Text: Edgar Allan Poe, “Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (Chapter 02)” (comparative text - SLM and PYM)


Texts Represented:

  • 1837-01 - Southern Literary Messenger (January 1837)
  • 1838-02 - The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838)









{{1837-01: In //1838-02: IN }} no affairs of mere prejudice, pro or con, do we deduce inferences with entire certainty even from the most simple data. It might be supposed that a catastrophe such as I have just related {{1837-01: , }} would have effectually cooled my incipient passion for the sea. On the contrary, I never experienced a more ardent longing for the wild adventures incident to the life of a navigator than within a week after our miraculous deliverance. This short period proved amply long enough to erase from my memory the shadows, and bring out in vivid light all the pleasurably exciting points of {{1837-01: color //1838-02: colour }} , all the picturesqueness {{1837-01: , }} of the late perilous accident. My conversations with Augustus grew daily more frequent and more intensely full of interest. He had a manner of relating his stories of the ocean {{1837-01: , }} (more than one half of which I now suspect to have been sheer fabrications) well adapted to have weight with one of my enthusiastic temperament, and somewhat gloomy {{1838-02: , }} although glowing imagination. It is strange {{1838-02: , }} too, that he most strongly enlisted my feelings in behalf of the life of a seaman, when he depicted his more terrible moments of suffering and despair. For the bright side of the painting I had a limited sympathy. My visions were of shipwreck and famine; of death or captivity among barbarian hordes; of a {{1837-01: long life-time //1838-02: lifetime }} dragged out in sorrow and tears, upon some {{1837-01: grey //1838-02: gray }} and desolate rock, in an ocean unapproachable and unknown. Such visions or desires — for they amounted to desires — are common, I have {{1838-02: since }} been {{1837-01: since }} assured, to the whole numerous race of the melancholy among men — at the time of which I speak I regarded them only as prophetic glimpses of a destiny which I felt myself in a measure bound to fulfil. Augustus thoroughly entered into my state of mind. It is probable {{1838-02: , }} indeed {{1838-02: , }} that our intimate communion had resulted in a partial interchange of character.

{{1837-01: During the three or four //1838-02: About eighteen }} months {{1837-01: immediately succeeding //1838-02: after }} the period of the Ariel's disaster, the firm of Lloyd and Vredenburgh (a house connected in some manner with the Messieurs Enderby, I believe, of Liverpool) were engaged in repairing and fitting out the brig Grampus for a whaling voyage. She was an old hulk, and scarcely {{1837-01: sea-worthy //1838-02: seaworthy }} when all was done to her that could be done. I hardly know why she was chosen in preference to other good vessels belonging to the same owners — but so it was. Mr. Barnard was appointed to command her, and Augustus was going with him. While the brig was getting ready {{1838-02: , }} he frequently urged upon me the excellency of the opportunity now offered for indulging my desire of travel. He found me by no means an unwilling listener — yet the matter could not be so easily arranged. My father made no direct opposition; but my mother went into hysterics at the bare mention of the design {{1837-01: , //1838-02: ; }} and, more than all, my grandfather, from whom I expected much, vowed to cut me off with a shilling if I should ever broach the subject to him again. These difficulties, however, so far from abating my desire, only added fuel to the flame. I determined to go at all hazards {{1837-01: , //1838-02: ; }} and, having made known my intention to Augustus, we set about arranging a plan by which it might be accomplished. In the meantime I forbore speaking to any of my relations in regard to the voyage, and, as I busied myself ostensibly with my usual studies, it was supposed that I had abandoned the design. I have since frequently examined my conduct on this occasion {{1837-01: , }} with sentiments of displeasure as well as of surprise. The intense hypocrisy I made use of for the furtherance of my project — an hypocrisy pervading every word and action of my life for so long a period of time — could only have been rendered tolerable to myself by the wild and burning expectation with which I looked forward to the fulfilment of my long-cherished visions of travel.

In pursuance of my scheme of deception, I was necessarily obliged to leave much to the management of Augustus, who was employed for the greater part of every day on board the Grampus, attending to some arrangements for his father in the cabin and cabin hold. At night, however, we were sure to have a conference {{1838-02: , }} and talk over our hopes. After nearly a month passed in this manner {{1838-02: , }} without our hitting upon any plan we thought likely to succeed, he told me at last that he had determined upon {{1837-01: every thing //1838-02: everything }} necessary. I had a relation living in New Bedford, a Mr. Ross, at whose house I was in the habit of spending occasionally two or three weeks at a time. The brig was to sail about the middle of {{1837-01: April, //1838-02: June }} ( {{1837-01: April //1838-02: June, }} 1827) {{1838-02: , }} and it was agreed that {{1838-02: , }} a day or two before her putting to sea, my father was to receive a note, as usual, from Mr. Ross, asking me to come over and spend a fortnight with Robert and Emmet (his sons {{1837-01: .) [[sic]] //1838-02: ). }} Augustus charged himself with the {{1837-01: inditing //1838-02: enditing }} of this note and getting it delivered. Having set out, as supposed, for New Bedford, I was then to report myself to my companion, who would contrive a {{1837-01: hiding-place //1838-02: hiding place }} for me in the Grampus. This hiding place, he assured me, would be rendered sufficiently comfortable for a residence of many days, during which I was not to make my appearance. When the brig had proceeded so far on her course as to make any turning back a matter out of question, I should then, he said, be formally installed in all the comforts of the cabin {{1837-01: , }} and as to his father {{1838-02: , }} he would only laugh heartily at the joke. Vessels enough would be met with by which a letter might be sent home explaining the adventure to my parents.

The middle of {{1837-01: April //1838-02: June }} at length arrived, and {{1837-01: every thing //1838-02: everything }} had been matured. The note was written {{1837-01: , }} and delivered, and on a Monday morning I left the house for the New Bedford packet, as supposed. I went, however, straight to Augustus, who was waiting for me at the corner of a street. It had been our original plan that I should keep out of the way until dark, and then slip on board the brig; but {{1838-02: , }} as there was now a thick fog in our {{1837-01: favor //1838-02: favour }} , it was agreed to lose no time in secreting me. Augustus led the way to the wharf, and I followed at a little distance {{1838-02: , }} enveloped in a thick seaman's cloak, which he had brought with him, so that my person might not be easily {{1837-01: recognized //1838-02: recognised }} . Just as we turned the second corner {{1838-02: , }} after passing Mr. Edmund's well, who should appear {{1838-02: , }} standing right in front of me {{1838-02: , }} and looking me full in the face, but old Mr. Peterson, my grandfather {{1837-01: , //1838-02: . }} “Why, bless my soul, Gordon,” said he, after a long pause, “why, why {{1837-01: , }}whose dirty cloak is that you have on?” “Sir!” I replied, assuming, as well as I could, in the exigency of the moment, an air of offended surprise, and talking in the gruffest of all imaginable tones {{1837-01: , //1838-02:}} “  {{1837-01: Sir //1838-02: sir }} ! you are a sum'mat mistaken — my name, in the first place, bee'nt nothing at all like Goddin, and I'd want you for to know better, you blackguard, than to call my new obercoat a darty one!” For my life I could hardly refrain from screaming with laughter at the odd manner in which the old gentleman received this handsome rebuke. He started back two or three steps, turned first pale and then excessively red, threw up his spectacles, then, putting them down, ran full tilt at me {{1838-02: , }} with his umbrella uplifted. He stopped short, however, in his career, as if struck with a sudden recollection {{1837-01: , //1838-02: ; }} and presently, turning round, hobbled off down the street, shaking all the while with rage, and muttering between his teeth {{1838-02: , }} “  {{1837-01: won't //1838-02: Won't }} do — new glasses — thought it was Gordon — d—d {{1837-01: good for nothing //1838-02: good-for-nothing }} salt water Long Tom.”

After this narrow escape we proceeded with greater caution, and arrived at our point of destination in safety. There were only one or two of the hands on board, and these were busy forward, doing something to the {{1837-01: steerage //1838-02: forecastle }} combings. Captain Barnard, we knew very well, was engaged at Lloyd and Vredenburgh's, and would remain there until late in the evening, so we had little to apprehend on his account. Augustus went first up the vessel's side, and in a short while I followed him, without being noticed by the men at work. We proceeded at once into the cabin, and found no person there. It was fitted up in the most comfortable style — a thing somewhat unusual in a {{1837-01: whaling vessel //1838-02: whaling-vessel }} . There were four very excellent {{1837-01: state-rooms //1838-02: staterooms }} , with wide and convenient berths. There was also a large stove, I took notice, and a remarkably thick and valuable carpet {{1837-01: , }} covering the floor of both the cabin and {{1837-01: state-rooms //1838-02: staterooms }} . The ceiling was full seven feet high, and {{1838-02: , }} in short {{1838-02: , }} everything appeared of a more roomy and agreeable nature than I had anticipated. Augustus, however, would allow me but little time for observation, insisting upon the necessity of my concealing myself as soon as possible. He led the way into his own {{1837-01: state-room //1838-02: stateroom }} , which was on the starboard side of the brig, and next to the {{1837-01: bulk-heads //1838-02: bulkheads }} . Upon entering, he closed the door and bolted it. I thought I had never seen a nicer little room than the one in which I now found myself. It was about ten feet long, and had only one berth, which, as I said before, was wide and convenient. In that portion of the closet nearest the {{1837-01: bulk-heads //1838-02: bulkheads }} , there was a space of four feet square, containing a table, a chair, and a set of hanging shelves full of books, chiefly books of voyages and travels. There were many other little comforts in the room {{1837-01://1838-02: , }} among which I ought not to forget a kind of safe or refrigerator, in which Augustus pointed out to me a host of delicacies, both in the eating and drinking department.

He now pressed with his knuckles upon a certain spot of the carpet in one corner of the space just mentioned, letting me know that a portion of the flooring, about sixteen inches square, had been neatly cut out and again adjusted. As he pressed, this portion rose up {{1837-01: , where it joined the shifting-boards, //1838-02: at one end }} sufficiently to allow the passage of his finger beneath. In this manner he raised the mouth of the trap (to which the carpet was still fastened by tacks) {{1838-02: , }} and I found that it led into the after hold. He next lit a small taper by means of a phosphorous match, and, placing the light in a dark lantern, descended with it through the opening, bidding me follow. I did so, and he then pulled the cover upon the hole, by means of a nail driven into the under side — the carpet, of course, resuming its original position on the floor of the {{1837-01: state-room //1838-02: stateroom }} , and all traces of the aperture being concealed.

The taper gave out so feeble a ray, that it was with the greatest difficulty I could grope my way through the confused mass of lumber among which I now found myself. By degrees, however, my eyes became accustomed to the gloom, and I proceeded with less trouble, holding on to the skirts of my friend's coat. He brought me, at length, after creeping and winding through innumerable narrow passages, to an iron-bound box, such as is used sometimes for packing fine earthenware. It was nearly four feet high {{1838-02: , }} and full six long, but very narrow. Two large empty {{1837-01: oil casks //1838-02: oil-casks }} lay on the top of it, and above these {{1838-02: , }} again {{1838-02: , }} a vast quantity of straw matting {{1838-02: , }} piled up as high as the floor of the cabin. In every other direction around {{1837-01: , }} was wedged as closely as possible, even up to the ceiling, a complete chaos of almost every species of {{1837-01: ship furniture //1838-02: ship-furniture }} , together with a heterogeneous medley of crates, hampers, barrels {{1838-02: , }} and bales, so that it seemed a matter no less than miraculous that we had discovered any passage at all to the box. I {{1837-01: afterwards //1838-02: afterward }} found that Augustus had purposely arranged the stowage in this hold with a view to affording me a thorough concealment, having had only one assistant in the {{1837-01: labor //1838-02: labour }} , a man not going out in the brig.

My companion now showed me that one of the ends of the box could be removed at pleasure. He slipped it aside and displayed the interior, at which I was excessively amused. A mattress from one of the cabin berths covered the whole of its bottom, and it contained almost every article of mere comfort which could be crowded into so small a space, allowing me {{1838-02: , }} at the same time {{1838-02: , }} sufficient room for my accommodation, either in a sitting position or lying at full length. Among other things {{1838-02: , }} there were some books, pen {{1837-01: [[,]] //1838-02: , }} ink {{1838-02: , }} and paper, three blankets, a large jug full of water, a keg of sea-biscuit, three or four immense Bologna sausages, an enormous ham, a cold leg of roast mutton, and half a dozen bottles of cordials and liqueurs. I proceeded immediately to take possession of my little apartment, and this with feelings of higher satisfaction, I am sure, than any monarch ever experienced upon entering a new palace. Augustus now pointed out to me the method of fastening the open end of the box, and then, holding the taper close to the deck, showed me a piece of dark whipcord lying along it. This {{1838-02: , }} he said {{1838-02: , }} extended from my {{1837-01: hiding place //1838-02: hiding-place }} throughout all the necessary windings among the lumber, to a nail which was driven into the deck of the hold {{1838-02: , }} immediately beneath the {{1837-01: trap-door //1838-02: trapdoor }} leading into his {{1837-01: state-room //1838-02: stateroom }} . By means of this cord I should be enabled readily to trace my way out without his guidance, provided any unlooked-for accident should render such a step necessary. He now took his departure, leaving with me the lantern, together with a copious supply of tapers and phosphorous, and promising to pay me a visit as often as he could contrive to do so without observation. This was on the seventeenth of {{1837-01: April //1838-02: June }} .

I remained three days and nights (as nearly as I could guess) in my hiding-place {{1837-01: , }} without getting out of it at {{1837-01: [[all]] //1838-02: all }} , except twice for the purpose of stretching my limbs by standing erect between two crates just opposite the opening. During the whole period I saw nothing of Augustus; but this occasioned me little uneasiness, as I knew the brig was expected to put to sea every hour, and in the bustle he would not easily find opportunities of coming down to me. At length I heard the trap open and shut, and presently he called in a low voice, asking if all was well, and if there was {{1837-01: any thing //1838-02: anything }} I wanted. “Nothing,” I replied; “I am as comfortable as can be; when will the brig sail?” “She will be under {{1837-01: way //1838-02: weigh }} in less than half an hour,” he answered. “I came to let you know, and for fear you should be uneasy at my absence. I shall not have a chance of coming down again for some time — perhaps for three or four days more. All is going on right {{1837-01: above board //1838-02: aboveboard }} . After I go up and close the trap, do you creep along by the whipcord to where the nail is driven in. You will find my watch there — it may be useful to you {{1838-02: , }} as you have no daylight to keep time by. I suppose you can’t tell how long you have been buried — only three days — this is the twentieth. I would bring the watch to your box, but am afraid of being missed.” With this he went up.

In about an hour after he had gone I distinctly felt the brig in motion, and congratulated myself upon having at length fairly commenced a voyage. Satisfied with this idea {{1838-02: , }} I determined to make my mind as easy as possible, and await the course of events until I should be permitted to exchange the box for the more roomy, although hardly more comfortable, accommodations of the cabin. My first care was to get the watch. Leaving the taper burning, I groped along in the dark, following the cord through windings innumerable, in some of which I discovered that, after toiling a long distance, I was brought back within a foot or two of a former position. At length I reached the nail, and, securing the object of my journey, returned with it in safety. I now looked over the books which had been so thoughtfully provided, and selected the {{1837-01: Expedition //1838-02: expedition }} of Lewis and Clarke to the mouth of the Columbia. With this I amused myself for some time, when, growing sleepy, I extinguished the light with great care, and soon fell into a sound slumber.

Upon awakening I felt strangely confused in mind, and some time elapsed before I could bring to recollection all the various circumstances of my situation. By degrees, however, I remembered all. Striking a light, I looked at the watch; but it was run down, and there were, consequently, no means of determining how long I had slept. My limbs were greatly cramped, and I was forced to relieve them by standing between the crates. Presently, feeling an almost ravenous appetite, I bethought myself of the cold mutton, some of which I had eaten just before going to sleep, and found excellent. What was my astonishment at discovering it to be in a state of absolute putrefaction! This circumstance occasioned me great disquietude; for, connecting it with the disorder of mind I experienced upon awakening, I began to suppose that I must have slept for an inordinately long period of time. The close atmosphere of the hold might have had something to do with this, and might, in the end, be productive of the most serious results. My head ached excessively; I fancied that I drew every breath with difficulty; and, in short, I was oppressed with a multitude of gloomy feelings. Still I could not venture to make any disturbance by opening the trap or otherwise, and, having wound up the watch, contented myself as well as possible.

Throughout the whole of the next tedious twenty-four hours no person came to my relief, and I could not help accusing Augustus of the grossest inattention. What alarmed me chiefly was, that the water in my jug was reduced to about half a pint, and I was suffering much from thirst, having eaten freely of the Bologna sausages after the loss of my mutton. I became very uneasy, and could no longer take any interest in my books. I was overpowered, too, with a desire to sleep, yet trembled at the thought of indulging it, lest there might exist some pernicious influence, like that of burning charcoal, in the confined air of the hold. In the {{1837-01: meantime //1838-02: mean time }} the roll of the brig told me that we were far in the main ocean, and a dull humming sound {{1838-02: , }} which reached my ears as if from an immense distance, convinced me no ordinary gale was blowing. I could not imagine a reason for the absence of Augustus. We were surely far enough advanced on our voyage to allow of my going up. Some accident might have happened to him — but I could think of none which would account for his suffering me to remain so long a prisoner, except {{1838-02: , }} indeed {{1838-02: , }} his having suddenly died or fallen overboard, and upon this idea I could not dwell with any degree of patience. It was possible that we had been baffled by head winds, and were still in the near vicinity of Nantucket. This notion, however, I was forced to abandon; for, such being the case, the brig must have frequently gone about; and I was entirely satisfied {{1838-02: , }} from her continual inclination to the larboard {{1838-02: , }} that she had been sailing {{1837-01: , }} all along {{1837-01: , }} with a steady breeze on her starboard quarter. Besides, granting that we were still in the {{1837-01: neighborhood //1838-02: neighbourhood }} of the island, why should not Augustus have visited me and informed me of the circumstance? Pondering in this manner upon the difficulties of my solitary and cheerless condition, I resolved to wait yet another twenty-four hours, when, if no relief were obtained, I would make my way to the trap, and endeavour either to hold a parley with my friend, or get at least a little fresh air through the opening, and a further supply of water from his {{1837-01: state-room //1838-02: stateroom }} . While occupied with this thought, however, I fell in spite of every exertion to the contrary, into a state of profound sleep, or rather stupor. My dreams were of the most terrific description. Every species of calamity and horror befell me. Among other miseries {{1838-02: , }} I was smothered to death between huge pillows {{1838-02: , }} by demons of the most ghastly and ferocious aspect. Immense serpents held me in their embrace, and looked earnestly in my face with their fearfully shining eyes. Then deserts {{1838-02: , }} limitless {{1838-02: , }} and of the most forlorn and awe-inspiring character, spread themselves out before me. Immensely tall trunks of trees, {{1837-01: grey //1838-02: gray }} and leafless, rose up in endless succession as far as the eye could reach. Their roots were concealed in wide-spreading morasses, whose dreary water lay intensely black, still, and altogether terrible, beneath. And the strange trees seemed endowed with a human vitality, and, waving to and fro their skeleton arms, were crying to the silent waters for mercy {{1838-02: , }} in the shrill and piercing accents of the most acute agony and despair. The scene changed; and I stood {{1838-02: , }} naked and alone {{1838-02: , }} amid the burning {{1837-01: sand plains //1838-02: sand-plains }} of Zahara. At my feet lay crouched a fierce lion of the tropics. Suddenly his wild eyes opened and fell upon me. With a conculsive bound he sprang to his feet {{1838-02: , }} and laid bare his horrible teeth. In another instant there burst from his red throat a roar like the thunder of the firmament, and I fell impetuously to the earth. Stifling in a paroxysm of terror, I at last found myself partially awake. My dream {{1838-02: , }} then {{1838-02: , }} was not all a dream. Now {{1838-02: , }} at least {{1838-02: , }} I was in possession of my senses. The paws of some huge and real monster were pressing heavily upon my bosom — his hot breath was in my ear — and his white and ghastly fangs were gleaming upon me through the gloom.

Had a thousand lives hung upon the movement of a limb or the utterance of a syllable, I could {{1838-02: have }} neither {{1837-01: have }} stirred nor spoken. The beast, whatever it was, retained his position without attempting any immediate violence, while I lay in an utterly helpless, and, I fancied, a dying condition beneath him. I felt that my powers of body and mind were fast leaving me — in a word, that I was perishing, and perishing of sheer fright. My brain swam — I grew deadly sick — my vision failed — even the glaring {{1837-01: eye-balls //1838-02: eyeballs }} above me grew dim. Making a last strong effort, I at length breathed a faint ejaculation to God, and resigned myself to die. The sound of my voice seemed to arouse all the latent fury of the animal. He precipitated himself at full length upon my body {{1837-01://1838-02: , }} but what was my astonishment, when {{1838-02: , }} with a long and low whine {{1838-02: , }} he commenced licking my face and hands with the greatest eagerness {{1838-02: , }} and with the most extravagant demonstration of affection and joy! I was bewildered, utterly lost in amazement — but I could not forget the peculiar whine of my Newfoundland dog Tiger, and the odd manner of his caresses I well knew. It was he. I experienced a sudden rush of blood to my temples — a giddy and overpowering sense of deliverance and {{1837-01: re-animation //1838-02: reanimation }} . I rose hurriedly from the mattress upon which I had been lying, and, throwing myself upon the neck of my faithful follower and friend, relieved the long oppression of my bosom in a flood of the most passionate tears.

As upon a former occasion, my conceptions were in a state of the greatest indistinctness and confusion after leaving the mattress. For a long time I found it nearly impossible to connect any ideas — but {{1838-02: , }} by very slow degrees {{1838-02: , }} my thinking faculties returned, and I again called to memory the several incidents of my condition. For the presence of Tiger I tried in vain to account; and {{1837-01: , }} after busying myself with a thousand different conjectures respecting him, was forced to content myself with rejoicing that he was with me to share my dreary solitude, and render me comfort by his caresses. Most people love their dogs — but for Tiger I had an affection far more ardent than common; and never, certainly, did any creature more truly deserve it. For seven years he had been my inseparable companion, and in a multitude of instances had given evidence of all the noble qualities for which we value the animal. I had rescued him, when a puppy, from the clutches of a malignant little villain in Nantucket, who was leading him, with a rope {{1837-01: round //1838-02: around }} his neck, to the water; and the grown dog repaid the obligation, about three years {{1837-01: afterwards //1838-02: afterward }} , by saving me from the bludgeon of a {{1837-01: street robber //1838-02: street-robber }} .

Getting now hold of the watch, I found, upon applying it to my ear, that it had again run down {{1837-01://1838-02: ; }} but at this I was not at all surprised, being convinced, from the peculiar state of my feelings, that I had slept, as before, for a very long period of time {{1837-01://1838-02: ; }} how long, it was of course impossible to say. I was burning up with fever, and my thirst was almost intolerable. I felt about the box for my little remaining supply of water {{1837-01://1838-02: ; }} for I had no light, the taper having {{1837-01: burned //1838-02: burnt }} to the socket of the lantern, and the phosphorus-box not coming readily to hand. Upon finding the jug, however, I discovered it to be empty — Tiger, no doubt, having been tempted to drink it, as well as to devour the remnant of mutton, the bone of which lay, well picked, by the opening of the box. The spoiled meat I could well spare, but my heart sank as I thought of the water. I was feeble in the extreme — so much so {{1837-01: , }} that I shook all over, as with an ague, at the slightest movement or exertion. To add to my troubles, the brig was pitching and rolling with great violence, and the oil-casks which lay upon my box were in momentary danger of falling down, so as to block up the only way of ingress or egress. I felt, also, terrible sufferings from sea-sickness. These considerations determined me to make my way, at all hazards, to the trap, and obtain immediate relief, before I should be incapacitated from doing so altogether. Having come to this resolve, I again felt about for the phosphorus-box and tapers. The former I found {{1837-01: , }} after some little trouble; but {{1838-02: , }} not discovering the tapers as soon as I had expected {{1837-01: , }} (for I remembered very nearly the spot in which I had placed them {{1837-01: ,) //1838-02: ), }} I gave up the search for the present, and bidding Tiger lie quiet, began at once my journey towards the trap.

In this attempt {{1837-01: , }} my great feebleness became more than ever apparent. It was with the utmost difficulty I could crawl along at all, and very frequently my limbs sank suddenly from beneath me; when, falling prostrate on my face, I would remain {{1837-01: , }} for some minutes {{1837-01: , }} in a state bordering on insensibility. Still I struggled forward by slow degrees, dreading every moment that I should swoon amid the narrow and intricate windings of the lumber, in which event I had nothing but death to expect as the result. At length, upon making a push forward {{1837-01: , }} with all the energy I could command, I struck my forehead violently against the sharp corner of an iron-bound crate. The accident only stunned me for a few moments; but I found, to my inexpressible grief, that the quick and violent roll of the vessel had thrown the crate entirely across my path, so as effectually to block up the passage. With my utmost exertions {{1837-01: , }} I could not move it a single inch from its position, it being closely wedged in among the surrounding boxes and {{1837-01: ship furniture //1838-02: ship-furniture }} . It became necessary, therefore, enfeebled as I was, either to {{1837-01: quit //1838-02: leave }} the guidance of the whipcord and seek out a new passage, or to climb over the obstacle, and resume the path on the other side. The former alternative presented too many difficulties and dangers to be thought of without a shudder. In my present weak state of both mind and body, I should infallibly lose my way if I attempted it, and perish miserably amid the dismal and disgusting labyrinths of the hold. I proceeded, therefore, without hesitation, to summon up all my remaining strength and fortitude, and {{1837-01: endeavor //1838-02: endeavour }} , as I best might, to clamber over the crate.

Upon standing erect, with this end in view, I found the undertaking even a more serious task than my fears had led me to imagine. On each side of the narrow passage arose a complete wall of various heavy lumber, which the least blunder on my part might be the means of bringing down upon my head; or, if this accident did not occur, the path might be effectually blocked up against my return by the descending mass, as it was in front by the obstacle there. The crate itself was a long and unwieldy box, upon which no {{1837-01: foot-hold //1838-02: foothold }} could be obtained. In vain I attempted, by every means in my power, to reach the top, with the hope of being thus enabled to draw myself up. Had I succeeded in reaching it, it is certain that my strength would have proved utterly inadequate to the task of getting over, and it was better in every respect that I failed. At length, in a desperate effort to force the crate from its ground, I felt a strong vibration in the side next me. I thrust my hand eagerly to the edge of the planks, and found that a very large one was loose. With my pocket-knife, which luckily I had with me, I succeeded, after great {{1837-01: labor //1838-02: labour }} , in {{1837-01: prizing [[prying]] //1838-02: prying }} it entirely off {{1837-01: , //1838-02: ; }} and getting it through the aperture, discovered, to my exceeding joy, that there were no boards on the opposite side — in other words, that the top was wanting, it being the bottom through which I had forced my way. I now met with no important difficulty in proceeding along the line {{1837-01: , }} until I finally reached the nail. With a beating heart I stood erect, and with a gentle touch {{1837-01: , }} pressed against the cover of the trap. It did not rise as soon as I had expected, and I pressed it with somewhat more determination, still dreading lest some other person than Augustus might be in his {{1837-01: state-room //1838-02: stateroom }} . The door, however, to my astonishment, remained steady, and I became somewhat uneasy, for I knew that it had formerly required little or no effort to remove it. I pushed it strongly — it was nevertheless firm: with all my strength — it still did not give way: with rage, with fury, with despair — it set at defiance my utmost efforts {{1837-01://1838-02: ; }} and it was evident, from the unyielding nature of the resistance, that the hole had either been discovered and effectually nailed up, or that some immense weight had been placed upon it, which it was useless to think of removing.

My sensations were those of extreme horror and dismay. In vain I attempted to reason on the probable cause of my being thus entombed. I could summon up no connected chain of reflection, and, sinking on the floor, gave way, unresistingly, to the most gloomy imaginings, in which the dreadful deaths of thirst, famine, suffocation, and premature interment, crowded upon me as the prominent disasters to be encountered. At length there returned to me some portion of presence of mind. I arose, and felt with my fingers for the seams or cracks of the aperture. Having found them, I examined them closely {{1837-01: , }} to ascertain if they emitted any light from the {{1837-01: state-room //1838-02: stateroom }} ; but none was visible. I then forced the {{1837-01: pen-blade //1838-02: penblade }} of my knife through them, until I met with some hard obstacle. Scraping against it, I discovered it to be a solid mass of iron, which, from its peculiar wavy feel as I passed the blade along it, I concluded to be a chain-cable. The only course now left me was to retrace my way to the box, and there either yield to my sad fate, or try so to tranquilize my mind {{1837-01: , }} as to admit of my arranging some plan of escape. I immediately set about the attempt, and succeeded, after innumerable difficulties, in getting back. As I sank, utterly exhausted, upon the mattress, Tiger threw himself at full length by my side, and seemed as if desirous, by his caresses, of consoling me in my troubles, and urging me to bear them with fortitude.

The singularity of his {{1837-01: behavior //1838-02: behaviour }} at length forcibly arrested my attention. After licking my face and hands for some minutes, he would suddenly cease doing so, and utter a low whine. Upon reaching out my hand towards him, I then invariably found him lying on his back, with his paws uplifted. This conduct, so frequently repeated, appeared strange, and I could in no manner account for it. As the dog seemed distressed, I concluded that he had received some injury {{1837-01: , //1838-02: ; }} and, taking his paws in my hands, I examined them one by one, but found no sign of any hurt. I then supposed him hungry, and gave him a large piece of ham, which he devoured with avidity — {{1837-01: afterwards //1838-02: afterward }} , however, resuming his extraordinary manœuvres. I now imagined that he was suffering, like myself, the torments of thirst, and was about adopting this conclusion as the true one, when the idea occurred to me that I had as yet only examined his paws, and that there might possibly be a wound upon some portion of his body or head. The latter I felt carefully over, but found nothing. On passing my hand {{1837-01: [[,]] //1838-02: , }} however, along his back, I perceived a slight erection of the hair extending completely across it. Probing this with my finger {{1838-02: , }} I discovered a string, and, tracing it up, found that it encircled the whole body. Upon a closer scrutiny, I came across a small slip of what had the feeling of letter paper, through which the string had been fastened in such a manner as to bring it immediately beneath the left shoulder of the animal.


The thought instantly occurred to me that the paper was a note from Augustus, and that some unaccountable accident having happened, to prevent his relieving me from my dungeon, he had devised this method of acquainting me with the true state of affairs. Trembling with eagerness, I now commenced another search for my phosphorus matches and tapers. I had a confused recollection of having put them carefully away, just before falling asleep; and, indeed, previously to my last journey to the trap, I had been able to remember the exact spot where I had deposited them. But now I endeavored in vain to call it to mind, and busied myself for a full hour in a fruitless and vexatious search for the missing articles — never, surely, was there a more tantalizing state of anxiety and suspense. At length, while groping about, with my head close to the ballast, near the opening of the box, and outside of it, I perceived a faint glimmering of light in the direction of the steerage. Greatly surprised, I endeavored to make my way towards it, as it appeared to be but a few feet from my position. Scarcely had I moved with this intention, when I lost sight of the glimmer entirely, and before I could bring it into view again, was obliged to feel along by the box, until I had exactly resumed my original situation. Now moving my head with caution to and fro, I found that, by proceeding slowly, with great care, in an opposite direction to that in which I had at first started, I was enabled to draw near the light, still keeping it in view. Presently I came directly upon it (having squeezed my way through innumerable narrow windings) and found that it proceeded from some fragments of my matches lying in an empty barrel turned upon its side. I was wondering how they came in such a place, when my hand fell upon two or three pieces of taper wax, which had been evidently mumbled by the dog. I concluded at once that he had devoured the whole of my supply of candles, and I felt hopeless of being ever able to read the note of Augustus. The small remnants of the wax were so mashed up among other rubbish in the barrel, that I despaired of deriving any service from them, and left them as they were. The phosphorus, of which there was only a speck or two, I gathered up as well as I could, and returned with it, after much difficulty, to my box, where Tiger had all the while remained.

What to do next I could not tell. The hold was so intensely dark, that I could not see my hand, however close I would hold it to my face. The white slip of paper could barely be discerned, and not even that, when I looked at it directly: by turning the exterior portions of the retina towards it, that is to say, by surveying it slightly askance, I found that it became in some measure perceptible. Thus the gloom of my prison may be imagined, and the note of my friend, if indeed it were a note from him, seemed only likely to throw me into farther trouble, by disquieting, to no purpose, my already enfeebled and agitated mind. In vain I revolved in my brain a multitude of absurd expedients for procuring light — such expedients precisely, as a man in the perturbed sleep occasioned by opium, would be apt to fall upon for a similar purpose — each and all of which appear by turns to the dreamer, the most reasonable and the most preposterous of conceptions, just as the reasoning or imaginative faculties flicker, alternately, one above the other. At last an idea occurred to me which seemed rational, and which gave me cause to wonder, very justly, that I had not entertained it before. I placed the slip of paper on the back of a book, and, collecting the fragments of the phosphorus matches which I had brought from the barrel, laid them together upon the paper. I then, with the palm of my hand, rubbed the whole over quickly yet steadily. A clear light diffused itself immediately throughout the whole surface, and had there been any writing upon it, I should not have experienced the least difficulty, I am sure, in reading it. Not a syllable was there, however — nothing but a dreary and unsatisfactory blank; the illumination died away in a few seconds, and my heart died away within me as it went.

I have before stated more than once, that my intellect, for some period prior to this, had been in a condition nearly bordering on idiocy. There were, to be sure, momentary intervals of perfect sanity, and, now and then, even of energy, but these were few. It must be remembered that I had been, for many days certainly, inhaling the almost pestilential atmosphere of a close hold in a whaling vessel, and a long portion of that time but scantily supplied with water. For the last fourteen or fifteen hours I had none — nor had I slept during that time. Salt provisions of the most exciting kind had been my chief, and indeed since the loss of the mutton, my only supply of food, with the exception of the sea biscuit; and these latter were utterly useless to me, as they were too dry and hard to be swallowed in the swollen and parched condition of my throat. I was now in a high state of fever, and, in every respect, exceedingly ill. This will account for the fact, that many miserable hours of despondency elapsed after my last adventure with the phosphorus, before the thought suggested itself that I had examined only one side of the paper. I shall not attempt to describe my feelings of rage, (for I believe I was more angry than any thing else) when the egregious oversight I had committed flashed suddenly upon my perception. The blunder itself would have been unimportant, had not my own folly and impetuosity rendered it otherwise — in my disappointment at not finding some words upon the slip. [[,]] I had childishly torn it in pieces and thrown it away, it was impossible to say where.

From the worst part of this dilemma I was relieved by the sagacity of Tiger. Having gotten, after a long search, a small piece of the note, I put it to the dog's nose, and endeavored to make him understand that he must bring me the rest of it. To my astonishment (for I had taught him none of the usual tricks for which his breed are famous,) he seemed to enter at once into my meaning, and, rummaging about for a few moments, soon found another considerable portion. Bringing me this, he paused a while, and, rubbing his nose against my hand, appeared to be waiting for my approval of what he had done. I patted him on the head, when he immediately made off again. It was now some minutes before he came back — but when he did come, he brought with him a large slip, which proved to be all the paper missing — it having been torn, it seems, only into three pieces. Luckily I had no trouble in finding what few fragments of the phosphorus were left — being guided by the indistinct glow one or two of the particles still emitted. My difficulties had taught me the necessity of caution, and I now took time to reflect upon what I was about to do. It was very probable, I considered, that some words were written upon that side of the paper which had not been examined — but which side was that? Fitting the pieces together gave me no clue in this respect, although it assured me that the words (if there were any) would be found all on one side, and connected in a proper manner, as written. There was the greater necessity of ascertaining the point in question beyond a doubt, as the phosphorus remaining would be altogether insufficient for a third attempt, should I fail in the one I was now about to make. I placed the paper on a book as before, and sat for some minutes thoughtfully revolving the matter over in my mind. At last I thought it barely possible that the written side might have some unevenness in its surface, which a delicate sense of feeling might enable me to detect. I determined to make the experiment, and passed my finger very carefully over the side which first presented itself — nothing however, was perceptible, and I turned the paper, adjusting it on the book. I now again carried my fore-finger cautiously along, when I was aware of an exceedingly slight, but still discernable glow, which followed it as it proceeded. This, I knew, must arise from some very minute remaining particles of the phosphorus with which I had covered the paper in my previous attempt. The other or under side, then, was that on which lay the writing, if writing there should finally prove to be. Again I turned the note, and went to work as I had previously done. Having rubbed in the phosphorus, a brilliancy ensued as before — but this time several lines of M.S. in a large hand, and apparently in red ink, became distinctly visible. The glimmer, although sufficiently bright, was but momentary. Still, had I not been too greatly excited, there would have been ample time enough for me to peruse the whole three sentences before me — for I saw there were three. In my anxiety, however, to read all at once, I succeeded only in reading the seven concluding words, which thus appeared: — “blood — your life depends upon lying close.”

Had I been able to ascertain the entire contents of the note — the full meaning of the admonition which my friend had thus attempted to convey, that admonition, even although it should have revealed a story of disaster the most unspeakable, could not, I am firmly convinced, have imbued my mind with one tithe of the harrowing and yet indefinable horror with which I was inspired by the fragmentary warning thus received. And “blood “ too, that word of all words — so rife at all times with mystery, and suffering, and terror — how trebly full of import did it now appear! — how chillily and heavily (disjointed, as it thus was, from any foregoing words to qualify or render it distinct) did its vague syllables fall, amid the deep gloom of my prison, into the innermost recesses of my soul!

Augustus had, undoubtedly, good reasons for wishing me to remain concealed, and I formed a thousand surmises as to what they could be — but I could think of nothing affording a satisfactory solution of the mystery. Just after returning from my last journey to the trap, and before my attention had been otherwise directed by the singular conduct of Tiger, I had come to the resolution of making myself heard at all events by those on board, or, if I could not succeed in this directly, of trying to cut my way through the orlop deck. The half certainty which I felt, of being able to accomplish one of these two purposes in the last emergency, had given me courage (which I should not otherwise have had) to endure the evils of my situation. The few words I had been able to read, however, had cut me off from these final resources, and I now, for the first time, felt all the misery of my fate. In a paroxysm of despair I threw myself again upon the mattress, where, for about the period of a day and night, I lay in a kind of stupor, relieved only by momentary intervals of reason and recollection.

At length I once more arose, and busied myself in reflection upon the horrors which encompassed me. For another twenty-four hours it was barely possible that I might exist without water — for a longer time I could not do so. During the first portion of my imprisonment I had made free use of the cordials with which Augustus had supplied me, but they only served to excite fever, without in the least degree assuaging my thirst. I had now only about a gill left, and this was of a species of strong peach liqueur at which my stomach revolted. The sausages were entirely consumed; of the ham nothing remained but a small piece of the skin; and all the biscuit, except a few fragments of one, had been eaten by Tiger. To add to my troubles I found that my head-ache [[headache]] was increasing momentarily, and with it the species of delirium which had distressed me more or less since my first falling asleep. For some hours past it had been with the greatest difficulty I could breathe at all, and now each attempt at so doing was attended with the most distressing spasmodic action of the chest. But there was still another, and very different source of disquietude, and one, indeed, whose harassing terrors had been the chief means of arousing me to exertion from my stupor on the mattress. It arose from the demeanor of the dog.

I first observed an alteration in his conduct while rubbing in the phosphorus on the paper in my last attempt. As I rubbed, he ran his nose against my hand with a slight snarl; but I was too greatly excited at the time to pay much attention to the circumstance. Soon afterwards, it will be remembered, I threw myself on the mattress, and fell into a species of lethargy. Presently I became aware of a singular hissing sound close at my ears, and discovered it to proceed from Tiger, who was panting and wheezing in a state of the greatest apparent excitement, his eyeballs flashing fiercely through the gloom. I spoke to him, when he replied with a low growl, and then remained quiet. Presently I relapsed into my stupor, from which I was again awakened in a similar manner. This was repeated three or four times, until finally his behavior inspired me with so great a degree of fear that I became fully aroused. He was now lying close by the door of the box, snarling fearfully, although in a kind of undertone, and grinding his teeth as if strongly convulsed. I had no doubt whatever that the want of water, or the confined atmosphere of the hold, had driven him mad, and I was at a loss what course to pursue. I could not endure the thought of killing him, yet it seemed absolutely necessary for my own safety. I could distinctly perceive his eyes fastened upon me with an expression of the most deadly animosity, and I expected every instant that he would attack me. At last I could endure my terrible situation no longer, and determined to make my way from the box at all hazards, and dispatch him, if his opposition should render it necessary for me to do so. To get out, I had to pass directly over his body, and he already seemed to anticipate my design — raising himself upon his fore legs (as I perceived by the altered position of his eyes), and displaying the whole of his white fangs, which were easily discernible. I took the remains of the ham-skin, and the bottle containing the liqueur, and secured them about my person, together with a large carving[[-]]knife which Augustus had left me — then, folding my cloak as closely around me as possible, I made a movement towards the mouth of the box. No sooner did I do this than the dog sprang with a loud growl towards my throat. The whole weight of his body struck me on the right shoulder, and I fell violently to the left, while the enraged animal passed entirely over me. I had fallen upon my knees with my head buried among the blankets, and these protected me from a second furious assault, during which I felt the sharp teeth pressing vigorously upon the woollen which enveloped my neck — yet, luckily, without being able to penetrate all the folds. I was now beneath the dog, and a few moments would place me completely in his power. Despair gave me strength, and I rose bodily up, shaking him from me by main force, and dragging with me the blankets from the mattress. These I now threw over him, and before he could extricate himself I had gotten through the door and closed it effectually against his pursuit. In this struggle, however, I had been forced to drop the morsel of ham-skin, and I now found my whole stock of provisions reduced to a single gill of liqueur. As this reflection crossed my mind I felt myself actuated by one of those fits of perverseness which might be supposed to influence a spoiled child in similar circumstances, and, raising the bottle to my lips, I drained it to the last drop, and dashed it furiously upon the ground.

Scarcely had the echo of the crash died away, when I heard my name pronounced in an eager but subdued voice, issuing from the direction of the steerage. So unexpected was anything of the kind, and so intense was the emotion excited within me by the sound, that I endeavored in vain to reply. My powers of voice totally failed, and, in an agony of terror lest my friend should conclude me dead and return without attempting to reach me, I stood up between the crates near the door of the box, trembling convulsively, and gasping and struggling for utterance. Had a thousand worlds depended upon a syllable, I could not have spoken it. There was a slight movement now audible among the lumber somewhere forward of my station. The sound presently grew less distinct, then again less so, and still less. Shall I ever forget my feelings at this moment? He was going — my friend — my companion, from whom I had a right to expect so much — he was going — he would abandon me — he was gone! He would leave me to perish miserably, to expire in the most horrible and loathsome of dungeons — and one word — one little syllable would save me — yet that single syllable I could not utter! I felt, I am sure, more than ten thousand times the agonies of death itself. My brain reeled, and I fell, deadly sick, against the end of the box.

As I fell, the carving-knife was shaken out from the waistband of my pantaloons, and dropped with a rattling sound to the floor. Never did any strain of the richest melody come so sweetly to my ears! With the intensest anxiety I listened to ascertain the effect of the noise upon Augustus — for I knew that the person who called my name could be no one but himself. All was silent for some moments. At length I again heard the word, [[“]]Arthur! [[“]] repeated in a low tone, and one full of hesitation. Reviving hope loosened at once my powers of speech, and I now screamed, at the top of my voice, “Augustus! oh Augustus! “ “Hush! — for God's sake be silent!” he replied, in a voice trembling with agitation, “I will be with you immediately — as soon as I can make my way through the hold.” For a long time I heard him moving among the lumber, and every moment seemed to me an age. At length I felt his hand upon my shoulder, and he placed at the same moment a bottle of water to my lips. Those only who have been suddenly redeemed from the jaws of the tomb, or who have known the insufferable torments of thirst under circumstances as aggravated as those which encompassed me in my dreary prison, can form any idea of the unutterable transports which that one long draught, of the richest of all physical luxuries, afforded.

When I had in some degree satisfied my thirst, Augustus produced from his pocket three or four cold boiled potatoes, which I devoured with the greatest avidity. He had brought with him a light in a dark lantern, and the grateful rays afforded me scarcely less comfort than the food and drink. But I was impatient to learn the cause of his protracted absence, and he proceeded to recount what had happened on board during my incarceration.

The brig put to sea, as I had supposed, in about an hour after he had left the watch. This was on the twentieth of April. It will be remembered that I had then been in the hold for three days; and, during this period there was so constant a bustle on board, and so much running to and fro, especially in the cabin and state-rooms, that he had had no chance of visiting me without the risk of having the secret of the trap discovered. When at length he did come, I had assured him that I was doing as well as possible; and, therefore, for the two next days, be felt but little uneasiness on my account — still, however, watching an opportunity of going down. It was not until the fourth day that he found one. Several times during this interval he had made up his mind to let his father know of the adventure, and have me come up at once; but we were still within reaching distance of Nantucket, and it was doubtful, from some expressions which had escaped Captain Barnard, whether he would not immediately put back if he discovered me to be on board. Besides, upon thinking the matter over, Augustus, so he told me, could not imagine that I was in immediate want, or that I would hesitate, in such case, to make myself heard at the trap. When, therefore, he considered every thing, he concluded to let me stay, until he could meet with an opportunity of visiting me unobserved. This, as I said before, did not occur until the fourth day after his bringing me the watch, and the seventh since I had first entered the hold. He then went down, without taking with him any water or provisions, intending in the first place merely to call my attention, and get me to come from the box to the trap — when he would go up to the state-room and thence hand me down a supply. When he descended for this purpose he found that I was asleep, for it seems that I was snoring very loudly. From all the calculations I can make on the subject, this must have been the slumber into which I fell just after my return from the trap with the watch, and which, consequently, must have lasted for more than three entire days and nights at the very least. Latterly, I have had reason, both from my own experience and the assurance of others, to be acquainted with the strong soporific effects of the stench arising from old fish oil when closely confined; and when I think of the condition of the hold in which I was imprisoned, and the long period during which the brig had been used as a whaling-vessel, I am more inclined to wonder that I awoke at all, after once falling asleep, than that I should have slept uninterruptedly for the period specified above.

Augustus called to me, at first in a low voice and without closing the trap — but I made him no reply. He then shut the trap, and spoke to me in a louder, and finally in a very loud tone — still I continued to snore. He was now at a loss what to do. It would take him some time to make his way through the lumber to my box, and in the meanwhile his absence would be noticed by Captain Barnard, who had occasion for his services every minute, in arranging and copying papers connected with the business of the voyage. He determined [[,]] therefore, upon reflection, to ascend, and await another opportunity of visiting me. He was the more easily induced to this resolve, as my slumber appeared to be of the most tranquil nature, and he could not suppose that I had undergone any inconvenience from my incarceration. He had just made up his mind on these points, when his attention was arrested by an unusual bustle, the sound of which proceeded apparently from the cabin. He sprang through the trap as quickly as possible, closed it, and threw open the door of his state-room. No sooner had he put his foot over the threshold, than a pistol flashed in his face, and he was knocked down, at the same moment, by a blow from a handspike.

A strong hand held him on the cabin floor, with a tight grasp upon his throat — still he was able to see what was going on around him. His father was tied hand and foot, and lying along the steps of the companion way with his head down, and a deep wound in the forehead, from which the blood was flowing in a continued stream. He spoke not a word, and was apparently dying. Over him stood the first mate, eyeing him with an expression of fiendish derision, and deliberately searching his pockets, from which he presently drew forth a large wallet and a chronometer. Seven of the crew (among whom was the cook, a negro) were rummaging the state-rooms on the larboard for arms, where they soon equipped themselves with muskets and ammunition. Beside Augustus and Captain Barnard, there were nine men altogether in the cabin, and these among the most ruffianly of the brig's company. The villains now went upon deck, taking my friend with them, after having secured his arms behind his back. They proceeded straight to the forecastle, which was fastened down — two of the mutineers standing by it with axes — two also at the main hatch. The mate called out in a loud voice, “Do you hear there below? tumble up with you! — one by one, now, mark that! — and no grumbling.” It was some minutes before any one appeared: at last, an Englishman, who had shipped as a raw hand, came up, weeping piteously, and entreating the mate in the most humble manner to spare his life. The only reply was a blow on the forehead from an axe. The poor fellow fell to the deck without a groan, and the black cook lifted him up in his arms as he would a child, and tossed him deliberately into the sea. Hearing the blow and the plunge of the body, the men below could now be induced to venture on deck by neither threats nor promises, until a proposition was made to smoke them out. A general rush then ensued, and for a moment it seemed possible that the brig might be retaken. The mutineers, however, succeeded at last in closing the forecastle effectually before more than six of their opponents could get up. These six, finding themselves so greatly outnumbered and without arms, submitted after a brief struggle. The mate gave them fair words — no doubt with a view of inducing those below to yield, for they had no difficulty in hearing all that was said on deck. The result proved his sagacity, no less than his diabolical villainy. All in the forecastle presently signified their intention of submitting, and, ascending one by one, were pinioned and thrown on their backs, together with the first six — there being in all, of the crew who were not concerned in the mutiny, twenty-seven.




For an explanation of the formatting used in this comparative text, see editorial policies and methods.

Because this presentation represents multiple texts, with differing pagination, page numbers have been omitted.

Only the first two installments of the story were printed in the SLM, and they do not quite align with the first two chapters as they were printed in the book in 1838. The first three paragraphs provided above originally appeared at the end of the first installment. That text has been included here to record the variants in Chapter 02. The last fourteen paragraphs in Chapter 02 did not appear in the installments of the Southern Literary Messenger. They have been provided primarily for reference and convenience of the reader.



[S:0 - JAS] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Works - Tales - Narrative of A. G. Pym - CH02 (comparative - SLM and PYM)