Text: Edgar Allan Poe, “Bon-Bon” (Comparative Text - Saturday Courier and Southern Literary Messenger)


Texts Represented:

  • 1832-01 - Saturday Courier (December 1, 1832)
  • 1835-02 - Southern Literary Messenger (August 1835)



Written for the Saturday Courier.




[[“]]The heathen philosopher, when he had a mind to eat a grape, would open his lips when he put it into his mouth, meaning thereby that grapes were made to eat and lips to open.[[”]] — As You Like It.



For the Southern Literary Messenger.



“Notre Gulliver” — dit le Lord Bolingbroke — “a de telles fables.” — Voltaire.



At Venice, in the year ———, in the street ———, lived Pedro Garcia, a metaphysician. — With regard to date and residence, circumstances of a private and sacred nature forbid me to be more explicit. In all mental qualifications our hero was gigantic. Moreover, in bodily circumference, he had no cause of complaint; but, in right ascension, four feet five was the philosopher's ne plus ultra.

Now Pedro was descended from a noble Florentine family; yet it was with little concern that, in certain boilings of the pot revolutionary, (during which, saith Machiavelli, the scum always comes uppermost) he beheld his large estates silently slipping through his fingers. Indeed, from his earliest youth, had Pedro Garcia been addicted to the most desperate abstrusities. He had studied at Padua, at Milan, at Gottingen. It is he — but let this go no farther — it is he to whom Kant is mainly indebted for his metaphysics. I have MSS. in my possession sufficient to establish what I say.

The doctrines of our friend were not very generally understood, although by no means difficult of comprehension. He was not, it is true, a Platonist — nor strictly an Aristotelian — nor did he, with Leibnitz, reconcile things irreconcileable [[irreconcilable]]. He was, emphatically, a Pedronist. He was Ionic and Italic. He reasoned a priori and a posteriori. His ideas were innate, or otherwise. He believed in George of Trebizond, he believed in Bossarion [[Bessarion]]. Of his other propensities little is recorded. It is said that he preferred Catullus to Homer, and Sauterne to Medoc.

Yet even this comprehensive philosophy proved an insufficient protection against the shafts of calumny and malice. At Venice wicked men were not wanting to hint that the doctrines of certain people evinced neither the purity of the Academy nor the depth of the Lyceum.

  * * * * * *  

The great bell of St. Mark's had already sounded midnight, yet our hero was not in bed. He sat, alone, in the little chamber, his study, redeemed from the filth and bustle of the day. I hold minute attention to trifles unworthy the dignity of serious narrative; otherwise I might here, following the example of the novelist, dilate upon the subject of habiliment, and other mere matters of the outward man. I might say that the hair of our patrician was worn short, combed smoothly over his forehead, and surmounted with a violet-coloured, conical cap with tassels — that his green fustian jerkin was not after the fashion of those worn by the nobility of Venice at that day — that the sleeves were more deeply slashed than the reigning costume permitted — that the slashes were faced — not, as usual in that barbarous period, with parti-coloured silk, but with the beautiful red leather of Morocco — that his stiletto was a specimen piece of workmanship from the factory of Pan Ispan, of Damascus, attaghan-maker to the Effendi — that his slippers were of a bright purple, curiously filagreed, and might have been made in Japan, but for the exquisite pointing of the toes, and the fact that Baptista, the Spanish cobler on the Rialto, opined to the contrary — that his breeches were of the white, satin-like cloth called ‘celeste’ — that his sky-blue cloak, or wrapper, resembling, in form, the anomaly, ycleped, a morning-gown, floated, like a mist, upon his shoulders, richly bestudded with crimson and yellow patches — and that his tout ensemble gave rise to the remarkable words of Benevenuta, the improvisatrice, to wit: — “That the paroquet, upon a certain cathedral, resembled nothing so much as Pedro, the metaphysician.” All this and more — had I been a novelist — might I have detailed. But, thanks to St. Urfino, whatever I am, that am I not. Therefore upon all these subjects I say ‘mum.’

The chamber in which sat our hero was of singular beauty. The floor was covered with a mat (for it was the summer season) of the most brilliant and glossy pale yellow, formed from the rare and valuable reeds of Siam. All around from the ceiling fell tapestry-hangings of the richest crimson velvet. The ceiling, itself, was of brown and highly-polished oak, vaulted, carved, and fretted, until all its innumerable angles were rounded into a dense mass of shadow, from whose gloomy depth, by a slender golden chain with very long links, swung a fantastic Arabesque lamp of solid silver. A black, heavy, and curiously-pannelled door, opening inwardly, was closed, after the fashion of that day, with a chased brazen bar; while a single, huge, bowed, and trelliced window glared out upon the waters of the Adriatic.

The minor furniture of the room consisted, principally, of a profusion of elegantly-bound and illuminated books scattered here and there in classical disorder, on the tables, on the floor, and on two or three luxurious settees, having every appearance of the ottomans of Mahomet.

It was a dark and stormy night. The rain fell in cataracts; and drowsy citizens started, from dreams of the deluge, to gaze upon the boisterous sea, which foamed and bellowed for admittance into the proud towers and marble palaces. Who would have thought of passions so fierce in that calm water that slumbers all day long? At a slight alabaster stand, trembling beneath the ponderous tomes which it supported, sat the hero of our story.

He heeded not the clanging of the half extinguished lamp, as it rattled overhead in the currents of air; and the roar of the waters he heard not. A voluminous MSS., intended for publication on the morrow, was receiving the last touches of its author. I am sorry that our record has extracted nothing from this valuable work, which has, undoubtedly, perished in some ecclesiastical intrigue. Its title, however, I find to be “A complete exposition of things not to be exposed;” and its motto a line from Pulci, thus happily translated by a modern satirist: —

Brethren, I come from lands afar

To show you all what fools you are.

As the storm grew stronger and more terrible, Pedro, totally absorbed in his occupation, could not perceive that, while his left palm rested upon a volume in sable binding, the blue lightning fluttered among its leaves with most portentous velocity.


That Pierre Bon-Bon was a Restaurateur [[Restaurateur]] of uncommon qualifications, no man who, during the reign of ——, frequented the little Câfe in the Cul-de-sac Le Febvre at Rouen, will, I imagine, feel himself at liberty to dispute. That Pierre Bon-Bon was, in an equal degree, skilled in the philosophy of that period is, I presume, still more especially undeniable. His Patés à la fois were beyond doubt immaculate — but what pen can do justice to his essays sur la Nature — his thoughts sur l’Ame — his observations sur l’Esprit? If his omelettes — if his fricandeaux were inestimable, what literateur of that day would not have given twice as much for an ‘Idée de Bon-Bon’ as for all the trash of all the ‘Idées’ of all the rest of the savants? Bon-Bon had ransacked libraries which no other man had ransacked — had read more than any other would have entertained a notion of reading — had understood more than any other would have conceived the possibility of understanding; and although, while he flourished, there were not wanting some authors at Rouen, to assert “that his dicta evinced neither the purity of the Academy, nor the depth of the Lyceum” — although, mark me, his doctrines were by no means very generally comprehended, still it did not follow that they were difficult of comprehension. It was, I think, on account of their entire self-evidency that many persons were led to consider them abstruse. It is to Bon-Bon — but let this go no farther — it is to Bon-Bon that Kant himself is mainly indebted for his metaphysics. The former was not indeed a Platonist, nor strictly speaking an Aristotelian — nor did he, like the modern Leibnitz, waste those precious hours which might be employed in the invention of a fricassée, or, facili gradu, the analysis of a sensation, in frivolous attempts at reconciling the obstinate oils and waters of ethical discussion. Not at all. Bon-Bon was Ionic. Bon-Bon was equally Italic. He reasoned a priori. He reasoned also a posteriori. His ideas were innate — or otherwise. He believed in George of Trebizond. He believed in Bossarion [[Bessarion]]. Bon-Bon was emphatically a — Bon-Bonist.

I have spoken of the philosopher in his capacity of Restaurateur [[Restaurateur]]. I would not however have any friend of mine imagine that in fulfilling his hereditary duties in that line, our hero wanted a proper estimation of their dignity and importance. Far from it. It was impossible to say in which branch of his duplicate profession he took the greater pride. In his opinion the powers of the mind held intimate connection with the capabilities of the stomach. By this I do not mean to insinuate a charge of gluttony, or indeed any other serious charge to the prejudice of the metaphysician. If Pierre Bon-Bon had his failings — and what great man has not a thousand? — if Pierre Bon-Bon, I say, had his failings, they were failings of very little importance — faults indeed which in other tempers have often been looked upon rather in the light of virtues. As regards one of these foibles I should not have mentioned it in this history but for the remarkable prominency — the extreme alto relievo in which it jutted out from the plane of his general disposition. Bon-Bon could never let slip an opportunity of making a bargain.

Not that Bon-Bon was avaricious — no. It was by no means necessary to the satisfaction of the philosopher, that the bargain should be to his own proper advantage. Provided a trade could be effected — a trade of any kind, upon any terms, or under any circumstances, a triumphant smile was seen for many days thereafter to enlighten his countenance, and a knowing wink of the eye to give evidence of his sagacity.

At any epoch it would not be very wonderful if a humor so peculiar as the one I have just mentioned, should elicit attention and remark. At the epoch of our narrative, had this peculiarity not attracted observation, there would have been room for wonder indeed. It was soon reported that upon all occasions of the kind, the smile of Bon-Bon was wont to differ widely from the downright grin with which that Restaurateur [[Restaurateur]] would laugh at his own jokes, or welcome an acquaintance. Hints were thrown out of an exciting nature — stories were told of perilous bargains made in a hurry and repented of at leisure — and instances were adduced of unaccountable capacities, vague longings, and unnatural inclinations implanted by the author of all evil for wise purposes of his own.

The philosopher had other weaknesses — but they are scarcely worthy of our serious examination. For example, there are few men of extraordinary profundity who are found wanting in an inclination for the bottle. Whether this inclination be an exciting cause, or rather a valid proof of such profundity, it is impossible to say. Bon-Bon, as far as I can learn, did not think the subject adapted to minute investigation — nor do I. Yet in the indulgence of a propensity so truly classical, it is not to be supposed that the Restaurateur would lose sight of that intuitive discrimination which was wont to characterize, at one and the same time, his Essais and his Omelettes. With him Sauterne was to Medoc what Catullus was to Homer. He would sport with a syllogism in sipping St. Peray, but unravel an argument over Clos de Vougeot, and upset a theory in a torrent of Chambertin. In his seclusions the Vin de Bourgogne had its allotted hour, and there were appropriate moments for the Côtes du Rhone. Well had it been if the same quick sense of propriety had attended him in the peddling propensity to which I have formerly alluded — but this was by no means the case. Indeed, to say the truth, that trait of mind in the philosophic Bon-Bon did begin at length to assume a character of strange intensity and mysticism, and, however singular it may seem, appeared deeply tinctured with the grotesque diablerie of his favorite German studies.

To enter the little Café in the Cul[[-]]de[[-]]Sac Le Febvre was, at the period of our tale, to enter the sanctum of a man of genius. Bon-Bon was a man of genius. There was not a sous-cuisinier in Rouen, who could not have told you that Bon-Bon was a man of genius. His very cat knew it, and forbore to whisk her tail in the presence of the man of genius. His large water-dog was acquainted with the fact, and upon the approach of his master, betrayed his sense of inferiority by a sanctity of deportment, a debasement of the ears, and a dropping of the lower jaw not altogether unworthy of a dog. It is, however, true that much of this habitual respect might have been attributed to the personal appearance of the metaphysician. A distinguished exterior will, I am constrained to say, have its weight even with a beast; and I am willing to allow much in the outward man of the Restaurateur calculated to impress the imagination of the quadruped. There is a peculiar majesty about the atmosphere of the little great — if I may be permitted so equivocal an expression — which mere physical bulk alone will be found at all times inefficient in creating. If, however, Bon-Bon was barely three feet in height, and if his head was diminutively small, still it was impossible to behold the rotundity of his stomach without a sense of magnificence nearly bordering upon the sublime. In its size both dogs and men must have seen a type of his acquirements — in its immensity a fitting habitation for his immortal soul.

I might here — if it so pleased me — dilate upon the matter of habiliment, and other mere circumstances of the external metaphysician. I might hint that the hair of our hero was worn short, combed smoothly over his forehead, and surmounted by a conical-shaped white flannel cap and tassels — that his pea-green jerkin was not after the fashion of those worn by the common class of Restaurateurs at that day — that the sleeves were something fuller than the reigning costume permitted — that the cuffs were turned up, not as usual in that barbarous period, with cloth of the same quality and color as the garment, but faced in a more fanciful manner with the particolored velvet of Genoa — that his slippers were of a bright purple, curiously filagreed, and might have been manufactured in Japan, but for the exquisite pointing of the toes, and the brilliant tints of the binding and embroidery — that his breeches were of the yellow satin-like material called aimable — that his sky-blue cloak[[,]] resembling in form a dressing-wrapper, and richly bestudded all over with crimson devices, floated cavalierly upon his shoulders like a mist of the morning — and that his tout ensemble gave rise to the remarkable words of Benevenuta, the Improvisatrice of Florence, “that it was difficult to say whether Pierre Bon-Bon was indeed a bird of Paradise, or the rather a very Paradise of perfection.”

I have said that “to enter the Café in the Cul-de-Sac Le Febvre was to enter the sanctum of a man of genius” — but then it was only the man of genius who could duly estimate the merits of the sanctum. A sign consisting of a vast folio swung before the entrance. On one side of the volume was painted a bottle — on the reverse a Paté. On the back were visible in large letters the words Æuvres de Bon-Bon. Thus was delicately shadowed forth the two-fold occupation of the proprietor.

Upon stepping over the threshold the whole interior of the building presented itself to view. A long, low-pitched room of antique construction was indeed all the accommodation afforded by the Café in the Cul-de-Sac Le Febre. In a corner of the apartment stood the bed of the metaphysician. An array of curtains, together with a canopy à la Gréque gave it an air at once classic and comfortable. In the corner diagonally opposite appeared, in direct and friendly communion, the properties of the kitchen and the bibliothéque. A dish of polemics stood peacefully upon the dresser. Here lay an oven-full of the latest ethics — there a kettle of duodecimo melanges. Volumes of German morality were hand and glove with the gridiron — a toasting fork might be discovered by the side of Eusebius — Plato reclined at his ease in the frying pan — and contemporary manuscripts were filed away upon the spit.

In other respects the Café de Bon-Bon might be said to differ little from the Cafés of the period. A gigantic fire-place yawned opposite the door. On the right of the fire-place an open cupboard displayed a formidable array of labelled bottles. There Mousseux, Chambertin, St. George, Richbourg, Bordeaux, Margaux, Haubrion, Leonville, Medoc, Sauterne, Bârac, Preignac, Grave, Lafitte, and St. Peray contended with many other names of lesser celebrity for the honor of being quaffed. From the ceiling, suspended by a chain of very long slender links, swung a fantastic iron lamp, throwing a hazy light over the room, and relieving in some measure the placidity of the scene.

It was here, about twelve o’clock one night, during the severe winter of ———, that Pierre Bon-Bon, after having listened for some time to the comments of his neighbors upon his singular propensity — that Pierre Bon-Bon, I say, having turned them all out of his house, locked the door upon them with a sacre Dieu, and betook himself in no very pacific mood to the comforts of a leather-bottomed arm-chair, and a fire of blazing faggots.

It was one of those terrific nights which are only met with once or twice during a century. The snow drifted down bodily in enormous masses, and the Café de Bon-Bon tottered to its very centre, with the floods of wind that, rushing through the crannies in the wall, and pouring impetuously down the chimney, shook awfully the curtains of the philosopher's bed, and disorganized the economy of his Paté-pans and papers. The huge folio sign that swung without, exposed to the fury of the tempest, creaked ominously, and gave out a moaning sound from its stanchions of solid oak.

I have said that it was in no very placid temper the metaphysician drew up his chair to its customary station by the hearth. Many circumstances of a perplexing nature had occurred during the day, to disturb the serenity of his meditations. In attempting Des Æufs à la Princesse he had unfortunately perpetrated an Omelette à la Reine — the discovery of a principle in Ethics had been frustrated by the overturning of a stew — and last, not least, he had been thwarted in one of those admirable bargains which he at all times took such especial delight in bringing to a successful termination. But in the chafing of his mind at these unaccountable vicissitudes, there did not fail to be mingled a degree of that nervous anxiety which the fury of a boisterous night is so well calculated to produce. Whistling to his more immediate vicinity the large black water-dog we have spoken of before, and settling himself uneasily in his chair, he could not help casting a wary and unquiet eye towards those distant recesses of the apartment whose inexorable shadows not even the red fire-light itself could more than partially succeed in overcoming.

Having completed a scrutiny whose exact purpose was perhaps unintelligible to himself, Bon-Bon drew closer to his seat a small table covered with books and papers, and soon became absorbed in the task of retouching a voluminous manuscript, intended for publication on the morrow.


“I am in no hurry, {{1832-01: Signor Pedro //1835-02: Monsieur Bon-Bon }}  ” {{1835-02:}} whispered a {{1832-01: soft //1835-02: whining }} voice in the apartment.

“The devil!” {{1835-02:}} ejaculated our hero, starting {{1832-01: from //1835-02: to }} his {{1832-01: seat //1835-02: feet }} , overturning the table at his side, and staring around him in astonishment.

“Very true {{1832-01: ! }}  ” {{1835-02:}} calmly replied the voice.

“Very true! — {{1832-01: What //1835-02: what }} is very true? — {{1832-01: How //1835-02: how }} came you here?” {{1835-02:}} vociferated the metaphysician, as his eye fell upon {{1832-01: a man with singularly thin features, who lay, at full length, upon an ottoman in a corner of the chamber //1835-02: something which lay stretched at full length upon the bed }} .

“I was saying” {{1832-01: continued the figure //1835-02: — said the intruder }} , without {{1832-01: replying //1835-02: attending }} to {{1832-01: Pedro's //1835-02: Bon-Bon's }} interrogatories {{1832-01: , //1835-02:}} “I was saying that I am {{1832-01: in no hurry //1835-02: not at all pushed for time }} — that the business upon which I took the liberty of calling is of {{1832-01: minor //1835-02: no pressing }} importance — {{1835-02: in short }} that I can {{1835-02: very well }} wait until you have finished your Exposition.”

“My Exposition! {{1832-01: How //1835-02: — there now! — how }} do you know {{1835-02: — how came you to understand }} that I {{1832-01: am //1835-02: was }} writing an Exposition? {{1832-01: Good //1835-02: — good }} God!”

“Hush!” {{1835-02:}} replied the figure in a shrill {{1832-01: undertone //1835-02: under tone }} ; and {{1832-01: , }} arising {{1835-02: quickly }} from the {{1832-01: settee, //1835-02: bed }} he made a {{1835-02: single }} step towards our hero, while the {{1832-01: arabesque //1835-02: iron }} lamp {{1832-01: suddenly ceased its convulsive swinging and became motionless //1835-02: overhead swung convulsively back from his approach }} .

The philosopher's amazement did not prevent a narrow scrutiny of the stranger's dress and appearance. The outlines of a figure {{1835-02: , exceedingly lean, but }} much above the common {{1832-01: standard were blurred and //1835-02: height, were }} rendered {{1832-01: indefinite by the huge folds of a black Roman toga. Above //1835-02: minutely distinct by means of a faded suit of black cloth which fitted tight to the skin, but was otherwise cut very much in the style of a century ago. These garments had evidently been intended a priori for a much shorter person than their present owner. His ankles and wrists were left naked for several inches. In his shoes, however, a pair of very brilliant buckles gave the lie to the extreme poverty implied by the other portions of his dress. His head was bare, and entirely bald, with the exception of the hinder part, from which depended a queue of considerable length. A pair of green spectacles, with side glasses, protected his eyes from the influence of the light, and at the same time prevented our hero from ascertaining either their color or their conformation. About the entire person there was no evidence of a shirt; but a white cravat, of filthy appearance, was tied with extreme precision around the throat, and the ends hanging down formally side by side, gave, although I dare say unintentionally, the idea of an ecclesiastic. Indeed, many other points both in his appearance and demeanor might have very well sustained a conception of that nature. Over }} his left ear he carried, after the fashion of a modern {{1832-01: scribe //1835-02: clerk }} , an instrument resembling the {{1832-01: stylus //1835-02: stylus }} of the ancients {{1832-01: ; and, from his left arm, depended a crimson bag of a material totally unknown to our hero, being luminous. There was another article of habiliment equally a mystery to the patrician. The toga, being left open at the throat, displayed the neatly folded cravat and starched shirt-collar of 1832. All these things excited little of Pedro's attention; for his antiquarian eye had fallen upon the sandals of the intruder, and he recognised therein the exact pattern of those worn before the flood, as given, with minute accuracy, in the Ptolemaiad of the Rabbi Vathek //1835-02: . In a breast-pocket of his coat appeared conspicuously a small black volume fastened with clasps of steel. This book, whether accidentally or not, was so turned outwardly from the person as to discover the words “Rituel Catholique” in white letters upon the back. His entire physiognomy was interestingly saturnine — even cadaverously pale. The forehead was lofty and deeply furrowed with the ridges of contemplation. The corners of the mouth were drawn down into an expression of the most submissive humility. There was also a clasping of the hands, as he stepped towards our hero — a deep sigh — and altogether a look of such utter sanctity as could not have failed to be unequivocally prepossessing. Every shadow of anger faded from the countenance of the metaphysician, as, having completed a satisfactory survey of his visiter's person, he shook him cordially by the hand, and conducted him to a seat. }}


I find, upon looking over certain archives in Venice, that “Garcia, the metaphysician, was an exceedingly little, yet pugnacious man.” Accordingly, when his visitor drew a chair close by the huge bowed window that looked out upon the sea, our hero silently followed his example.


There would however be a radical error in attributing this instantaneous transition of feeling in the philosopher to any one of those causes which might naturally be supposed to have had an influence. Indeed Pierre Bon-Bon, from what I have been able to understand of his disposition, was of all men the least likely to be imposed upon by any speciousness of exterior deportment. It was impossible that so accurate an observer of men and things should have failed to discover, upon the moment, the real character of the personage who had thus intruded upon his hospitality. To say no more, the conformation of his visiter's feet was sufficiently remarkable — there was a tremulous swelling in the hinder part of his breeches — and the vibration of his coat tail was a palpable fact. Judge then with what feelings of satisfaction our hero found himself thrown thus at once into the society of a — of a person for whom he had at all times entertained such unqualified respect. He was, however, too much of the diplomatist to let escape him any intimation of his suspicions, or rather — I should say — his certainty in regard to the true state of affairs. It was not his cue to appear at all conscious of the high honor he thus unexpectedly enjoyed, but by leading his guest into conversation, to elicit some important ethical ideas which might, in obtaining a place in his contemplated publication, enlighten the human race, and at the same time immortalize himself — ideas which, I should have added, his visiter's great age, and well known proficiency in the science of Morals might very well have enabled him to afford.

Actuated by these enlightened views our hero bade the gentleman sit down, while he himself took occasion to throw some faggots upon the fire, and place upon the now re-established table some bottles of the powerful Vin de Mousseux. Having quickly completed these operations, he drew his chair vis à vis to his companion's, and waited until he should open the conversation. But plans even the most skilfully matured are often thwarted in the outset of their application, and the Restaurateur found himself entirely nonplused by the very first words of his visiter's speech.

“I see you know me, Bon-Bon,” — said he: — “ha! ha! ha! — he! he! he! — hi! hi! hi! — ho! ho! ho! — hu! hu! hu!” — and the devil, dropping at once the sanctity of his demeanor, opened to its fullest extent a mouth from ear to ear so as to display a set of jagged, and fang-like teeth, and throwing back his head, laughed long, loud, wickedly, and uproariously, while the black dog crouching down upon his haunches joined lustily in the chorus, and the tabby cat, flying off at a tangent stood up on end and shrieked in the farthest corner of the apartment.

Not so the philosopher: he was too much a man of the world either to laugh like the dog, or by shrieks to betray the indecorous trepidation of the cat. It must be confessed, however, that he felt a little astonishment to see the white letters which formed the words “Rituel Catholique” on the book in his guest's pocket momentarily changing both their color and their import, and in a few seconds in place of the original title, the words Regitre des Condamnés blaze forth in characters of red. This startling circumstance, when Bon-Bon replied to his visiter's remark, imparted to his manner an air of embarrassment which might not probably have otherwise been observable.

“Why, sir,” — said the philosopher — “why, sir, to speak sincerely — I believe you are — upon my word — the d——dest — that is to say I think — I imagine — I have some faint — some very faint idea — of the remarkable honor ——”

“Oh! — ah! — yes! — very well!” — interrupted his majesty — “say no more — I see how it is.” And hereupon, taking off his green spectacles, he wiped the glasses carefully with the sleeve of his coat, and deposited them in his pocket.

If Bon-Bon had been astonished at the incident of the book, his amazement was now increased to an intolerable degree by the spectacle which here presented itself to view. In raising his eyes, with a strong feeling of curiosity to ascertain the color of his guest's, he found them by no means black, as he had anticipated — nor gray, as might have been imagined — nor yet hazel nor blue — nor indeed yellow, nor red — nor purple — nor white — nor green — nor any other color in the heavens above, or in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth. In short Pierre Bon-Bon not only saw plainly that his majesty had no eyes whatsoever, but could discover no indications of their having existed at any previous period, for the space where eyes should naturally have been, was, I am constrained to say, simply a dead level of cadaverous flesh.

It was not in the nature of the metaphysician to forbear making some inquiry into the sources of so strange a phenomenon, and to his surprise the reply of his majesty was at once prompt, dignified, and satisfactory.

“Eyes! — my dear Bon-Bon, eyes! did you say? — oh! ah! I perceive. The ridiculous prints, eh? which are in circulation, have given you a false idea of my personal appearance. Eyes!! — true. Eyes, Pierre Bon-Bon, are very well in their proper place — that, you would say, is the head — right — the head of a worm. To you likewise these optics are indispensable — yet I will convince you that my vision is more penetrating than your own. There is a cat, I see, in the corner — a pretty cat! — look at her! — observe her well. Now, Bon-Bon, do you behold the thoughts — the thoughts, I say — the ideas — the reflections — engendering in her pericranium?

There it is now! — you do not. She is thinking we admire the profundity of her mind. She has just concluded that I am the most distinguished of ecclesiastics, and that you are the most superfluous of metaphysicians. Thus you see I am not altogether blind: but to one of my profession the eyes you speak of would be merely an incumbrance, liable at any time to be put out by a toasting iron or a pitchfork. To you, I allow, these optics are indispensable. Endeavor, Bon-Bon, to use them well — my vision is the soul.”

Hereupon the guest helped himself to the wine upon the table, and pouring out a bumper for Bon-Bon, requested him to drink it without scruple, and make himself perfectly at home.


“A clever book that of yours, {{1832-01: Pedro //1835-02: Pierre }}  ” {{1832-01: said the stranger, //1835-02: — resumed his majesty, }} tapping our friend knowingly upon the shoulder {{1835-02: , as the latter set down his glass after a thorough compliance with this injunction }} .


Pedro stared.


“  {{1832-01: It is //1835-02: A clever book that of yours, upon my honor. It's }} a work after my own heart {{1832-01: ,” continued the former, “I suppose you knew Confucius.” //1835-02: . Your arrangement of matter, I think, however, might be improved, and many of your notions remind me of Aristotle. That philosopher was one of my most intimate acquaintances. I liked him as much for his terrible ill temper, as for his happy knack at making a blunder. There is only one solid truth in all that he has written, and for that I gave him the hint out of pure compassion for his absurdity. I suppose, Pierre Bon-Bon, you very well know to what divine moral truth I am alluding.” }}


Our hero's amazement redoubled.

A sad set of fools now-a-days I tell you. Philosophy is a mere trumpery. O, nous estin autos, as some one very justly observed, meaning ‘auyos.’ But, to tell the truth, it was very little better at any time. The fact is, Garcia,” here the stranger's voice dropped to a whisper, “men know nothing about these matters. Your doctrines, however, come nearer to the point than any with which I am acquainted. I like your doctrines, Signor Pedro, and have come a long way to tell you so.”

The philosopher's eyes sparkled, and he fumbled, in great haste, among the rubbish on the floor, for his overthrown MSS. Having found it, he took, from an ivory escrutoire, a flask of the delightful wine of Sauterne, and placing them, with the sable-bound volume, on the alabaster stand, wheeled it before the visitor, and re-seated himself at his elbow.

Here, if the reader should wish to know why our hero troubled himself to place upon the stand any thing so ominous as that book in sable binding, I reply that Pedro Garcia was, by no means, a fool; no man ever accused him of being a fool. He had, accordingly, very soon arrived at the conclusion that his knowing friend was neither more nor less than his August and Satanic Majesty. Now, although persons of greater height have been frightened at less serious circumstances, and although under certain dispensations of Providence (such as the visitation of a spider, a rat, or a physician) Pedro did not always evince the philosopher, yet fear of the devil never once entered his imagination. — To tell the truth, he was rather gratified, than otherwise, at a visit from a gentleman whom he so highly respected. He flattered himself with spending an agreeable hour; and it was with the air of being ‘up to snuff’ that he accommodated his visitor with a volume best suited to his acquirements and literary taste.

“But I must say,” continued the stranger, without noticing Pedro's arrangements, “I must say that, upon some points, you are wrong, my friend, wrong; totally out, as that rogue Sanconiathon used to say — ha! ha! ha! — poor Sanconiathon!”

“Pray, sir, how old — may — you — call yourself?” inquired the metaphysician, with a cut of his eye.


“Cannot say that I ——”

“Indeed! — why I told Aristotle that by sneezing men expelled superfluous ideas through the proboscis.”

“Which is — hiccup! — undoubtedly the case” — said the metaphysician, while he poured out for himself another bumper of Mousseux, and offered his snuff-box to the fingers of his visiter.”

“There was Plato too” — continued his majesty, modestly declining the snuff-box and the compliment — “there was Plato, too, for whom I, at one time, felt all the affection of a friend. You knew Plato, Bon-Bon? — ah! no, I beg a thousand pardons. He met me at Athens, one day, in the Parthenon, and told me he was distressed for an idea. I bade him write down that ‘o nous estin augos.’ He said that he would do so, and went home, while I stepped over to the Pyramids. But my conscience smote me for the lie, and hastening back to Athens, I arrived behind the philosopher's chair as he was inditing the ‘augas.’ Giving the gamma a fillip with my finger I turned it upside down. So the sentence now reads ‘o nous estin aulos,’ and is, you perceive, the fundamental doctrine of his metaphysics.”

“Were you ever at Rome?” — asked the Restaurateur as he finished his second bottle of Mousseux, and drew from the closet a larger supply of Vin de Chambertin.

“But once, Monsieur Bon-Bon — but once. There was a time” — said the devil, as if reciting some passage from a book — ‘there was an anarchy of five years during which the republic, bereft of all its officers, had no magistracy besides the tribunes of the people, and these were not legally vested with any degree of executive power’ — at that time, Monsieur Bon-Bon — at that time only I was in Rome, and I have no earthly acquaintance, consequently, with any of its philosophy.”*

“What do you think of Epicurus? — what do you think of — hiccup! — Epicurus?”

“What do I think of whom?” — said the devil in astonishment — “you cannot surely mean to find any fault with Epicurus! What do I think of Epicurus! Do you mean me, sir? — I am Epicurus. I am the same philosopher who wrote each of the three hundred treatises commemorated by Diogenes Laertes.”

“That's a lie!” — said the metaphysician, for the wine had gotten a little into his head.

“Very well! — very well, sir! — very well indeed, sir” — said his majesty.

“That's a lie!” — repeated the Restaurateur [[Restaurateur]] dogmatically — “that's a — hiccup! — lie!”

“Well, well! have it your own way” — said the devil pacifically: and Bon-Bon, having beaten his majesty at an argument, thought it his duty to conclude a second bottle of Chambertin.


“  {{1832-01: Old? Sir? Eh? Oh! a mere trifle. }} As I was saying {{1835-02: , you have certain {{1835-02:  ” — resumed the visiter — “as I was observing a little while ago, there are some }} very outré notions in that book of yours {{1835-02: , Monsieur Bon-Bon }} . {{1832-01: Now, what {{1835-02: What, for instance, }} do you mean by all that humbug about the soul? Pray, sir, what is the soul?”

“The {{1835-02: — hiccup! — }} soul {{1832-01: , }}  ” {{1835-02:}} replied {{1832-01: Pedro {{1835-02: the metaphysician }} , referring to his {{1832-01: MSS., {{1835-02: MS. }} “is undoubtedly {{1832-01:}}  ” {{1835-02:}}

“No, sir!”

“Indubitably {{1832-01:}}  ” {{1835-02:}}

“No, sir!”


“Indisputably” —

“No, sir!”


“Evidently {{1832-01:}}  ” {{1835-02:}}

“No, sir!”


“Incontrovertibly” —

“No, sir!”

“Hiccup!” —

“No, sir!”


“And beyond all question {{1832-01://1835-02: a }}  ” {{1835-02:}}

“No, sir! {{1832-01:}}the soul is no such thing.” {{1835-02: (Here the philosopher finished his third bottle of Chambertin.) }}

“Then {{1835-02: — hic-cup! — pray — sir — what — }} what {{1832-01: is //1835-02: is }} it?”

“That is neither here nor there, {{1832-01: Signor Pedro //1835-02: Monsieur Bon-Bon }} ,” replied {{1832-01: the stranger, musing, //1835-02: his majesty, musingly. }} “I have tasted — that is {{1832-01: I mean //1835-02: to say }} I have known some very bad souls {{1835-02: , }} and some {{1835-02: too — }} pretty good ones.” {{1832-01: [[new paragraph, indented]] }} Here {{1832-01: the stranger //1835-02: the devil }} licked his lips, and, having unconsciously let fall his hand upon the volume in his pocket, was seized with a violent fit of sneezing {{1832-01: upon which our hero, reaching his common-place book, inserted the follow memorandum: — N. B. — Divorum inferorum cachinnatio sternutamentis mortalium verisimillima est }} .

{{1832-01: The stranger //1835-02: His majesty }} continued. {{1835-02: [[new paragraph, indented]] }} “There was the soul of Cratinus — passable: — Aristophanes — racy: — Plato — exquisite {{1832-01: ! Not //1835-02: : — not }} your Plato, but Plato the comic poet {{1832-01: : //1835-02:}} your Plato would have turned the stomach of Cerberus — faugh! Then {{1835-02:}} let me see {{1832-01://1835-02: ! }} there were {{1835-02: Nœvius, and Andronicus, and Plautus, and Terentius. }} Then there were {{1835-02: Lucilius, and }} Catullus, and Naso, and {{1832-01: Platus, and Quinty //1835-02: Quintius Flaccus }}{{1832-01: dear //1835-02: dear }} Quinty {{1832-01: , //1835-02: ! }} as I called him when he sung a {{1832-01: ‘seculare’ //1835-02: seculare }} for my amusement, while I toasted him {{1832-01: good-humouredly //1835-02: in pure good humor }} on a fork. But they want {{1832-01: flavour, //1835-02: flavor }} these Romans {{1832-01: , one //1835-02: . One }} fat Greek is worth a dozen of them, and besides will keep, which cannot be said of a Quirite. {{1832-01: — Terence, however, was an exception — firm as an Esquimaux, and juicy as a German — the very recollection of the dog makes my mouth water. — }} Let us taste your Sauterne.”

{{1832-01: Our hero //1835-02: Bon-Bon }} had {{1832-01: , }} by this time {{1832-01: , }} made up his mind to the {{1832-01: ‘  }} nil admirari, {{1832-01:  ’ }} and {{1832-01: merely filled his visitor's glass //1835-02: endeavored to hand down the bottles in question }} . He was, however, conscious of a strange sound in the {{1832-01: chamber, //1835-02: room }} like the wagging of a tail {{1832-01: , but of //1835-02: . Of }} this {{1832-01: he //1835-02: , although extremely indecent in his majesty, the philosopher }} took no notice {{1832-01: , //1835-02:}} simply kicking the {{1832-01: large water-dog //1835-02: black water[[-]]dog that lay asleep under his chair, }} and requesting him to be quiet. {{1832-01:}} The {{1832-01: stranger proceeded //1835-02: visiter continued }} .


“I found that Horace tasted very much like Aristotle — you know I am fond of variety. Terentius I could not have told from Menander. Naso, to my astonishment, was Nicander in disguise. Virgilius had a strong twang of Theocritus. Martial put me much in mind of Archilochus — and Titus Livy was positively Polybius and none other.”

“Hic — cup!” — here replied Bon-Bon, and his majesty proceeded.


“But if I have a {{1832-01: penchant //1835-02: penchant }} , {{1832-01: Signor Pedro //1835-02: Monsieur Bon-Bon }} , {{1835-02:}} if I have a {{1832-01: penchant //1835-02: penchant }} , it is for a philosopher. Yet let me tell you, sir, it is not every dev — I mean {{1835-02: it is not }} every gentleman who knows how to choose a philosopher. Long ones are not good, and the best, if not carefully shelled, are apt to be a little rancid on account of the gall.”

“Shelled {{1832-01: ? //1835-02: !! }}  ”

“I mean taken out of the {{1832-01: body //1835-02: carcass }} .”

“What do you think of a {{1835-02: — hiccup! — }} physician?”

Don’t mention them {{1832-01: , //1835-02: ! — ugh! ugh! }}  ” {{1832-01: here the stranger //1835-02: (Here his majesty }} retched violently {{1832-01: , //1835-02: .) }} “  {{1832-01: ugh! }} I never {{1832-01: tried //1835-02: tasted }} but one — that rascal {{1832-01: — (ugh!) — }} Hippocrates {{1832-01: . Smelt //1835-02: ! — smelt }} of asafœtida — {{1832-01: ( }} ugh! ugh! {{1832-01: ) — took particular pains with the villain too //1835-02: ugh! }} — caught a wretched cold washing him in the Styx — and {{1832-01: , }} after all {{1832-01: , }} he gave me the cholera morbus.”

“The {{1835-02: — hiccup! — }} wretch! {{1832-01: the abortion of a pill-box! }}  ” — ejaculated {{1832-01: Pedro, dropping a tear, and, reaching [[for]] another bottle of Sauterne, he swallowed three bumpers in rapid succession. The stranger followed his example. //1835-02: Bon-Bon — “the — hic-cup! — abortion of a pill-box!” — and the philosopher dropped a tear. }}

“After all {{1832-01: , Signor Pedro, }}  ” {{1832-01: , said he, //1835-02: — continued the visiter — }} “  {{1835-02: after all, if }} a dev {{1832-01: —— //1835-02:}} if a gentleman wishes to {{1832-01: live, //1835-02: live }} he must have more talents than one or two, and {{1832-01: , }} with us {{1832-01: , }} a fat face is an evidence of diplomacy.”

“How so?”

“Why we are {{1832-01: , }} sometimes {{1832-01: , }} exceedingly pushed for provisions. You {{1832-01: ought to //1835-02: must }} know that {{1832-01: , }} in a climate so sultry as mine, it is frequently impossible to keep a {{1832-01: soul //1835-02: spirit }} alive for more than two or three hours; and after death, unless pickled immediately, (and a pickled spirit is not good,) they will {{1835-02: , }} smell — you understand {{1832-01://1835-02: , }} eh? Putrefaction is always to be apprehended when the spirits are consigned to us in the usual way.”

“  {{1832-01: Good //1835-02: Hiccup! — hiccup! — good }} God! how {{1832-01: do //1835-02: do }} you manage?”

Here the {{1832-01: arabesque //1835-02: iron }} lamp commenced swinging with redoubled violence, and the {{1832-01: stranger //1835-02: devil }} half started from his seat {{1832-01: ; //1835-02:}} however {{1832-01: , }} with a slight sigh {{1832-01: , }} he recovered his composure {{1832-01: ; //1835-02: , }} merely saying to our hero in a low tone {{1832-01: : — //1835-02: , }} “I tell you what, {{1832-01: Pedro Garcia, once for all //1835-02: Pierre Bon-Bon }} , we {{1832-01: must //1835-02: must }} have no more swearing.”

{{1832-01: Pedro //1835-02: Bon-Bon }} swallowed another bumper, and his {{1832-01: visitor //1835-02: visiter }} continued.

“Why there are several ways of managing. {{1832-01:}} The most of us starve {{1832-01: . Some //1835-02: : some }} put up with the pickle. For my part {{1832-01: , }} I purchase my spirits vivente corpore, in which case I find they keep very well.”

“But the body {{1832-01: , my dear sir, //1835-02: ! — hiccup! — }} the body! {{1835-02: !! }}  ” {{1835-02:}} vociferated the philosopher {{1832-01: , for the wine had gotten a little into his head. Here he reached [[for]] another //1835-02: , as he finished a }} bottle of Sauterne.

“The body {{1832-01: ! //1835-02: , the body }} — well, what of the body? {{1835-02:}} oh! ah! I perceive. {{1832-01: — why //1835-02: Why, sir, }} the body is not {{1832-01: [[at]] //1835-02: at }} all affected by the transaction. I have made innumerable purchases of the kind in my day, and the parties never experienced any inconvenience. There {{1832-01: was //1835-02: were }} Cain, and Nimrod, and Nero, and Caligula, and Dionysius, and Pisistratus, and — {{1832-01: and the Jew — and — }} and a thousand others, {{1832-01: all very good men in their way, }} who never knew what {{1835-02: it was to have }} a soul {{1832-01: was }} during the latter part of their lives {{1832-01: . Yet //1835-02: ; yet, sir, }} these men adorned society. Why {{1832-01: is n’t [[isn’t]] //1835-02: is'nt }} there {{1832-01: V—— //1835-02: A—— }} , now {{1832-01: ? — //1835-02: , }} whom you know as well as I {{1832-01: — is he //1835-02: ? Is he }} not in {{1832-01: full }} possession of {{1835-02: all }} his faculties, mental and corporeal? Who writes a keener epigram? Who reasons more wittily? Who —— but {{1835-02: , stay! }} I have his agreement in my pocket-book.” {{1835-02: [[new paragraph, indented]] }} Thus saying, he {{1832-01: drew, from the luminous bag, a book with clasps of cornelian, and, from the book, a bundle //1835-02: produced a red leather wallet, and took from it a number }} of papers {{1832-01: , upon //1835-02: . Upon }} some of {{1832-01: which Pedro //1835-02: these Bon-Bon }} caught a glimpse of the letters {{1832-01: MACHIA, MAZA, RICHEL //1835-02: MACHI ..... , MAZA ... , RICH ..... }} , and the words {{1832-01: DOMITIAN //1835-02: CALIGULA }} and ELIZABETH. {{1832-01: From these papers he //1835-02: His majesty }} selected a narrow slip of parchment, and {{1832-01: , }} from it {{1832-01: , }} read aloud the following words: {{1832-01:}}

{{1835-02: [[this small section is rendered in a amaller font]] {{1835-02: “  }} In consideration of certain mental endowments {{1832-01: , }} which it {{1832-01: would be //1835-02: is }} unnecessary to specify {{1832-01: , //1835-02: ; }} and in farther consideration of {{1832-01: the sum of }} one thousand {{1832-01: Louis d’or //1835-02: louisd’or [[louis d’or]] }} , I, being aged one year and one month, do {{1832-01: , }} hereby {{1832-01: , from this date, }} make over {{1832-01: , }} to the bearer of this {{1832-01: bond, //1835-02: agreement }} all my right, title, and appurtenance in the shadow called {{1832-01: ‘  }} my soul. {{1832-01:  ’ //1835-02:  ” }} {{1832-01: [[new paragraph, indented]] Done at Paris, this ——— day of ———, in the year of our Lord ———, FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET. //1835-02: (Signed) A .....* (Here his majesty repeated a name which I do not feel myself justifiable in indicating more unequivocally.) }}

“A clever fellow that {{1832-01: ,” //1835-02: A .....” — }} resumed {{1832-01: the stranger, //1835-02: he; }} “but {{1835-02: like you, Monsieur Bon-Bon, }} he was {{1832-01: wrong //1835-02: mistaken }} about the {{1832-01: shadow — the //1835-02: soul. The }} soul a shadow {{1835-02: truly }} ! — no such nonsense, {{1832-01: Signor Pedro //1835-02: Monsieur Bon-Bon }} . {{1832-01://1835-02: The soul a shadow!! ha! ha! ha! — he! he! he! — hu! hu! hu! }} Only think of a {{1832-01: fricaseed //1835-02: fricasséed }} shadow!”

“  {{1832-01: Only //1835-02: Only }} think {{1835-02: fricaseed s—h—a—d—o—w }} of a {{1832-01: Only //1835-02: f-r-i-c-a-s-s-e-e-d s-h-a-d-o-w! }} !” echoed our hero, whose faculties were becoming gloriously illuminated {{1832-01: “now, damme,” continued he, “Mr. — humph! — damme! (hiccup) //1835-02: by the profundity of his majesty's discourse. [[new paragraph, indented]] “Only think of a — hiccup! — fricasseed shadow!!! Now damme! — hiccup! — humph! — }} if I would have been such a {{1835-02: — hiccup! — }} nincompoop. My soul, Mr. — humph! {{1835-02: — yes, sir, my soul. }}  ”

“  {{1832-01: Your //1835-02: Your }} soul, {{1832-01: Signor Pedro //1835-02: Monsieur Bon-Bon }} ?”

“Yes, sir {{1832-01: , //1835-02: — hiccup! — }} my soul is {{1832-01: — is — is — no shadow, damme! }}  ” {{1835-02:}}


“I should be sorry to suppose, Signor Pedro —”


“What, sir! [[?]]”

No shadow, damme!”

“Did not mean to say” —

“Yes, sir, my soul is — hiccup! — humph! — yes, sir.”

“Did not intend to assert” —


“  {{1832-01: Yes, sir, my //1835-02: My }} soul is {{1835-02: — hiccup! — }} peculiarly qualified for — {{1832-01: for //1835-02: hiccup! }} — a {{1832-01: stew, damme! }}  ” {{1835-02:}}


“What, sir?”




“  {{1832-01: A ragout — //1835-02: Souflée. }}  ”


“  {{1832-01: A fricasee — //1835-02: Fricassée. }}  ”

“  {{1832-01: Ah //1835-02: Indeed }} !”

“  {{1832-01: Or (hiccup) a cotelette //1835-02: Ragout or Fricandeau }} — and I’ll let you have it {{1835-02: — hiccup! — }} a bargain.”

“  {{1832-01: Could n’t [[Couldn’t]] //1835-02: Could'nt }} think of such a thing,” said {{1832-01: the stranger, //1835-02: his majesty }} calmly, at the same time arising from his seat. {{1832-01: [[new paragraph, indented]] }} {{1832-01: Pedro //1835-02: The metaphysician }} stared.

“Am supplied at present {{1832-01://1835-02: , }}  ” {{1835-02: said his majesty. }}

{{1832-01: Eh //1835-02: Hiccup! — e-h }} ?” — {{1835-02: said the philosopher. }}

“Have no {{1832-01: cash //1835-02: funds }} on hand {{1832-01://1835-02: . }}  ”

“What {{1832-01: ? //1835-02: ! [[?]] }}  ”

“  {{1832-01: Very //1835-02: Besides, very }} ungentlemanly in me” —

“  {{1832-01: Humph //1835-02: Sir }} !  ”

“To take advantage of {{1832-01:}}  ” {{1835-02:}}

“  {{1832-01: Sir //1835-02: Hiccup }} !  ”

“Your {{1832-01: peculiar //1835-02: present }} situation.”

Here {{1832-01: the stranger //1835-02: his majesty }} bowed and withdrew {{1832-01: , //1835-02:}} in what manner {{1832-01: our //1835-02: the }} philosopher could not {{1832-01: exactly //1835-02: precisely }} ascertain {{1832-01: ; //1835-02:}} but {{1832-01: , }} in a {{1832-01: well concerted //1835-02: well-concerted }} effort to discharge a bottle at {{1832-01: the scoundrel, //1835-02: “the villain,” }} the slender chain was severed that {{1832-01: hung //1835-02: depended }} from the ceiling, and the metaphysician prostrated by the downfall of the lamp.


[The following footnotes were added to the text of 1835-02:]

*Ils ecrivaient sur la Philosophie (Cicero, Lucretius, Seneca) mais c’etait la Philosophie Grécque. — Condorcet.

*Quære — Arouet? — Editor



For an explanation of the formatting used in this comparative text, see editorial policies and methods.

Because this presentation represents multiple texts, with differing pagination, page numbers have been omitted. The number of changes makes presentation unusually challenging. The nature and extent of these challenges presumably explain Mabbott's choice of presenting the earlier and later texts separately, and not attempting to show variants for these versions.

Early in the text phrases about Kant and about the main character's doctrines not being generally understood appear in both forms, amid many other changes and in the reversed order. Attemting to represent these changes more precisely has not seemed practical.


[S:0 - JAS] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Works - Tales - Bon-Bon (Comparative Text - PSC and SLM)