson. The younger Duane contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger during Poe's editorship; around March 1844 he lent Poe an early volume of the Messenger, which Maria Clemm inadvertently sold to a Philadelphia bookseller. Duane and Poe exchanged several angry letters before the missing volume was recovered.

FRANCIS HAROLD DUFFEE, Philadelphia stockbroker, dabbled in authorship. He gained some notoriety by unjustly accusing Poe of collusion with the committee which selected “The Gold-Bug” for a $100 prize.

JOHN STEPHENSON DU SOLLE (1810?-1876) edited the Spirit of the Times, a Philadelphia daily newspaper which has sometimes been confused with a New York sporting journal of the same name. A friend of Poe, Du Solle was a colorful and pugnacious figure; he later settled in New York City, where he became private secretary to the showman P. T. Barnum.

EVERT AUGUSTUS DUYCKINCK (1816-1878), New York bibliophile and scholar, conducted the monthly Arcturus (1840-1842) with his friend Cornelius Mathews. In 1845 Duyckinck became editor of Wiley and Putnam's “Library of American Books,” a position which kept him in frequent communication with Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, and many other authors. His younger brother GEORGE LONG DUYCKINCK (1823-1863) worked with him in editing the Literary World (1847, 1848-1853) and in compiling their Cyclopaedia of American Literature (2 vols., 1855).


CHARLES EAMES (1812-1867) edited the last volume of the New World (4 January until 10 May 1845); in this New York weekly he reprinted Poe's revised tale “Ligeia” as well as his poems “The Haunted Palace” and “The Raven.” In the summer of 1845 Eames received a Navy Department appointment in Washington; here he became acquainted with Poe's friend Frederick William Thomas.

PLINY EARLE (1809-1892), a minor poet, was better known as an innovative physician who devoted his life to the treatment of mental illness. In 1840 he contributed a poem to Poe's proposed Penn Magazine.

JOHN HENRY EATON (1790-1856), Secretary of War under President Andrew Jackson, granted Poe an interview in Washington in July 1829. His nephew JOHN EATON HENDERSON (died 1836), from Tennessee, was one of Poe's tentmates at West Point.

ELIZABETH FRIES ELLET (1818-1877), poetess and translator, was the wife of Dr. William H. Ellet, a professor at the South Carolina College in Columbia; but she resided in New York City, where she belonged to the circle of bluestockings surrounding Poe. She became Poe's implacable enemy after he spurned her attempts at social intimacy.

CHARLES ELLIS (1771 or 1772-1840), business partner of John Allan, married Frances Allan's cousin MARGARET KEELING [page xxiv:] NIMMO (1790-1877) of Norfolk, Virginia. The couple had nine children: Thomas Harding (1814-1898), James Nimmo (1815?-1839), Charles Jr. (1817-1900), Elizabeth Thorowgood (1818-1900), Jane Shelton (1820-1901), John (1822-1823), Richard Shelton (1825-1867), Frances (1827-1886), and Powhatan (1829-1906). According to CHARLES ELLIS, JR., his father and John Allan opposed Frances Allan's adoption of Edgar Poe. Whether this is true or not, the senior Ellis opened his home to the Allan family when they returned from England in 1820. Poe became an older playmate of THOMAS H. ELLIS, who recorded his recollections in a letter published in the Richmond Standard, 7 May 1881, and in manuscripts now held by the Valentine Museum. POWHATAN ELLIS (1790-1863), a brother of the senior Ellis, became a United States Senator from Mississippi; on 13 March 1830 he wrote a letter recommending Poe for West Point.

THOMAS DUNN ENGLISH (1819-1902), the son of a Philadelphia carpenter, was a poet, physician, politician, editor, novelist, and lawyer; he did not achieve prominence in any field, and he has been remembered largely for his turbulent relationship with Poe. As early as 1837 English began to contribute crude, sententious verses to Burton's Gentleman's Magazine and other Philadelphia journals; in 1839 he met Poe, the new assistant editor of Burton's. Their subsequent intimacy soon bred mutual contempt, which neither could successfully conceal. In March 1843 an intoxicated Poe made fun of English at a social gathering in Fuller's Hotel, Washington. English retaliated by depicting Poe as a drunken literary critic in his temperance novel The Doom of the Drinker (1843). By 1845 the two men were superficially reconciled, with English lengthily reviewing Poe's Tales and The Raven and Other Poems in his New York monthly the Aristidean. The veneer of civility evaporated in early 1846, when English refused to assist Poe in an imbroglio involving Elizabeth F. Ellet. To Godey's Lady's Book for July Poe contributed a maliciously patronizing sketch of English, who then inserted a more abusive and somewhat libelous “Reply” in the New York Evening Mirror. Poe sued the Mirror for printing it, winning a substantial judgment on 17 February 1847. English played no further role in Poe's career, though he attacked him repeatedly in the John-Donkey (1848), a satiric weekly issued in Philadelphia.

GEORGE W. EVELETH, a young medical student in Maine, conducted a lengthy correspondence with Poe, beginning on 21 December 1845. Eveleth later provided transcripts of the letters he received to John H. Ingram, Poe's English biographer.


THEODORE SEDGWICK FAY (1807-1898), author and diplomat, was an associate editor of the New-York Mirror, which repeatedly lauded his two-volume novel Norman Leslie (1835). Poe condemned both the book and the “puffing” of it in the December 1835 Southern Literary Messenger, creating a sensation but antagonizing many of Fay's friends.

JOHN W. FERGUSSON (1821?-1909) was an apprentice printer and delivery boy employed on the Messenger during Poe's editorship.

JOSEPH M. FIELD (1810-1856), actor and journalist, edited the Saint Louis Daily Reveille; he often defended Poe in his paper, most notably in the 30 June 1846 issue.

MAUNSELL BRADHURST FIELD (1822-1875), lawyer and author, left a reminiscence of Poe's 3 February 1848 lecture on “The Universe.”

JAMES THOMAS FIELDS (1817-1881), Boston publisher, was the junior partner in Ticknor & Company.

E. BURKE FISHER (1799?-1859?), minor author, contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger during Poe's editorship. Fisher engaged Poe as a contributor to his Literary Examiner (1839-1840), a Pittsburgh monthly, but alienated him by making unauthorized revisions to his articles. [page xxv:]

OSCAR PENN FITZGERALD (1829-1911), Methodist bishop, recalled seeing Poe in the streets of Richmond in 1849.

EMILE DAURAND FORGUES (1813-1889), Paris journalist and critic, wrote under the pseudonym “Old Nick”; he translated Poe's “A Descent into the Maelström” (Revue britannique, September 1846) and “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (Le Commerce, 12 October 1846). When a Paris newspaper wrongly accused Forgues of plagiarizing the latter story, he sued for libel; the resulting controversy did much to popularize Poe in France.

JANE FRANCES FOSTER (1823-1911), later the wife of J. C. Stocking, was an out-of-town friend of Mrs. James Yarrington. In the spring of 1836 Miss Foster, then only thirteen, stopped briefly at the Yarrington boardinghouse in Richmond; she thus happened to attend the 16 May wedding of Edgar Poe and Virginia Clemm.

JOHN WAKEFIELD FRANCIS (1789-1861) seems to have been the Poe family's physician during their residence in New York City (1844-1846). After they moved to Fordham around May 1846, they were treated by a Dr. Freeman.

JOHN FROST (1800-1859), Professor of Literature in the Philadelphia High School, also edited Alexander's Weekly Messenger. He favorably noticed Poe's “The Fall of the House of Usher;” “William Wilson,” and Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (Messenger for 4 September, 16 October, and 19 December 1839).

HIRAM FULLER (1814-1880) began his career as a schoolteacher and bookseller in Providence, Rhode Island; he moved to New York City in 1843. On 7 October 1844 George P. Morris and Nathaniel P. Willis engaged him as the business manager of their new enterprise, the Evening Mirror and Weekly Mirror. Fuller soon played an editorial role, signing his contributions with an asterisk; on 27 December 1845 he became the Mirror's sole editor, Morris and Willis withdrawing from the concern. Although Fuller admired Poe's stories and some of his criticisms, he objected to his sketches of “The Literati of New York City.” In the Evening Mirror of 26 May 1846 he published Charles F. Briggs's unsigned attack on the series and its author; on 23 June he reprinted Thomas Dunn English's virulent “Reply” to Poe from the Morning Telegraph. Fuller himself then hammered Poe in a long string of editorials.

MARGARET FULLER (1810-1850) edited the Dial, the Transcendentalist quarterly, from July 1840 to April 1842. In late 1844 she accepted Horace Greeley's invitation to write for his Daily Tribune; she settled in New York City, where she made Poe's acquaintance, probably at one of Anne C. Lynch's soirees. She favorably reviewed James Russell Lowell's sketch of Poe, as well as the Wiley and Putnam editions of Poe's stories and poems (Tribune for 24 January, 11 July, 26 November 1845).


WILLIAM DAVIS GALLAGHER (1808-1894), Cincinnati editor and poet, sent Poe a copy of his anthology Selections from the Poetical Literature of the West (1841).

WILLIAM GALT (1755-1825) fled from his native Scotland after being implicated in smuggling; he entered the mercantile business in Richmond and became very wealthy. A bachelor, he adopted WILLIAM GALT, JR. (1801-1851) and JAMES GALT (1804-1876), two brothers who were not related to him. At his death in 1825 the brothers and his nephew John Allan were the chief beneficiaries of his estate.

JAMES MERCER GARNETT (1770-1843), Virginia educator and agriculturist, contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger under the pen name “Oliver Oldschool”; he was one of Poe's earliest and severest critics. Garnett's nephew ROBERT MERCER TALIAFERRO HUNTER (1809-1887), Virginia legislator and Confederate statesman, knew Poe at the University of Virginia. On 20 May 1875 Hunter wrote his friend HENRY TUTWILER (1807-1884), [page xxvi:] then headmaster of a boys’ school in Alabama, that he had helped Thomas Willis White put the Messenger to press during Poe's drinking bouts.

MILES GEORGE (born 1807), Richmond physician, entered the University of Virginia with Poe in February 1826. In an 18 May 1880 letter to Edward V. Valentine, Dr. George recalled that Poe covered the walls of his dormitory room with charcoal sketches, displaying great artistic talent. Two other students also described these drawings: THOMAS BOLLING of Nelson County, Virginia, who wrote Valentine on 10 July 1875, and JOHN WILLIS (1809-1885) of Orange County, Virginia, grandnephew of President James Madison and member of the state legislature, who wrote Sarah Helen Whitman sometime prior to 1874. The letters from George and Bolling are held by the Valentine Museum; William F. Gill excerpted Willis’ letter in his 1877 biography (pp. 36-37).

JAMES GIBBON (1758-1835), a neighbor of John Allan, had distinguished himself as “the hero of Stony Point” during the Revolutionary War. From 1800 to 1835 Major Gibbon was Richmond's Collector of Customs. His daughter Mrs. Mary Gibbon Carter criticized the Poes in Baltimore for neglecting Edgar and Rosalie after their mother's death.

THOMAS WARE GIBBON of Indiana roomed with Poe at West Point and later subscribed to his Poems (1831). Gibson published his reminiscences of Poe in Harper's for November 1867.

BASIL LANNEAU GILDERSLEEVE (1831-1924), noted classicist, recalled seeing Poe on Broad Street, Richmond, in 1849.

WILLIAM MITCHELL GILLESPIE (1816-1868), New York author and civil engineer, attended Poe's 28 February 1845 lecture on the “Poets and Poetry of America.”

WILLIAM J. GLENN (1822-1902), Richmond tailor, initiated Poe into the Sons of Temperance on 27 August 1849.

LOUIS ANTOINE GODEY (1804-1878) published Godey's Lady's Book from 1830 to 1877. Poe liked this rotund, affable Philadelphian as a man; he had scant respect for his magazine, which catered to the feminine hunger for fashion plates, sentimental fiction, and exemplary morality. The Book had a very large circulation and paid competitive prices to authors; Poe frequently contributed to it during his New York period.

MARY NEAL GOVE (1810-1884), health reformer, lecturer, and novelist, visited Poe's Fordham cottage on several occasions in 1846 and 1847; she described these visits in the Six Penny Magazine for February 1863. Mrs. Gove also left a shorter reminiscence of Poe in her novel Mary Lyndon (1855). Her marriage to Hiram Gove ended in divorce in 1848; she then married the physician Thomas Low Nichols (1815-1901), who recalled the publication of Poe's “Balloon-Hoax” in his Forty Years of American Life (1864).

GEORGE REX GRAHAM (1813-1894) acquired a proprietary interest in two Philadelphia journals in 1839, the Saturday Evening Post and the Casket. On 20 October 1840, having become sole proprietor of the Casket, he purchased Burton’ Gentleman's Magazine for $3500; he combined these two monthlies to issue his Graham's Magazine, the first number being dated December 1840. In February 1841 he engaged Poe as the book review editor of Graham's, paying him a salary of $800 a year. Poe's relations with Graham were outwardly cordial; privately he was mildly contemptuous of this commercial publisher and his “namby-pamby” magazine, disgruntled with his employee status, and desirous of starting his own journal. Around 1 April 1842 Poe resigned; Graham hired Rufus W. Griswold to replace him. Although Graham's achieved a large circulation, Graham himself went bankrupt because of unwise stock speculations; in July 1848 he was forced to dispose [page xxvii:] of the magazine's controlling interest to Samuel D. Patterson, who had acquired the Saturday Evening Post in March 1843. Graham never regained his former prosperity.

HORACE GREELEY (1811-1872) edited the New York Daily Tribune from 1841 until 1872. The paper became influential throughout the United States; Greeley himself was almost a national institution.

RUFUS WILMOT GRISWOLD (1815-1857), Vermont-born anthologist and journalist, met Poe in the spring of 1841, when he was collecting materials for his most popular compilation, The Poets and Poetry of America (1842). Poe pointed out the book's shortcomings in his lecture on “American Poetry,” delivered in Philadelphia on 21 November 1843 and repeated in other cities. Griswold never forgave him, although they subsequently maintained a facade of civility. In The Prose Writers of America (1847) Griswold favorably evaluated Poe's stories, commenting more briefly on his poetry and literary criticism. In 1849 he penned a vindictive obituary of Poe for the New York Daily Tribune, which was quoted or reprinted by many other papers. Three of Poe's friends (Nathaniel P. Willis, George R. Graham, and John Neal) published protests against this distorted characterization; Griswold responded by inserting a much longer, often malicious and false “Memoir” in his edition of Poe's works (1850). For several decades this “Memoir” served as the standard biography of Poe; it has had a lasting influence on the popular conception of his personality.


HIRAM H. HAINES (1802-1841), one of Poe's earliest admirers, edited three newspapers in Petersburg, Virginia: the American Constellation (1834-1838), Th’ Time o’ Day (1839), and the Virginia Star (1840-1841).

SARAH JOSEPHA HALE (1788-1879) became a professional writer to support herself and five children after the death of her husband in 1822. Mrs. Hale edited first the Ladies’ Magazine (1828-1836); when Louis A. Godey united this Boston monthly to his more successful Lady's Book in 1837, he engaged her as his literary editor. In the autumn of 1840 she settled in Philadelphia, where she played an active role on Godey's and where she almost certainly made Poe's acquaintance. Her son DAVID EMERSON HALE (1814?-1839) attended West Point with Poe in 1830 and 1831.

FITZ-GREENE HALLECK (1790-1867), New York poet, reputedly lent Poe $100 for the Broadway Journal in December 1845.

SAMUEL HARKER (died 1850) edited the Baltimore Republican, a daily newspaper to which Poe contributed three notices of Thomas Willis White's Southern Literary Messenger (14 May, 13 June, and 10 July 1835).

GABRIEL HARRISON (1818-1902), actor, author, and painter, made Poe's acquaintance in the fall of 1844, at a tea and tobacco store he operated in lower Manhattan; they became occasional companions. After Poe's death Harrison often corresponded with his mother-in-law Mrs. Clemm.

WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON (1773-1841), military hero and public official, headed the Whig ticket in the 1840 Presidential election. He defeated the Democratic incumbent Martin Van Buren, but died after only one month in office, on 4 April 1841, apparently exhausted from trying to cope with hordes of office-seekers.

FRANCIS LISTER HAWKS (1798-1866), Episcopalian clergyman, was one of the editors of the New York Review, a theological quarterly to which Poe contributed a long critique of John L. Stephens’ Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land (October 1837).

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE (1804-1864) was the only American author whom Poe deeply admired and consistently praised. He evaluated Hawthorne's stories in two long critiques (Graham's for April and May 1842, Godey's for November [page xxviii:] 1847); elsewhere he complained that the reading public had not given Hawthorne adequate financial compensation (New York Evening Mirror for 6 February 1845, Broadway Journal for 23 August 1845).

JOEL TYLER HEADLEY (1813-1897), author and historian, was prolific, popular, and mediocre. His Letters from Italy (1845) appeared as the third volume in Wiley and Putnam's “Library of American Books,” following Poe's Tales.

JAMES EWELL HEATH (1792-1862), Richmond author, edited the first seven numbers of the Southern Literary Messenger (August 1834-March 1835); he was succeeded by Edward V. Sparhawk and then by Poe. After Poe's departure in January 1837, Heath again assisted its proprietor Thomas Willis White, although he never actually resumed the editorship. Heath was a perceptive critic hampered by the Victorian notion that literature must be morally instructive; the limitations of his sensibility are apparent in his reviews of Poe's fiction (Messenger for October 1839 and January 1840).

HENRY HERRING (1791?-1868), Baltimore lumber dealer, married Poe's aunt ELIZABETH (“ELIZA”) POE (1792-1822) on 17 November 1814. Poe wrote several acrostic poems in the album of their daughter ELIZABETH REBECCA HERRING (1815-1889). On 2 December 1834 she married Arthur Turner Tutt of Woodville, Rappahannock County, Virginia, who died not long after. Her second husband was Edmund Morton Smith, headmaster of a Baltimore boys’ school. Elizabeth's half sister MARY ESTELLE [[ESTHER]] HERRING married James Warden. Around 1840 Henry Herring and Mary, then a widow, settled temporarily in Philadelphia, where they frequently saw Poe and his family.

JAMES HERRON, Virginia-born civil engineer, invented the trellis railway track. In June 1842 he sent Poe a gift of $20.

JOHN HILL HEWITT (1801-1890), journalist, musician, and poet, edited the Baltimore Minerva and Emerald (1829-1832), a literary weekly; around January 1830 he unfavorably reviewed Poe's Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. In August 1832 Hewitt succeeded Lambert A. Wilmer as editor of the Baltimore Saturday Visiter. Concealing his identity under the pseudonym “Henry Wilton,” he submitted a poem in the premium contest announced by the Visiter's proprietors on 15 June 1833. Poe won the larger award ($50) with his tale “MS. Found in a Bottle”; but Hewitt received the prize for poetry ($25) with “The Song of the Winds;” which the judges selected instead of Poe's entry in this genre, “The Coliseum.” Poe believed himself entitled to both prizes, regarding Hewitt's participation in the contest as unfair; they engaged in a brief street brawl a few days after their compositions were published in the 19 October Visiter. In September 1839 Hewitt became editor of the Baltimore Clipper, a new daily; he soon moved to Washington, where he again saw Poe in March 1843.

MARY ELIZABETH HEWITT (born 1818?), poetess, was the wife of James L. Hewitt, brother of John Hill Hewitt. A frequent contributor to periodicals, she became one of Poe's closest associates among the New York bluestockings.

BARDWELL HEYWOOD (1824?-1899), schoolteacher, was the brother of Annie Richmond of Lowell, Massachusetts, with whom Poe fell in love in 1848. Bardwell described Poe's visits to Lowell in several letters to another teacher, Miss Annie Sawyer (published in the New England Quarterly, September 1943). Bardwell's sister SARAH H. HEYWOOD 1829?-1913) left a reminiscence of Poe which was printed by two early biographers, William F. Gill and John H. Ingram.

THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON (1823-1911), Massachusetts author and soldier, attended Poe's poetry reading before the Boston Lyceum on 16 October 1845.

HENRY BECK HIRST (1817-1874), eccentric [page xxix:] Philadelphia poet, was one of Poe's frequent companions during his residence in that city. Following Poe's instructions, Hirst prepared the biographical sketch of him published in the Saturday Museum for 25 February and 4 March 1843. In later life Hirst became addicted to absinthe; his last years were spent as an inmate of the insane department of the Blockley Almshouse, Philadelphia.

CHARLES FENNO HOFFMAN (1806-1884), New York litterateur, edited the Literary World from 8 May 1847 to 30 September 1848. He was a close friend of the anthologist Rufus W. Griswold, who selected a disproportionate number of his verses for The Poets and Poetry of America (1842).

EZRA HOLDEN (1803-1846) was co-editor of the Philadelphia Saturday Courier, in which he reviewed Poe's Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque (2 November, 14 December 1839). Holden died in Washington on 20 March 1846; his partner Andrew McMakin then became the Courier's sole editor.

JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, JR. (1820-1891) was the eldest son of the first Protestant Episcopal bishop of Vermont, who bore the same name. The younger Hopkins graduated from the University of Vermont in 1839; in 1848, while a student at the General Theological Seminary in New York City, he published a laudatory synopsis of Poe's 3 February lecture on “The Universe” (Morning Express, 4 February). Hopkins’ religious beliefs were conservative; and although he initially admired Poe, he ended their acquaintance after discovering traces of pantheism in the manuscript of the forthcoming Eureka. Hopkins reviewed Poe's book in the Literary World of 29 July 1848, vigorously denouncing its theological ambiguities. In later life he became a bishop.

JOSEPH HOPKINSON (1770-1842), Philadelphia jurist, wrote the patriotic song “Hail Columbia.”

RICHARD HENRY HORNE (1803-1884), versatile British author, wrote Orion (1843), an epic poem admired by his contemporaries. Poe's enthusiastic review of it in the March 1844 Graham's led to a correspondence between the two men, which was cordial but not especially productive. Horne could not find a London periodical to purchase Poe's tale “The Spectacles”; Poe in turn failed to discover a New York publisher willing to reprint Orion.

CHARLES WILLIAM HUBNER (1835-1929), poet, editor, and librarian, left a reminiscence of Poe's funeral (8 October 1849).

HENRY NORMAN HUDSON (1814-1886), New England scholar and clergyman, delivered many lectures on Shakespeare.

FREEMAN HUNT (1804-1858) edited and published the Merchants’ Magazine in New York; he favorably reviewed Poe's Tales, The Raven and Other Poems, and Eureka (August 1845, January 1846, and August 1848 issues).

JEDEDIAH HUNT, JR. (1815-1860), editor and poet, published a protest against the severity of Poe's criticism in the final issue of his Ithaca, New York, National Archives, dated 13 March 1845. On 17 March Poe wrote him a long letter defending his conduct; Hunt printed it on 29 April in the opening issue of his new weekly, the Bainbridge Eagle (Chenango County, New York).


ABIJAH METCALF IDE, JR. (1825-1873), a young farmer in South Attleborough, Massachusetts, initiated a correspondence with Poe on 1 October 1843, sending him specimens of unpublished poetry and soliciting his opinion. In 1845 Ide became a contributor to Poe's Broadway Journal.

JOHN HENRY INGRAM (1842-1916), Poe's English biographer, collected important information about him by corresponding with Sarah Helen Whitman, Annie Richmond, Marie Louise Shew, and George W. Eveleth. [page xxx:]

WASHINGTON IRVING (1783-1859) held a revered place as the first American man of letters. While Poe felt that Irving's abilities were overrated, he recognized the value of his reputation. In the fall of 1839 he sent Irving “The Fall of the House of Usher” and “William Wilson,” simply to elicit a word of praise which could be used to promote the forthcoming Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque.


EDWARD WILLIAM JOHNSTON, journalist and librarian, was the son of a distinguished Virginia jurist and the older brother of the Confederate General Joseph Eggleston Johnston. An ardent Anglophile, Johnston wrote a controversial article for the Charleston, South Carolina, Southern Review of August 1831, condemning the idea that American authors needed to free themselves from British models. Many of his articles were signed with the pen name “Il Secretario;” including the memoir of Hugh Swinton Legaré which appeared in New York's American Review for October 1845. Johnston became an early contributor to the Southern Literary Messenger; in 1836 he unsuccessfully sought to interest the New York branch of Saunders and Otley, an English firm, in publishing Poe's “Tales of the Folio Club.”

JOHN BEAUCHAMP JONES (1810-1866), Baltimore journalist, contributed to Burton's during Poe's association with it. Jones edited the Saturday Visiter from 9 May 1840 until 8 November 1841, being succeeded by Joseph Evans Snodgrass.

WILLIAM ALFRED JONES (1817-1900), literary critic, was a friend of Evert A. Duyckinck, Cornelius Mathews, and other New York writers. Poe expressed his contempt for Jones's essays in the Broadway Journal of 20 September 1845.


JOHN KEESE (1805-1856), author and bookseller in New York City, edited an anthology The Poets of America (1839), The Poetical Writings of Mrs. Elizabeth Oakes Smith (1845), and the Opal for 1846 and 1847.

JOHN PENDLETON KENNEDY (1795-1870), Baltimore novelist and congressman, was one of the three judges who selected Poe's “MS. Found in a Bottle” as the prize story of the Saturday Visiter in October 1833. Poe immediately introduced himself to Kennedy, who befriended him and gave him material assistance to alleviate his poverty. In 1834 Kennedy unsuccessfully attempted to convince his publishers, Carey & Lea of Philadelphia, to issue Poe's “Tales of the Folio Club”; in 1835 he encouraged Thomas Willis White to employ the young author on the Southern Literary Messenger. Poe occasionally corresponded with Kennedy during his subsequent residences in Richmond, Philadelphia, and New York.

CAROLINE MATILDA KIRKLAND (1801-1864) was best known for her stories of Western frontier life. During 1845 she entertained Poe at one or more social gatherings in her New York home. In July 1847 she became the first editor of the Union Magazine; she printed Poe's sonnet to Sarah Anna Lewis (“An Enigma”), but rejected a more significant poem, “Ulalume.” Poe favorably noticed both Mrs. Kirkland and her husband WILLIAM KIRKLAND (18001846) in his “Literati” sketches.


MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE (1757-1834), French nobleman and soldier, was the most illustrious foreigner to fight for the American cause during the Revolutionary War. In 1824 Lafayette made a triumphal tour of the United States; when he visited Baltimore in early October, he inquired after Poe's grandfather David Poe, Sr.

ELIZA LAMBERT (1793?-1891) of Richmond was a friend of Edgar and Rosalie Poe. GENERAL WILLIAM LAMBERT, her brother, served as the city's mayor from 1840 until his death in 1853; his wife Marian Pickett Lambert was, like Rosalie, a beneficiary of Joseph Gallego's estate.

THOMAS HENRY LANE (1815-1900) began his career as a portrait painter in Philadelphia during the early 1840's; he [page xxxi:] later became a magazine publisher in New York City, issuing the Aristidean (1845) for his friend Thomas Dunn English. By late November 1845 Lane reached an understanding with Poe to publish the financially floundering Broadway Journal; they signed a contract on 3 December. According to English, Lane quickly discovered the extent of his partner's drinking problem and consequently made the decision to cease publication with the 3 January 1846 number.

JOHN HAZELHURST BONEVAL LATROBE (1803-1891), Baltimore lawyer and inventor, was one of the three judges who selected Poe's “MS. Found in a Bottle” as the prize story of the Saturday Visiter in October 1833.

ISAAC LEA (1792-1886), Philadelphia publisher and naturalist, was a partner in Carey & Lea, later Lea & Blanchard. In his maturity he devoted an increasing amount of time to his scientific studies and writings, which brought him his greatest renown; Poe acknowledged Lea's “private assistance” in the preface to The Conchologist's First Book (1839).

ZACCHEUS COLLINS LEE (1805-1859), a classmate of Poe at the University of Virginia, studied law under William Wirt and became an attorney in Baltimore. He attended Poe's funeral.

SARAH ANNA LEWIS (1824-1880), an ambitious but mediocre poetess, resided at 125 Dean Street, Brooklyn, with her husband, the attorney SYLVANUS D. LEWIS (died 1882). The couple probably made Poe's acquaintance sometime in 1846; around January 1847 they became frequent visitors to his cottage at Fordham. Although Poe lauded Mrs. Lewis’ verses in several reviews published in 1848 and 1849, his remarks may be attributed to his gratitude for the favors and financial assistance he had received from her and her husband, rather than to any deep belief in her genius. After Poe's death his mother-in-law Mrs. Clemm occasionally stayed at the Lewis home; the couple were divorced in 1858. Mrs. Lewis spent her last years in London, where she attempted to convince the biographer John Henry Ingram of her importance in Poe's life.

GEORGE LIPPARD (1822-1854), Philadelphia novelist, editor, and social reformer, was Poe's constant admirer. They probably became acquainted in early 1842, when Lippard was an apprentice journalist on John S. Du Solle's paper, the Spirit of the Times. In 1843 and 1844 Lippard edited the Citizen Soldier; to this weekly he contributed “The Spermaceti Papers;” satires aimed at the publisher George R. Graham and his associates. When Poe stopped in Philadelphia in July 1849, Lippard collected the money which enabled him to continue his trip to Richmond. He wrote a compassionate obituary of Poe for the Quaker City, 20 October 1849.

JANE ERMINA LOCKE (1805-1859), poetess, was born Ermina Starkweather in Worthington, Massachusetts, on 25 April 1805. In 1829 she married John G. Locke, a Boston attorney; the couple settled in Lowell, Massachusetts. In late December 1846 Mrs. Locke composed “An Invocation for Suffering Genius,” a poem inspired by newspaper reports of Poe's illness and poverty; on 21 February 1847 she initiated a correspondence by sending him an expression of admiration and sympathy. Poe, who hoped to remarry after his wife's death, wishfully assumed that Mrs. Locke was a young widow. When she visited him at Fordham in June 1848, he finally learned that his correspondent was a middle-aged housewife with five children. Mrs. Locke arranged for Poe to lecture in Lowell on 10 July; while there he stayed at her residence, “Wamesit Cottage.” When he returned to Lowell in late October, he permanently alienated her by the attentions he paid to her young neighbor, Annie Richmond.

JOSEPH LORENZO LOCKE (1808-1864), soldier, engineer, and journalist, was a major in the Confederate Army when he [page xxxii:] died on 5 October 1864. From 1829 to 1831 Locke, then a lieutenant, had been an assistant instructor of infantry tactics at West Point; Poe lampooned him in “Lines on Joe Locke.”

RICHARD ADAMS LOCKE (1800-1871), British-born journalist in New York City, wrote a famous “Moon-Hoax” serialized in the Sun in August 1835: it announced the telescopic discovery of men and animals living on the moon. Poe discussed Locke and his hoax in “The Literati” (Godey's for October 1846).

JOHN LOFLAND, M.D. (1798-1849), eccentric poetaster, was born in Milford, Delaware, which he commemorated with his pseudonym “The Milford Bard.” In the early 1830's Lofland lived in Baltimore, where he reputedly made Poe's acquaintance.

HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW (1807-1882) was the most popular American poet of the 1840's; Poe frequently commented on his writings, criticizing him for didacticism, a lack of constructive ability, and an imitativeness bordering on plagiarism. While Poe's censures were often unwarranted, his severity paradoxically grew out of a tendency to overrate Longfellow — to regard him as a creative genius who neglected to achieve his potential. Margaret Fuller may have been closer to the truth when she characterized Longfellow as a learned but derivative writer of intermediate powers, naturally indebted to previous literature (New York Daily Tribune, 10 December 1845).

WILLIAM WILBERFORCE LORD (1819-1907), clergyman and poet, published a volume of verse which Poe savagely reviewed in the Broadway Journal for 24 May 1845.

JOHN LOUD, Philadelphia piano manufacturer, called on Poe in Richmond in August 1849, offering him $100 to edit a volume of poems by his wife MARGUERITE ST. LEON LOUD (ca. 1800-1889). Poe had previously praised Mrs. Loud in his “Autography” (Graham's for December 1841).

JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL (1819-1891), Massachusetts poet, editor, and critic, engaged Poe as a regular contributor to his short-lived Boston monthly, the Pioneer (January-March 1843). They conducted a cordial correspondence from 16 November 1842 until 12 December 1844. Although Lowell wrote a laudatory sketch of Poe for the February 1845 Graham's, their friendship ended soon after its publication. Poe's critical onslaughts on Longfellow, appearing in the Broadway Journal from 8 March until 5 April, struck Lowell as excessive and unfair. In late May he called on Poe in New York; their first and only meeting proved mutually disappointing, Poe having a hangover. In A Fable for Critics (1848) Lowell again evaluated Poe: “Three-fifths of him genius and two-fifths sheer fudge.” Poe condemned the book in the March 1849 Southern Literary Messenger.

ANNE CHARLOTTE LYNCH (1815-1891), schoolteacher and poetess, entertained the New York literati at her celebrated soirees, held on Saturdays at her residence, 116 Waverley Place. A strict adherent to social propriety, she removed Poe's name from her guest list early in 1846, after the controversy over his handling of Elizabeth F. Ellet's letters. Miss Lynch frequently corresponded with Sarah Helen Whitman, to whom she provided unfavorable reports on Poe's character. In 1855 she married Vincenzo Botta (1818-1894), Professor of Italian in the New York University.


JOHN COLLINS McCABE (1810-1875), Richmond clergyman, collected his early verse and fiction in a volume entitled Scraps (1835); he frequently contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger. Although Poe diplomatically declined “The Consumptive Girl” in a 3 March 1836 letter, he admitted two other McCabe poems during his editorship (Messenger for July and September 1836). [page xxxiii:]

MARIA JANE McINTOSH (1803-1878), Georgia-born authoress, settled in New York City in 1835; she wrote stories for children under the pseudonym “Aunt Kitty.” In late May 1848 she made Poe's acquaintance at a social gathering in Fordham; in June she visited Providence, Rhode Island, where she casually informed Mrs. Whitman of Poe's interest in her. On 15 September Miss McIntosh gave him a letter of introduction to the Providence poetess, thus facilitating their first meeting.

JOHN NELSON McJILTON (1805-1875), Baltimore author and clergyman, contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger during Poe's editorship.

MORTON McMICHAEL (1807-1879), Philadelphia journalist and politician, favorably reviewed Poe's Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque in the January 1840 Godey's.

WILLIAM MACKENZIE (1775-1829), Secretary of the Marine Insurance Company of Richmond, and his wife JANE SCOTT MACKENZIE (1783-1865) adopted Poe's sister Rosalie. The couple had ten children of their own, four of whom died in early childhood: John (born and died 1803), John Hamilton (born 1806), Mary Gallego (1811-1844), William Leslie (1813-1834), Jane Hancock (1815-1821), Joseph Gallego (1816-1821), Elizabeth Gray (1818-1821), Thomas Gilliat (1821-1867), Richard Neil or Neal (1823-1896), and Martha H. Gilliat (1826-1890). Poe and Rosalie were especially close to JOHN HAMILTON MACKENZIE, who married Louisa Lanier of Petersburg, Virginia, on 9 October 1827. John became Rosalie's chief guardian after the death of William Mackenzie; in later life he related his memories of Poe to Mrs. Susan Archer Weiss (formerly Miss Talley), who incorporated them in her Home Life of Poe (1907). MISS JANE MACKENZIE, William's unmarried sister, operated a Richmond girls’ school which Rosalie attended, as did Elizabeth and Jane Ellis, the daughters of Charles Ellis. Michael B. Poitiaux taught music at this fashionable and expensive boarding institution. When Poe visited Richmond in 1848 and 1849, he frequently called at “Duncan Lodge;” the large house on the city's outskirts that Jane Scott Mackenzie built for her family in 1843.

CORNELIUS MATHEWS (1817-1889), New York City author, was best known as an advocate: he vigorously pleaded for an international copyright and unceasingly expounded the concept of an indigenous American literature freed from subservience to European models. His contemporaries often regarded him with amusement, because his own literary performances fell far short of his pronouncements. Mathews’ close friend Evert A. Duyckinck, with whom he edited the monthly Arcturus (1840-1842), seems to have been alone in accepting him as a genius. In the February 1842 Graham's Poe scoffed at Mathews’ pretentious epic Wakondah; during his subsequent residence in New York he found it expedient to praise Mathews, being indebted both to him and to Duyckinck.

JAMES HENRY MILLER (1788-1853), physician, founded the Washington Medical College in Baltimore. In October 1833 Dr. Miller served as one of the three judges who selected “MS. Found in a Bottle” as the prize story of the Saturday Visiter; he subsequently corresponded with Poe.

BENJAMIN BLAKE MINOR (1818-1905) edited and published the Southern Literary Messenger from August 1843 until October 1847. In 1845 Poe sent him a revised copy of “The Raven” (March number) as well as two short reviews (May number). Minor's history of the magazine appeared in 1905.

LUCIAN MINOR (1802-1858), lawyer, teacher, and temperance advocate, was the commonwealth attorney for Louisa County, Virginia. In February and March 1835 his friend Thomas Willis White urged him to become editor of the Southern Literary Messenger; Minor declined, but he remained one of White's faithful contributors and supporters. [page xxxiv:]

JOHN KEARSLEY MITCHELL (1793-1858), Virginia-born doctor of medicine, was both friend and physician to the Poe family when they lived in Philadelphia. SILAS WEIR MITCHELL (1829-1914), the novelist, recalled seeing Poe in his father's office.

GEORGE POPE MORRIS (1802-1864), editor and poet, conducted the New-York Mirror, an influential literary weekly which ran from 1823 until 1842. On 8 April 1843 he revived the magazine as the New Mirror, with his friend Nathaniel P. Willis as co-editor. On 7 October 1844 the Mirror became a daily paper (Evening Mirror) with a weekly edition, thus obtaining the lower postage rates charged for newspapers. Poe was employed as a staff writer from October 1844 until February 1845. Morris and Willis withdrew from the Mirror on 27 December 1845, leaving it in the hands of Hiram Fuller. On 14 February 1846 Morris began a new weekly, the National Press: A Journal for Home; Willis joined him as co-editor on 21 November, the paper's name being changed to Home Journal at this time. Morris bore the title “General” by virtue of his association with the New York state militia; he was one of Poe's constant friends and admirers.

ROBERT MORRIS (ca. 1809-1874), Philadelphia journalist, poet, and banker, edited the Pennsylvania Inquirer, a daily newspaper. Poe praised Morris in “Autography” (Graham's for December 1841) and in his lecture on “American Poetry” (21 November 1843 and subsequent dates).

VALENTINE MOTT (1785-1865), Professor of Surgery at the New York University, examined Poe around March 1847. He reputedly confirmed the diagnosis of “brain lesion” made by Marie Louise Shew.

ANNA CORA MOWATT (1819-1870), actress and author, wrote the popular comedy Fashion, which opened at New York's Park Theatre on 26 March 1845. Poe reviewed the play at length in the Broadway Journal for 29 March and 5 April.

WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG (1796-1877), Episcopal clergyman, was rector of New York's Church of the Holy Communion, Sixth Avenue and Twentieth Street. Poe attended a midnight service there on Christmas Eve 1847.

JAMES EDWARD MURDOCH (1811-1893), actor and elocutionist, recited “The Raven” from Poe's manuscript in the Broadway Journal office, early in February 1845.


JOHN NEAL (1793-1876), lawyer, novelist, and editor, spent most of his long career in his native city, Portland, Maine. Neal was the first American critic to recognize Poe's merits; in the September and December 1829 numbers of the Yankee, he printed excerpts from “Fairyland;” “Al Aaraaf,” and “Tamerlane,” predicting a brilliant future for the young poet.

JOSEPH CLAY NEAL (1807-1847), Philadelphia journalist, won popularity with his humorous Charcoal Sketches (1838). He edited first the Pennsylvanian, a daily newspaper, and later the Saturday Gazette, a weekly.

MORDECAI MANUEL NOAH (1785-1851), a prominent figure in New York's Jewish community, edited several newspapers, among them the Evening Star and the Sunday Times and Messenger. Noah knew Poe well, as demonstrated by his testimony in Poe's libel suit against Hiram Fuller's Evening Mirror (17 February 1847); however, there is no evidence that Poe joined Noah “as subeditor’ on the Sunday Times in 1844, a statement made by Thomas Ollive Mabbott in his 1969 edition of the Poems (p. 554). Mabbott's conclusion resulted from his mistaken attribution to Noah of an unsigned reminiscence in the January 1868 Northern Monthly Magazine (pp. 234-42); the author was actually Thomas C. Clarke; and the unnamed paper in question, his Saturday Museum.


LAUGHTON OSBORN (ca. 1809-1878), an eccentric New Yorker from a wealthy family, wrote many books, usually publishing [page xxxv:] them anonymously and at his own expense. Poe condemned Osborn's novel Confessions of a Poet (1835) in the April 1835 Southern Literary Messenger. They knew each other socially during Poe's later residence in New York; but Osborn was alienated when he discovered Poe's unflattering opinion of his satiric poem The Vision of Rubeta (1838), expressed in an unsigned article in the 15 March 1845 Broadway Journal.

FRANCES SARGENT OSGOOD (1811-1850), Massachusetts poetess, was the wife of the painter SAMUEL STILLMAN OSGOOD (1808-1885), whom she married on 7 October 1835. They had three children, all girls, who were born in 1836, 1839, and 1846 respectively. During the early 1840's the family settled in New York City. Poe praised Mrs. Osgood's poetry in his 28 February 1845 lecture; he was introduced to her several days later. Although Poe and Mrs. Osgood addressed love poems to each other in the Broadway Journal and other periodicals, there is no evidence that their relationship was other than platonic. The kind of openness which characterized this romance has never been typical of adulterous liaisons, least of all in Victorian America. Amusing, charitable, and unpretentious, Mrs. Osgood was the only bluestocking whom Poe found totally congenial; she became a frequent visitor to his home and a close friend of his wife Virginia. She never saw him after the early 1846 scandal involving Elizabeth F. Ellet's letters, but she remained his steadfast admirer and defender. Shortly before her death from tuberculosis on 12 May 1850, Mrs. Osgood wrote a sympathetic reminiscence of Poe; Rufus W. Griswold inserted it in his “Memoir” (1850).

JOHN LOUIS O’SULLIVAN (1813-1895), journalist and diplomat, edited the Democratic Review, a political monthly begun in Washington in 1837 and transferred to New York City in 1841. O'sullivan did much to encourage American literature, publishing contributions by Hawthorne, Poe, Walt Whitman, and other serious writers.

JAMES FREDERICK OTIS (1808-1867), Massachusetts-born journalist, was employed on the Washington Daily National Intelligencer in the mid-1830's; he frequently contributed to the early volumes of the Southern Literary Messenger. On 11 June 1836 Otis sent Poe a letter with a dozen autographs fastened to the margins: six of these were reproduced in the second installment of “Autography” (August Messenger), and still another as well as Otis’ own closing signature were used in the December 1841 installment in Graham's.


WILLIAM JEWETT PABODIE (ca. 1815-1870), a native of Providence, Rhode Island, was admitted to the bar in 1837; having independent means, he soon abandoned the practice of law for the life of a gentleman litterateur. Several of his verses were anthologized in Rufus W. Griswold's The Poets and Poetry of America (1842). A friend and neighbor of Sarah Helen Whitman, Pabodie first met Poe at her home in the autumn of 1848. While he strenuously opposed Mrs. Whitman's ensuing engagement, he admired Poe as an author and treated him with great courtesy.

EDWARD HORTON NORTON PATTERSON (born 1828) was the junior editor of the Oquawka Spectator, a weekly newspaper in Oquawka, Illinois, owned and edited by his father John B. Patterson. On his twenty-first birthday, 27 January 1849, the younger Patterson was given control of the Spectator's printing shop; he apparently came into a substantial inheritance at the same time. A few weeks before, on 18 December 1848, he had written Poe, offering to publish a national magazine with Poe as sole editor. After some hesitation Poe accepted this proposal, only stipulating that the publication be a “five-dollar magazine” — that is, a literary monthly designed for a sophisticated audience. In June 1849 Patterson sent him $50 to pay his travel expenses to Saint Louis. Their planned meeting there was delayed by Poe's drinking bout in Philadelphia and by his courtship of Elmira Shelton in Richmond, and then prevented altogether by his 7 October [page xxxvi:] death in Baltimore. In 1859 Patterson emigrated to Colorado, where he became a prominent journalist.

SAMUEL DEWEES PATTERSON (died 1860), Philadelphia publisher and politician, became the principal proprietor of the Saturday Evening Post, George R. Graham's weekly, in March 1843. In July 1848 Patterson also acquired the controlling interest in Graham's Magazine; he published it until March 1850, when Graham temporarily resumed the proprietorship of the monthly he had founded.

JAMES KIRKE PAULDING (1778-1860), New York author, collaborated with his friend Washington Irving in writing and publishing the humorous periodical Salmagundi (1807-1808). Following a visit to Virginia in 1816, Paulding depicted the people and customs he had encountered in his gossipy Letters from the South (2 vols., 1817). In the summer of 1834 Paulding wrote Thomas Willis White to announce his support for the Southern Literary Messenger; he soon took an active interest in Poe's career. More sympathetic to the South than most Northern writers, Paulding defended its “peculiar institution” in his Slavery in the United States (1836); the favorable notice of this book in the April 1836 Messenger has often been ascribed to Poe, but the reviewer was Beverley Tucker. From July 1838 until March 1841 Paulding served as Secretary of the Navy, under President Van Buren.

JAMES PEDDER (1775-1859), English-born authority on agriculture and writer of children's books, emigrated to Philadelphia in 1832. Pedder seems to have aided Poe during his poverty-stricken early years in this city (ca. 1838-1839), but little is known of their relationship. Poe presented an inscribed copy of his Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque to Pedder's daughters, ANNA and BESSIE PEDDER.

CHARLES JACOBS PETERSON (1819-1887), Philadelphia publisher, was George R. Graham's junior partner on the Casket, the Saturday Evening Post, and Graham's Magazine. In December 1841 Peterson issued the first number of his own Lady's World of Fashion (dated January 1842); he subsequently withdrew from Graham's enterprises to devote himself to this flourishing monthly, which came to be known simply as Peterson's Magazine (1842-1898).

EDWARD COOTE PINKNEY (1802-1828), Baltimore poet, probably knew Poe's brother Henry. Poe greatly admired Pinkney's lyric “A Health;” an apostrophe to a woman beginning “I fill this cup to one made up / Of loveliness alone.”

DAVID POE, SR. (1742?-1816), Edgar's grandfather, was born in Ireland, the first child issuing from the September 1741 marriage of John Poe and Jane McBride. The family emigrated to Pennsylvania around 1748; they later moved to Cecil County, Maryland, and then settled in Baltimore, where John Poe died in 1756, and his wife in 1802. In the 1770's David Poe, Sr., operated a shop in Market Street, Baltimore, manufacturing spinning wheels and clock wheels. He married ELIZABETH CAIRNES (1756-1835), who had been born of Irish ancestry in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. They had seven children: John Hancock (born 1776), William (born 1780), George Washington (born 1782), David, Jr. (1784-1811?), Samuel (born 1787), Maria (1790-1871), and Elizabeth (1792-1822). During the Revolutionary War David Poe, Sr., devoted himself to the cause of American independence. On 17 September 1779 he was commissioned Assistant Deputy Quartermaster General for Baltimore, with the rank of major; in 1780 he used his own funds to purchase supplies for the patriot forces. His services won him the friendship of Lafayette; in later years his fellow citizens referred to him as “General.” After his death on 17 October 1816, his widow Elizabeth subsisted on an annuity of $240 granted her by the Maryland state government; for the last eight years of her life she was a bedridden paralytic, residing with her daughter Maria (Mrs. Clemm).

DAVID POE, JR., Edgar's father, was born [page xxxvii:] in Baltimore on 18 July 1784. Against the wishes of his family he abandoned the study of law to pursue a short-lived career as an actor, then an economically precarious and socially disreputable profession. He made his stage debut in Charleston, South Carolina, on 1 December 1803, at age nineteen. Early in April 1806 he married the English-born actress MRS. ELIZABETH ARNOLD HOPKINS (1787?-1811) in Richmond. Elizabeth Arnold had been brought to the United States by her mother, also an actress; they arrived in Boston on 3 January 1796. Elizabeth made her debut on the American stage later that year, at age nine. In the summer of 1802 she married the actor Charles Hopkins, who died on 26 October 1805. When she married David Poe, Jr., in the following spring, they were both members of Green's Virginia Company, then playing at the Richmond Theatre. In succeeding years the couple frequently appeared on the stage in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. Of their three children, Henry and Edgar were born in Boston, on 30 January 1807 and 19 January 1809 respectively; Rosalie seems to have been born in Norfolk, Virginia, on 20 December 1810. Newspaper reports and reminiscences of contemporary observers establish that Mrs. Poe was a talented and popular actress; these same documents depict her husband as a hot-tempered, mediocre performer, occasionally hinting that he was given to excessive drinking. David Poe, Jr., made his last known stage appearance on 18 October 1809, in New York; sometime before 26 July 1811 he left his wife and children. Elizabeth Arnold Poe died in Richmond on 8 December 1811, after a lingering illness. According to tradition, her husband died several days later; the date and place of his death have never been documented.

GEORGE POE, SR. (1744-1823), born in Ireland, was the brother of Edgar's grandfather David Poe, Sr. Around 1774 he married Catherine Dawson (1742-1806) of Cecil County, Maryland; the couple settled in Baltimore, where all their children seem to have been born: Jacob (1775-1860), George, Jr. (1778-1864), Harriet (1785-1815), and Stephen (died in infancy). Harriet became the first wife of William Clemm, Jr., who later married Maria Poe (Edgar's aunt). Jacob became a farmer, first in Baltimore County and after 1817 at Elmwood, Frederick County, Maryland. On 4 January 1803 he married Bridget Kennedy (1775-1844), an Irish emigrant; they had five children who lived to adulthood: George (1807-1879), the twins Amelia (1809-1888) and Neilson (1809-1884), James Mosher (1812-1885), and Harriet Clemm (1817-1878).

GEORGE POE, JR., was born in Baltimore on 14 November 1778. After an early career as a ship's officer, he became a well-to-do banker, first in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and then in Mobile, Alabama; he finally settled in Georgetown in the District of Columbia, where he died on 21 July 1864. His prosperity did not go unnoticed by his impecunious relatives. A few days before 6 March 1809 he rejected a tactless request for money from his first cousin David Poe, Jr., Edgar's father. On 12 February 1836 he sent Edgar $100, intended to assist Mrs. Clemm in opening a Richmond boardinghouse; but he apparently declined the subsequent solicitations he received from this source. George Poe, Jr., married Anna Maria Potts, a member of a prominent Pennsylvania family, in December 1808. One of their six children, GEORGE W. POE, corresponded with Edgar in 1839.

HENRY POE (1807-1831), christened “William Henry Leonard;” was Edgar's brother. As an infant Henry was left in the care of his Baltimore grandparents, David Poe, Sr., and Elizabeth Cairnes Poe; they continued to raise him after his mother's death. In the early 1820's Henry corresponded with Edgar, then in John Allan's custody; and he apparently paid at least one visit to Richmond. When he again went to this city in the summer of 1825, he accompanied his brother to the home of Elmira Royster (later Mrs. Shelton). In the next year or two Henry made one or more sea [page xxxviii:] voyages; in February 1827 he visited Montevideo, South America, aboard the American frigate Macedonian. Shortly afterwards he returned to Baltimore; here he contributed sentimental verses and an account of Montevideo to the North American, an obscure weekly which ran from 19 May to 24 November 1827. The 15 September and 20 October issues contained brief excerpts from Tamerlane and Other Poems signed with Henry's initials (“W. H. P.”); no doubt his brother Edgar had sent him a copy. In the late 1820's Henry and his grandmother took up residence with his aunt Maria Clemm. Edgar arrived in Baltimore early in May 1829; on 10 August he wrote John Allan that Henry was “entirely given up to drink & unable to help himself.” Henry died on 1 August 1831, possibly from tuberculosis. A slender young man with dark eyes, he seems to have shared Edgar's inclinations toward dreamy romanticism and debilitating melancholy, while lacking this sibling's enthusiastic vigor and compelling genius.

NEILSON POE (1809-1884) was Edgar's second cousin, being the grandson of George Poe, Sr., and the son of Jacob Poe. Neilson joined the staff of William Gwynn's Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser at age eighteen, beginning a three-year apprenticeship as a journalist. He almost certainly made Edgar's acquaintance shortly after this Richmond cousin arrived in Baltimore in 1829; their subsequent relations seem to have been characterized by civility and suspicion. In 1830 Neilson became owner and editor of the Frederick Examiner, a semiweekly newspaper in Frederick, Maryland; on 6 May 1831 Edgar wrote William Gwynn to apply for the Gazette post his cousin had vacated. In 1834 Neilson acquired the Baltimore Chronicle, an influential Whig daily; in the following year he offered to assume the guardianship of Mrs. Clemm's young daughter Virginia, a proposal which Edgar strenuously opposed. In the summer of 1838, after Edgar had taken up residence in Philadelphia, he solicited financial assistance from Neilson, who did not oblige him. Neilson's own difficulties had placed him deeply in debt, eventually forcing him to sell the Chronicle on 2 December 1839. In 1840 he commenced the practice of law; he remained in the legal profession for the rest of his life. On 7 October 1849 Neilson made arrangements for Edgar's funeral; however indifferent he may have formerly been to his cousin's literary achievements, he had no qualms about sharing his posthumous fame. On 17 November 1875 he eulogized Edgar during the elaborate ceremonies dedicating his Baltimore monument. In 1878 Neilson was appointed Chief Judge of the Orphans’ Court of Baltimore, a position he held until two months before his 3 January 1884 death. On 30 November 1831 Neilson had married his first cousin JOSEPHINE EMILY CLEMM (1808-1889), the daughter of William Clemm, Jr., by his first wife Harriet Poe, and thus the half sister of Edgar's wife Virginia. Seven children from this union were living at the time of Neilson's death, two daughters and five sons. One daughter MISS AMELIA FITZGERALD POE (1833?-1913) frequently corresponded with Edgar's biographers John Henry Ingram and George E. Woodberry.

ROSALIE POE (1810-1874), Edgar's sister, was adopted by William Mackenzie and his wife after the 8 December 1811 death of Elizabeth Arnold Poe. At her baptism on 3 September 1812, Rosalie was given the middle name “Mackenzie”; she remained with this prominent Richmond family for over half a century. In his will Joseph Gallego, the wealthy flour miller who died in 1818, left William Mackenzie $2,000 earmarked “for the benefit of Rosalie Poe”; no doubt Gallego felt especial compassion for this orphaned child of players, since his own wife had perished in the 26 December 1811 fire which destroyed the Richmond Theatre. Rosalie resembled her brother Edgar in physiognomy, having a broad pale forehead; and she shared his extreme susceptibility to alcohol, being adversely affected by even a glass of wine. Unlike her brother she was a simple, unsophisticated person of barely average intelligence. In childhood she attended the girls’ school operated by [page xxxix:] Miss Jane Mackenzie, William's sister; as an adult she taught penmanship at the school. Rosalie occasionally corresponded with Edgar when he resided in Philadelphia and New York, but neither her letters nor his have survived. Shortly before 1 April 1841 she visited him in Philadelphia, being chaperoned on the journey by her foster brother John Mackenzie. Her reputed visits to New York and Fordham, mentioned in some sources, have never been documented; but she was often in Edgar's company when he came to Richmond in 1848 and 1849. The Mackenzie family's wealth vanished with the collapse of the Confederacy in 1865; Rosalie subsequently supported herself by selling photographic likenesses of her brother in the streets of Richmond and Baltimore. In 1870 she gained admission to the Epiphany Church Home in Washington, an Episcopalian refuge for the indigent; she died in this institution on 22 July 1874.

WILLIAM POE (1755-1804) was the youngest brother of Edgar's grandfather David Poe, Sr. He almost certainly passed his childhood and youth in Baltimore; around 1789 or 1790 he emigrated to Georgia. He married Frances Winslow (died 1802), who bore him several sons. WASHINGTON (1800-1876) was the most prominent: a lawyer, he settled in Macon, Georgia, in 1825, later serving as the city's mayor. His brothers ROBERT FORSYTH (died 1854) and WILLIAM (born 1802) became bankers in Augusta, Georgia. The younger William corresponded occasionally with Edgar and Mrs. Clemm.

MICHAEL BENOÎT POITIAUX (1771-1854), a native of Brussels, came to Richmond in 1798 and prospered as a merchant until the panic of 1819. He then turned to teaching painting, music, and French in private classes as well as in the city's female academies. A talented violinist, Poitiaux performed in concerts held in the home of William Wirt. In 1804 he married Jane Charlton Russell; they had seven children. One daughter CATHERINE ELIZABETH POITIAUX was Frances Allan's godchild and Poe's childhood playmate. In August 1849 Poe called on the Poitiauxs, then living in the city's “French Garden” section; in August 1852 Catherine published “Lines on the Death of Edgar A. Poe,” prefacing her poem with a reminiscence of his visit to her family three years before.

ISRAEL POST (died 1849), New York City bookseller, founded the Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine in January 1844; he published it through 1846. In July 1847 Post began the Union Magazine, but he sold it to James L. DeGraw at the end of the year. His final venture was the American Metropolitan Magazine, which expired after only two numbers (January and February 1849).

JAMES PATTON PRESTON (1774-1843), soldier and public official, was a friend of Thomas Jefferson and a cousin of Senator William C. Preston of South Carolina; he served as Governor of Virginia (1816-1819) and Postmaster of Richmond (1824-1837). On 13 May 1829 Colonel Preston wrote Secretary of War John H. Eaton to recommend Poe for West Point, stating that he had seen evidence of “genius and talents” in the applicant's “own productions.” He may have been thinking of a portfolio of Poe's adolescent poems which his son JOHN T. L. PRESTON (died 1890) brought home for his mother's appraisal. The younger Preston sat next to Poe at Joseph H. Clarke's school around 1822; in later life he became Professor of Latin at the Virginia Military Institute.

GEORGE PALMER PUTNAM (1814-1872), publisher, was John Wiley's partner in the New York firm of Wiley and Putnam. Around September 1838 Putnam, who had just opened a branch office in London, made the decision to reprint Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym in England, the novel having been issued by Harper & Brothers in New York on 30 July. After returning to the United States Putnam established an independent firm which bore his name; in 1848 he published Poe's Eureka [page xl:] (ca. 11 July) and James Russell Lowell's A Fable for Critics (25 October).


MAYNE REID (1818-1883), Irish-born author of adventure novels, traveled widely throughout the United States; early in 1843 he settled temporarily in Philadelphia, where he made Poe's acquaintance. He published his recollections of Poe's Spring Garden home in the April 1869 issue of his Onward, a New York magazine for boys.

JEREMIAH N. REYNOLDS (1799-1858), American explorer, did much to create the public interest in Antarctic regions which Poe hoped to exploit with his concluding chapters of The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym. Reynolds’ Address on the Subject of a Surveying and Exploring Expedition to the Pacific Ocean and South Seas (1836) provided material for this novel, as did his Voyage of the U.S. Frigate Potomac (1835). Poe favorably reviewed the Address in the January 1837 Southern Literary Messenger, implying that he had met and conversed with its author.

ANNIE RICHMOND (1820-1898), born Nancy Locke Heywood, was the wife of CHARLES B. RICHMOND (died 1873), a successful paper manufacturer in Lowell, Massachusetts. Poe met Annie at the time of his 10 July 1848 lecture in Lowell; they experienced a strong mutual attraction which rapidly developed into an intense but platonic romance. At the end of the summer Annie visited the Poe cottage at Fordham, beginning an affectionate, lasting friendship with his mother-in-law Maria Clemm. Poe, in turn, became an object of admiration and wonder for Annie's younger siblings, Bardwell and Sarah Heywood. In late October he returned to Lowell; after stopping briefly at the home of Jane Ermina Locke, he took lodging in the Richmond residence on Ames Street. At this time he also visited the Heywood family farm in nearby Westford. In early 1849 Poe wrote several intimate letters to Annie, explaining the termination of his engagement to Sarah Helen Whitman, but more often describing his current literary work or outlining his plans for the future. To the Flag of Our Union, a Boston weekly, Poe contributed his poem “For Annie;” simultaneously arranging for its republication in the more prestigious New York Home Journal; it appeared in the 28 April issues of both papers. The Flag for 9 June featured his “Landor's Cottage,” a prose sketch containing a description of Annie. From late May to early June Poe paid his third and final visit to Lowell, again lodging with the Richmonds. On 10 October, three days after his death, Annie invited Mrs. Clemm to stay in her home, an offer the elderly woman promptly accepted. Mrs. Clemm later moved on to other temporary residences, but Annie continued to correspond. After her husband's death on 25 August 1873, she had her name legally changed to “Annie.” In 1876 she began to provide John Henry Ingram with copies of Poe's letters to her; the English biographer soon offended her by publishing them, without her consent and greatly against her wishes. The Richmonds had one child, a daughter “Caddy” (later called “Carrie”); their only grandchild died in 1888 at the age of sixteen. Annie herself died in Lowell on 9 February 1898.

GEORGE ROBERTS (1807-1860) published the Boston Daily Times and the weekly Boston Notion.


EPES SARGENT (1813-1880), Massachusetts-born author, was associated with several New York journals during the 1840's; Poe included him in his sketches of the city's “Literati.” In 1847 Sargent returned to Boston, where he succeeded Cornelia Wells Walter as editor of the Evening Transcript.

JOHN SARTAIN (1808-1897), Philadelphia engraver and publisher, furnished numerous steel plates for Burton's and Graham's during Poe's association with these monthlies. In January 1849 he began to publish the Union Magazine, now moved from New York to Philadelphia and rechristened Sartain's; he printed Poe's revised “Valentine” for Frances S. Osgood (March 1849), “The Bells” (November and December [page xli:] 1849), “Annabel Lee” (January 1850), and his lecture on “The Poetic Principle” (October 1850). When Poe stopped in Philadelphia early in July 1849, he called on Sartain in a state of delirium brought on by alcohol abuse. Sartain left several accounts of this episode, the most useful being found in his Reminiscences of a Very Old Man (1899).

ELMIRA SHELTON (1810-1888), born Sarah Elmira Royster, was the daughter of James H. Royster, a Richmond neighbor of Poe's foster father John Allan. Poe fell in love with Miss Royster in 1825, when he was sixteen. After he entered the University of Virginia on 14 February 1826, he frequently wrote her; but her father felt that the teenagers were too young for marriage and consequently intercepted his letters, thwarting the early romance. In late March 1827 Poe left Richmond for Boston; on 26 May he enlisted in the United States Army. On 6 December 1828, while he was stationed at Fort Moultrie outside Charleston, South Carolina, Elmira married ALEXANDER B. SHELTON (1807-1844), a Richmond businessman. The couple had four children: two (Sarah Elmira and Alexander Barret) died in infancy, but Southall Bohannan and Ann Elizabeth lived to have children of their own. Shelton died on 12 July 1844 at age thirty-seven; in his will he granted his widow control of his substantial estate and all the income from it, but stipulated that she must relinquish not only her executorship but also three-fourths of the income if she remarried. Poe and Mrs. Shelton had seen each other on one or more occasions shortly after his 16 May 1836 marriage to Virginia, when he was employed on the Southern Literary Messenger. He returned to Richmond in late July 1848, a widower with hopes of remarrying. Although he renewed his acquaintance with Elmira at this time, he left the city in early September to pursue an ill-fated romance with another widow, Sarah Helen Whitman. Poe arrived again in Richmond on 14 July 1849; within a few days he called on Elmira and proposed marriage. She hesitated for some weeks, no doubt pondering the needs of her two children and the loss of financial security which marriage with Poe would entail. By 22 September she had privately agreed to an engagement, for on this date she wrote a cordial letter introducing herself to Poe's mother-in-law Maria Clemm. Poe left for New York on 27 September, intending to resolve his affairs in the North and then return to Richmond with Mrs. Clemm. Elmira expressed her anguish over his unexpected death in an 11 October letter to Mrs. Clemm; she subsequently maintained a discreet silence regarding her relations with him for twenty-six years. On 19 November 1875 she granted a single interview to Edward V. Valentine, who recorded her spoken reminiscences (transcript now in Valentine Museum). Elmira died in Richmond on 11 February 1888 at age seventy-eight.

MARIE LOUISE SHEW (died 1877) was the daughter of Dr. Lowery Barney, a physician in Henderson, Jefferson County, New York, and the niece of Hiram Barney, a prominent attorney in New York City. A kindly, unsophisticated woman, Mrs. Shew occupied herself as an unpaid nurse and social worker to the poor and suffering. Around November 1846 Mary Gove informed her of the illness of Poe and his wife; she quickly devoted herself to alleviating their miseries, becoming a frequent visitor to their Fordham cottage. As an expression of gratitude Poe addressed several short poems to Mrs. Shew, one of which (“The Beloved Physician”) she apparently destroyed to prevent its publication. Around June 1848 she withdrew from intimacy with Poe, the theology student John Henry Hopkins, Jr., having persuaded her that the forthcoming Eureka advocated dangerous heresies and that a continued association with its author would be detrimental to her spiritual welfare. Mrs. Shew divorced her first husband, the water-cure physician Joel Shew (1816-1855); in November 1850 she married Roland Stebbins Houghton (1824-1876), a Vermont-born physician and author living in New York City.

LYDIA HUNTLEY SIGOURNEY (1791-1865) [page xlii:] of Hartford, Connecticut, constantly produced saccharine, sententious verses for the magazines and newspapers of antebellum America. In the Southern Literary Messenger for January 1836, Poe reviewed Mrs. Sigourney's Zinzendorff, and Other Poems, graciously hinting that her poetry was imitative and her reputation overblown; in “Autography” he found that she possessed “fine taste, without genius” (Graham's for November 1841). When evaluating female authors, he generally modulated his criticisms to comply with the credo that a gentleman never spoke ill of a lady.

WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS (1806-1870), South Carolina novelist, poet, and journalist, consistently admired Poe's power as an imaginative writer, while condemning the excesses of his literary criticism and his personal behavior. Simms edited several Charleston periodicals, among them the Magnolia, in which he noticed Poe's proposed Stylus (June 1843), and the Southern and Western Magazine, in which he reviewed the Wiley and Putnam edition of his Tales (December 1845). To the Southern Patriot, a Charleston newspaper, Simms contributed a defense of Poe's poetry reading before the Boston Lyceum (10 November 1845), a review of The Raven and Other Poems (2 March 1846), and a description of his physical appearance (20 July 1846). Simms made Poe's acquaintance during one of his frequent visits to New York City, probably in late August or early September 1845.

ELIZABETH OAKES SMITH (1806-1893), Maine-born poetess, figured prominently in the circle of bluestockings who surrounded Poe in New York City; she described him and other literati in her Autobiography (abridged version published in 1924). Her husband was the humorist SEBA SMITH (1792-1868), who wrote political satires under the pseudonym “Major Jack Downing.”

RICHARD PENN SMITH (1799-1854), Philadelphia attorney and playwright, hosted an 1839 dinner party at which William E. Burton introduced Poe to the city's intelligentsia. His son HORACE WEMYSS SMITH (1825-1891) recalled this event and other less credible occurrences for the journalist Hyman Polock Rosenbach (1858-1892), who then published the reminiscences in the American of 26 February 1887.

THOMAS S. SMITH (ca. 1798-1873), Philadelphia lawyer and politician, was appointed that city's Collector of Customs on 10 September 1842. Four times during October and November Poe called on Smith to solicit a position in the Custom House. Smith ignored him, filling all the vacancies with nonentities who were politically reliable. On 3 March 1843 CALVIN BLYTHE (ca. 1792-1849), jurist and soldier, succeeded Smith; the change prompted Poe to make a hasty trip to Washington, with the impractical idea of laying his case personally before President John Tyler.

JOSEPH EVANS SNODGRASS (1813-1880), Virginia-born physician and editor, was a medical student at the University of Maryland in Baltimore during the early 1830's; he almost certainly made Poe's acquaintance at this time. Although Snodgrass received his M.D. degree in 1836, he embarked instead on an editorial career. With Nathan C. Brooks he began the American Museum (1838-1839), a Baltimore monthly to which Poe contributed “Ligeia” and other brief works. On 8 November 1841 Snodgrass succeeded John Beauchamp Jones as editor of the Saturday Visiter; on 15 January 1842 he became sole proprietor of this Baltimore newspaper, which he issued until April 1847. Poe frequently wrote Snodgrass from Philadelphia, sometimes thanking him for his favorable notices in the Visiter, but more often trying to enlist his financial backing for a magazine scheme. On 3 October 1849, when Poe was discovered fatally intoxicated in a Baltimore tavern, he managed to request that Snodgrass be sent for. A staunch temperance advocate, Snodgrass later could not resist the temptation to use his friend's example to demonstrate the evils of drink; his reminiscences of Poe's final hours are nonetheless factual, although characterized by emotive [page xliii:] diction. Snodgrass’ first account, written for the New York Woman's Temperance Paper, was reprinted by that city's Life Illustrated, 17 May 1856. He expanded his text for Beadle's Monthly of March 1867.

EDWARD VERNON SPARHAWK (1798-1838), Maine-born journalist, fought with DUFF GREEN (1791-1875) in the chambers of the United States Senate on 25 January 1828. At the time of this notorious brawl, Sparhawk was a reporter for the Washington National Intelligencer; Green edited and published a rival daily, the United States Telegraph. Sparhawk later settled in Richmond; in 1835 he prepared four issues of the Southern Literary Messenger (April, May, June, July) for Thomas Willis White. His editorship followed that of James E. Heath and preceded that of Poe; several of his contributions were signed with the pseudonym “Pertinax Placid.”

JANE STITH CRAIG STANARD (1793-1824) was the daughter of Adam Craig (1760?-1808), who signed countless legal documents as the longtime clerk of the Richmond Hustings Court and the Henrico County Court. On 13 February 1812 she married ROBERT STANARD (1781-1846), a prominent Richmond attorney who was appointed a judge of the Virginia Supreme Court in 1839. Their son ROBERT CRAIG STANARD (1814-1857) also became a successful lawyer. In the spring of 1823 the boy was enrolled in William Burke's school, where he greatly admired Poe, a new student five years his senior. Young Stanard invited his schoolmate to the family's home on Ninth Street near Franklin, facing Capitol Square. Mrs. Stanard graciously welcomed her son's friend and gave him the words of sympathy and encouragement which were no doubt lacking in John Allan's household. Poe repeatedly sought her company and consolation; he was bereft when she died on 28 April 1824 at age thirty-one, after an illness said to have been accompanied by mental derangement. For months afterward he paid regular visits to her grave in the Shockoe Hill Cemetery. In 1848 he told Sarah Helen Whitman that the memory of Mrs. Stanard provided the inspiration for his 1831 poem “To Helen.”

MARY STARR (ca. 1816-1887), the daughter of a Philadelphia engraver, had a brief romance with Poe in Baltimore during the early 1830's. She was then living with her uncle James Devereaux, on Exeter Street near Fayette. Mary subsequently married a New York merchant tailor named Jenning; the couple resided in Jersey City, New Jersey, across the Hudson River from Manhattan. Mary saw Poe on several occasions in later years; on 2 February 1847 she attended the funeral of his wife Virginia. Her reminiscences of him are authentic but exaggerated; they were published by her nephew Augustus Van Cleef in Harper's for March 1889.

ANDREW STEVENSON (1774-1857), Richmond soldier and congressman, studied law in the office of Adam Craig. From 1827 until 1834 he was Speaker of the United States House of Representatives; on 6 May 1829 he wrote a brief letter recommending Poe for West Point. Stevenson later served as Minister to Great Britain (1836-1841); one of his subordinates in London was Theodore S. Fay, the author of Norman Leslie.

WILLIAM TELFAIR STOCKTON (1812-1869), Philadelphia-born soldier and author, was one of Poe's West Point tentmates in the summer of 1830; he later became an officer in the Confederate Army. Stockton wrote hunting stories and sketches under the pen name “Cor-de-Chasse”; these were collected in a volume entitled Dog and Gun.

RICHARD HENRY STODDARD (1825-1903), poet and critic, attempted unsuccessfully to contribute to the Broadway Journal in the summer of 1845. He published several accounts of his visits to Poe's office and residence, and of this editor's unceremonious rejection of one of his juvenile poems.

WILLIAM LEETE STONE (1792-1844) edited the New York Commercial Advertiser, [page xliv:] in which he vigorously denounced Poe's caustic reviews in the Southern Literary Messenger. By way of retaliation Poe dissected Stone's novel Ups and Downs in the Life of a Distressed Gentleman (Messenger for June 1836).

ROBERT MATTHEW SULLY (1803?-1855), Richmond portrait painter, was the son of the English-born actor Matthew Sully, who performed on the stage with Poe's mother. The younger Sully attended Joseph H. Clarke's school, where he possibly made Poe's acquaintance. According to tradition, Sully entertained Poe and his bride Virginia in 1836 and renewed his friendship with Poe in 1849. His uncle THOMAS SULLY (1783-1872), noted Philadelphia artist, painted a small portrait of Poe around 1839.


SUSAN ARCHER TALLEY (1822-1917), Richmond poetess, saw Poe on various occasions during his 1849 visit to that city. Under her married name (Mrs. Weiss), she contributed a perceptive memoir of him to Scribner's Monthly for March 1878. Her Home Life of Poe (1907) must be used with caution, being fraught with errors, fabrications, and unverifiable statements.

BAYARD TAYLOR (1825-1878), poet and author of travel books, temporarily edited New York's Union Magazine during the summer of 1848, while the regular editor (Caroline M. Kirkland) was in Europe.

SYLVANUS THAYER (1785-1872) reorganized the military and academic departments of West Point after he became its Superintendent in 1817, following closely the organization and curriculum of the French École Polytechnique. Poe seems to have admired Colonel Thayer; after leaving the Academy he wrote him to request a letter of introduction.

CALVIN FREDERICK STEPHEN THOMAS (1808-1876), printer, had his office at 70 Washington Street, Boston, when he issued Poe's Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827); he subsequently settled in Buffalo, New York. From 1846 to 1857 Thomas was part owner and publisher of Buffalo's Western Literary Messenger, which had reprinted Poe's “The Oblong Box” (7 September 1844) and “The Raven” (22 February 1845).

CREED THOMAS (1812-1889), Richmond physician, attended William Burke's school with Poe from 1823 until 1825; outside the classroom both boys participated in the Junior Volunteers and the Thespian Society. Dr. Thomas began to practice medicine in 1835.

EDWARD J. THOMAS, New York merchant, viewed Poe as his rival for the affections of Frances S. Osgood. Around June 1845 Thomas repeated to Mrs. Osgood an unfounded rumor that Poe had committed forgery; he tactfully retracted the accusation after Poe threatened to sue him.

FREDERICK WILLIAM THOMAS (1806-1866), novelist and poet, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, but spent his formative years in Charleston, South Carolina, and Baltimore. In 1828, while living in Baltimore, he became intimate with Poe's brother Henry. Around 1831 or 1832 Thomas settled in Cincinnati, where he wrote for the newspapers, practiced law, and dabbled in politics. He made Poe's acquaintance early in May 1840, while visiting Philadelphia; they became close friends and frequent correspondents. During the Presidential election of 1840 Thomas campaigned for William Henry Harrison; he went to Washington for the 4 March 1841 inauguration of Harrison, who died on 4 April and was succeeded two days later by his running mate, John Tyler of Virginia. In June 1841 Thomas obtained a clerkship in the Treasury Department; his example led Poe to dream of a political sinecure. Beginning in May 1842 Thomas sought to procure a position for Poe in the Philadelphia Custom House, relying on the influence of Robert Tyler, the President's son. Thomas visited Philadelphia in late September [page xlv:] and assured Poe of the younger Tyler's goodwill. Unfortunately the authority to make the desired appointment did not rest with the administration in Washington, but with the Collector of Customs in Philadelphia. In this case two successive Collectors (Thomas S. Smith and Calvin Blythe) made their own choices for subordinate officeholders, simply ignoring Robert Tyler's repeated recommendations. Poe's March 1843 trip to Washington did not affect the situation, either one way or the other; nor did his abrasive drinking bout there alter his cordial relationship with Thomas, who sympathized with his friend's struggle against alcoholism. The two men corresponded during Poe's subsequent residence in New York, but they did not meet again until Poe briefly visited Washington in July 1847. In later life Thomas lived in different parts of the country, finding employment as a professor of English literature, an Episcopalian minister, and a newspaper editor. He left manuscript “Recollections of Edgar A. Poe,” which were quoted by James H. Whitty in his 1911 edition of Poe's poems.

JOHN REUBEN THOMPSON (1823-1873), Richmond journalist and poet, became editor and proprietor of the Southern Literary Messenger in November 1847, the magazine having been purchased for him by his father, a prosperous merchant. He continued to edit it until May 1860, enhancing its reputation as the leading Southern periodical. Although Thompson saw Poe in 1848 and 1849, his statements regarding him are not always trustworthy, being marred by sensationalism.

CHARLES WEST THOMSON (1798-1879), Philadelphia poet, contributed to Burton's and Graham's during Poe's association with these monthlies. Poe favorably noticed him in “Autography” (Graham's for December 1841).

JOHN TOMLIN (1806-1850), minor author and devout Southron, operated a retail store in Jackson, Tennessee, between 1834 and 1841. On 24 February 1841 he was appointed postmaster of Jackson, an office he held until 23 December 1847. During his tenure Tomlin used his franking privilege to correspond with some forty literary celebrities, including Poe, Dickens, Tennyson, and Longfellow; he published many of the letters he received in his pseudonymous serial “The Autobiography of a Monomaniac” by “Joe Bottom,” which appeared in Holden's Dollar Magazine between November 1848 and November 1849. Tomlin first wrote Poe on 16 October 1839, forwarding a contribution for Burton's. He later enlisted subscribers for Poe's proposed Penn Magazine and the Stylus; in the autumn of 1845 he became an agent for the Broadway Journal.

JOHN KIRK TOWNSEND (1809-1851), Philadelphia ornithologist, held a post at the National Institute in Washington from 1842 until 1845. When Poe went to Washington in March 1843, he carried two letters for Townsend: these probably were related to Thomas C. Clarke's Saturday Museum, which was then serializing Townsend's revised Narrative of a Journey Across the Rocky Mountains (originally published in 1839)

NATHANIEL BEVERLEY TUCKER (1784-1851), jurist, novelist, and advocate of Southern secession, was the son of St. George Tucker (1752-1827) and the half brother of John Randolph of Roanoke (1773-1833). In 1834 Beverley Tucker, (as he was usually called) became Professor of Law at his alma mater, the College of William and Mary; that same year he commenced a correspondence with Thomas Willis White, to whom he frequently offered advice as well as contributions for the Southern Literary Messenger. His first novel The Partisan Leader (1836), published in Washington by Duff Green, predicted a civil war between North and South. Abel P. Upshur praised the book in the January 1837 Messenger, which also carried Poe's favorable review of Tucker's second novel George Balcombe (1836). A third and final novel, Gertrude, was serialized in the Messenger between September 1844 and December 1845. [page xlvi:]

HENRY THEODORE TUCKERMAN (1813-1871), Boston author, was condemned as “insufferably tedious and dull” in Poe's “Autography” (Graham's for December 1841). Tuckerman may have recalled this criticism in late 1842, when, as the new editor of the Boston Miscellany, he rejected Poe's story “The Tell-Tale Heart.” In 1845 Tuckerman settled in New York City; he was in Poe's company on 10 and 11 July, when they served together as judges of student compositions for the Rutgers Female Institute.

MARTIN FARQUHAR TUPPER (1810-1889), English author, was best known for his Proverbial Philosophy (1838), which he often revised and enlarged. He did much to extend Poe's reputation by favorably reviewing his Tales (1845) for the London Literary Gazette of 31 January 1846. Littell's Living Age, a Boston weekly, reprinted the review in its 23 May issue.

JOHN TYLER (1790-1862), Virginia statesman, succeeded to the Presidency on 6 April 1841, two days after the unexpected death of William Henry Harrison; he remained in office until March 1845. ROBERT TYLER (1816-1877), his eldest son and private secretary, was a minor poet who won some critical acclaim with a religious poem, Ahasuerus; in the summer of 1841 Robert became intimate with Poe's friend Frederick William Thomas.


ABEL PARKER UPSHUR (1790-1844), Virginia jurist, was a friend of Beverley Tucker and Thomas Willis White. In September 1841 Upshor became Secretary of the Navy; in May 1843 he succeeded Daniel Webster as Secretary of State.


ANN MOORE VALENTINE (1787?-1850) and her sister FRANCES KEELING VALENTINE (1785-1829) were the daughters of John Valentine of Princess Anne County, Virginia, by his marriage to Frances Thorowgood. Orphaned at an early age, the girls were raised in Richmond by the printer John Dixon, Jr., and his wife Sarah Valentine (their half sister). On 9 February 1803 the Virginia Gazette (Richmond) announced the 5 February wedding of John Allan “to the much admired Miss Fanny Valentine.” Ann Valentine never married, although she was at one time engaged to Jesse Higginbotham, an Ellis & Allan clerk. In 1803, or shortly thereafter, she became a permanent member of John Allan's household; in 1815 she accompanied the family to Great Britain. Long after the deaths of her sister and brother-in-law, she continued to reside in their imposing home “Moldavia,” which she shared with Allan's second wife Louisa G. Patterson. The children of Charles Ellis referred to Ann Valentine as “Aunt Nancy”; Poe often mentioned her in his letters to Allan, addressing her more formally as “Miss Nancy;’ “Miss Valentine,” or “Miss V.” She died on 25 January 1850, in her sixty-third year.

EDWARD VIRGINIUS VALENTINE (1838-1930), Richmond sculptor, recalled seeing Poe during his 1849 visit to the city. In the 1870's Valentine forwarded the reminiscences of Elmira Shelton and others to the biographer John Henry Ingram.


HORACE BINNEY WALLACE (1817-1852), well-to-do Philadelphian, contributed articles and stories to Burton's and Graham's under the pseudonym “William Landor.” Poe favorably noticed him in “Autography” (Graham's for November 1841).

WILLIAM ROSS WALLACE (1819-1881), Kentucky-born poet, settled in New York City in 1841. He probably made Poe's acquaintance in Philadelphia early in 1842. When Poe visited New York in late June, Wallace insisted that they drink mint juleps together, much to the former's detriment. Poe lauded Wallace in the Columbia Spy for 1 June 1844 and in the final installment of “Marginalia” (Southern Literary Messenger for September 1849).

ROBERT WALSH (1784-1859), Philadelphia scholar, was Professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania (1818-1828) [page xlvii:] and editor of the American Quarterly Review (1827-1837). In May 1829 he gave Poe advice on his unpublished poetry.

CORNELIA WELLS WALTER (1815-1898) became editress of the Boston Evening Transcript following the 24 July 1842 death of its first editor, her brother Lynde M. Walter. As a “lady editor” Miss Walter was a great rarity among contemporary journalists, but she could be as combative and vitriolic as any of her masculine compeers. She strenuously objected to Poe's criticisms of Longfellow and other Boston literati; after his 16 October 1845 appearance before the city's Lyceum, she mercilessly ridiculed him in almost every issue, eventually goading him into making an excessive reply in the 22 November Broadway Journal. Miss Walter edited the Transcript until 2 September 1847, relinquishing her position to marry William B. Richards on 22 September; the couple had five children.

THOMAS WARD (1807-1873), wealthy New Yorker, contributed a series of verse tales to the Knickerbocker Magazine under the pseudonym “Flaccus.” Poe's flippant treatment of him in “Our Amateur Poets, No. I” (Graham's for March 1843) evoked protests from James Kirke Paulding and Lewis Gaylord Clark.

HENRY COOD WATSON (1818-1875), music critic, emigrated to New York City from his native London in 1841. In 1845 he assisted Charles F. Briggs and Poe on the Broadway Journal, being announced as music editor in the 22 February issue. His name remained on the masthead through the 18 October issue.

JAMES WATSON WEBB (1802-1884) owned and edited the New York Morning Courier from 1827 until 1861. In December 1846 he collected funds for the relief of the Poe family.

AMELIA BALL WELBY (1819-1852), popular Kentucky poetess, published her verses under her first name alone; her contemporaries often referred to her simply as “Amelia.” Poe favorably noticed Mrs. Welby in “Marginalia” (Democratic Review for December 1844).

WILLIAM WERTENBAKER (1797-1882), student and librarian at the University of Virginia, visited Poe in his dormitory room one evening in December 1826, just before his departure for Richmond. Wertenbaker published his recollections of Poe in the November-December 1868 issue of the Virginia University Magazine; these were reprinted in the January 1887 issue. The October 1879 issue carried a brief interview in which Wertenbaker, then “in his eighty-third year;” reminisced about the University's early days.

EDWIN PERCY WHIPPLE (1819-1886), Massachusetts essayist and critic, scoffed at Poe's “Autography” in the Boston Daily Times, his attack being reprinted in the Boston Notion of 18 December 1841.

THOMAS WILLIS WHITE (1788-1843), Richmond printer, began to publish his Southern Literary Messenger in August 1834. The son of a tailor, White lacked both formal education and literary sophistication; as a consequence he relied heavily on editorial guidance from such Richmond authors as James E. Heath and Edward V. Sparhawk and on advice from such learned correspondents as Lucian Minor and Beverley Tucker. In August 1835 White employed Poe as his assistant. The younger man soon became the de facto editor of the Messenger and rapidly transformed it from a regional organ to a nationally respected journal. Like many of Poe's later associates, White admired his talents only to be appalled by his instability, his caustic book reviews, and his excessive drinking. One of Poe's repeated lapses from sobriety brought about his dismissal on 3 January 1837. White resumed control of his magazine; early in 1840 he engaged the Virginia naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) as assistant editor. Plagued with overwork, ill health, and financial problems, White eventually suffered [page xlviii:] a paralytic stroke in September 1842; he died in Richmond on 19 January 1843. From October 1842 until July 1843 Maury edited the Messenger with help from White's son-in-law PETER DUDLEY BERNARD (1805?-1889), the Richmond printer who had established the long-running Southern Planter in 1841. In August 1843 Benjamin Blake Minor became owner and editor of the Messenger; John R. Thompson succeeded him in November 1847. White married MARGARET ANN FERGUSON (1794?-1837) in Gates County, North Carolina, on 12 December 1809; she later opened a millinery shop in Richmond. Her death on 11 December 1837 left him deeply bereaved, as had the death of his only son THOMAS H. WHITE at age nineteen on 7 October 1832. One daughter SARAH ANN WHITE married Bernard in 1833. Another daughter ELIZA WHITE (1812-1888), called “Lizzie,” contributed poetry to the Messenger and became a close friend of Poe. According to tradition, Poe and Eliza conducted a harmless flirtation shortly after he joined the Messenger's staff. She attended his wedding, and sometime in the late 1840's she seems to have visited his cottage at Fordham.

SARAH HELEN WHITMAN (1803-1878), poetess of Providence, Rhode Island, was born on 19 January, the same day as Poe, but six years earlier. Her parents were Nicholas Power (1769-1844), a roving seafarer, and Anna Marsh Power (died 1858); she had an older sister, Rebecca (1800-1825), and a younger, Susan Anna (1813-1877). On 10 July 1828 Sarah Helen Power married John Winslow Whitman (1799-1833), a Boston lawyer who wrote amateurish poetry. After her husband's death on 25 July 1833, Mrs. Whitman returned to the Power family's longtime residence in Providence, at the northwest corner of Benefit and Church (originally 50 Benefit Street, later numbered 76). In the early 1840's she became an avid reader of Poe's writings, which alternately terrified and enthralled her. Beginning in 1845 she began to learn about his literary career and his personal life through her correspondence with Anne C. Lynch and Frances S. Osgood, two New York bluestockings who had formerly lived in Providence and whom she knew quite well. In January 1848, one year after the death of Poe's wife Virginia, Mrs. Whitman addressed an adulatory poem to him: it was read aloud at Miss Lynch's valentine party on 14 February and then published in the New York Home Journal for 18 March. By way of reply Poe sent her a manuscript poem written in her honor, the second “To Helen.” On 21 September he presented himself at her home, bearing a letter of introduction. A romance ensued immediately; but Mrs. Whitman resisted Poe's proposal of marriage, later writing him to explain that she was in poor health and financially dependent on her mother. When Poe visited Providence in early November, he called on her in a state of near delirium brought on by an overnight drinking bout. Mrs. Whitman was dismayed to discover her suitor's alcoholism; but paradoxically this revelation led her to agree to marriage, since she felt pity for him and believed that as his wife she could influence him. Their engagement was brief and turbulent, with her friends warning her against him and her mother displaying an almost fanatical opposition to the proposed union. On 23 December, when Poe violated a promise to abstain from alcohol, Mrs. Whitman abruptly cancelled the preparations for their wedding. Although she did not see or write him again, she became his most steadfast defender after his death. In 1860 she published a perceptive interpretation of his personality, Edgar Poe and His Critics. Between 1874 and 1878 she corresponded voluminously with his English biographer John Henry Ingram, thus leaving a detailed account of her 1848 romance.

WALT WHITMAN (1819-1892), major American poet, was a relatively obscure journalist in 1845, when he contributed a brief essay to the Broadway Journal. He had a single interview with Poe shortly after its publication in the 29 November issue. From March 1846 until January 1848. [page xlix:] Whitman edited the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

NATHANIEL PARKER WILLIS (1806-1867), editor, poet, and European correspondent, rejected Poe's “Fairyland;” commenting sarcastically on the verses in his American Monthly Magazine (Boston) for November 1829. Poe, in turn, satirized Willis’ association with British nobility in “Lion-izing,” a tale published in the Southern Literary Messenger for May 1835. Despite these early exchanges the two men proved compatible when they met each other in New York City in 1844. Willis employed Poe as his assistant on the Evening Mirror from October 1844 until February 1845. On 21 November 1846 Willis joined his longtime associate George P. Morris on the Home Journal, a weekly newspaper of folio size. As both editors admired Poe, the Journal consistently promoted his interests; but it was Willis alone whom Poe approached for special favors, notably the republication of his poems “Ulalume” and “For Annie” (1 January 1848 and 28 April 1849 issues). To the 20 October 1849 Journal Willis contributed a sympathetic memoir of Poe as a corrective to Rufus W. Griswold's malicious obituary in the 9 October Daily Tribune. For years Willis remained a watchdog of Poe's posthumous fame; he wrote a second reminiscence for the 30 October 1858 Journal.

LAMBERT A. WILMER (ca. 1805-1863), journalist, satirist, and poet, began his career in Baltimore; he almost certainly knew Poe's brother Henry in the late 1820's. In 1827 Wilmer contributed his Merlin, a verse drama based on Poe's romance with Elmira Royster, to the Baltimore North American. He subsequently went to Philadelphia, where he wrote for the Saturday Evening Post and the Casket. In January 1832 he returned to Baltimore and assumed the editorship of the Saturday Visiter, a weekly newspaper which commenced publication on 4 February. In August the Visiter's proprietors replaced him with John Hill Hewitt, who had volunteered to write editorials free of charge. Wilmer and Poe were frequent companions in 1832, seeing each other almost daily. In 1833 Wilmer became the editor of the Cecil Courant in Elkton, Cecil County, Maryland. Around 1839 he again moved to Philadelphia, where he was to be associated with a succession of newspapers. For the next few years Wilmer and Poe saw each other at least occasionally; their friendship probably came to an end in 1843. On 20 May Wilmer wrote John Tomlin, commenting frankly on Poe's excessive drinking; on 10 September Tomlin sent the letter to Poe. Wilmer described his fellow journalists in Our Press Gang (1859). Merlin and his “Recollections of Edgar A. Poe” (1866) were reprinted together in 1941. MARGARET E. WILMER, his daughter, defended Poe's character in Beadle's Monthly for April 1867.

JOHN WILSON (1785-1854), Scottish literary critic, was generally known by his pseudonym “Christopher North”; he edited Blackwood's Magazine, an influential Edinburgh monthly.

WILLIAM WIRT (1772-1834), Attorney General of the United States, also achieved literary distinction with several series of essays and a biography of Patrick Henry. On 11 May 1829 Poe called on Wirt in Baltimore and solicited his opinion of “Al Aaraaf.”

JOHN W. WOODS, a Baltimore job printer, issued directories for that city with R. J. MATCHETT; the pair printed Poe's Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems (1829) for the publishers Hatch & Dunning.

WILLIAM JENKINS WORTH (1794-1849), a veteran of the War of 1812 and the Indian wars, was the commanding officer of Fortress Monroe in 1829; on 20 April he recommended Poe for West Point. Worth later distinguished himself in the Mexican War, achieving the rank of Major General.

THOMAS WYATT, English-born author [page xlx, unnumbered:] and lecturer, paid Poe $50 to help him prepare The Conchologist's First Book (Philadelphia, 1839), a scientific compilation designed primarily as a schoolbook. Poe's name was placed on the title page, Wyatt being unable to claim authorship because he had previously written another book on the subject for a New York publisher. Poe also seems to have assisted with A Synopsis of Natural History (Philadelphia, 1839), published under Wyatt's own name; but the extent of his role has never been determined. His friendship with Wyatt, begun in Philadelphia, was continued during his later residence in New York. Around January 1846 Wyatt separated Poe and Thomas Dunn English when a heated argument turned into fisticuffs.


MARTHA VAUGHN SHIELDS YARRINGTON (1796-1857), the wife of the carpenter James Yarrington, accepted boarders in her Richmond home, corner of Bank and Twelfth Streets, facing Capitol Square. On 3 October 1835 Poe brought Mrs. Clemm and her daughter Virginia to Mrs. Yarrington's.



It appears that Harriet Clemm, the daughter of Harriet Poe Clemm and William Clemm, and half sister of Virginia Clemm Poe, was born in 1809, based on a christening record of June 14, 1809 at St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church. (The birth date listed appears to be that of the mother rather than the child.) She may be the Harriet Clemm buried in that cemetery, without birth or death dates recorded.


[S:1 - TPL, 1987] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Bookshelf - The Poe Log (D. R. Thomas and D. K. Jackson) (Biographical Notes)