Text: Killis Campbell, “The Poe Canon,” The Mind of Poe and Other Studies (1933), pp. 187-238 (This material is protected by copyright)


∞∞∞∞∞∞∞


[page 187:]

THE POE CANON(1)

I

THE first collective edition of Poe’s works was that of Rufus W. Griswold, published in four volumes, the first three volumes in 1850 and the fourth in 1856.(2) The latest collective edition is that of Professor James A. Harrison, comprising sixteen volumes and published in 1902.(3) The Griswold edition contains 42 poems, 68 tales, and 74 essays and miscellaneous prose articles. The Harrison edition — otherwise known as the “Virginia Poe” — contains 55 poems (including seven “poems attributed to Poe”), 70 tales, and no less than 285 essays and miscellaneous articles. There are listed, also, in the edition, in a bibliography printed in the appendix of the sixteenth volume,(4) some forty other items which are not reprinted in that edition. There are a good many items that have been ascribed to Poe at one time or [page 188:] another that are not included in Harrison’s bibliography. Among these are some twenty-five poems, six tales, and upwards of fifty brief essays, making in all more than four score poems, 77 tales, and over four hundred essays of one sort or another that have been attributed to Poe.

The growth of the Poe canon is thus seen to have been extraordinary. The increase is to be traced to several circumstances. In the first place, Griswold, although he professed to publish everything that Poe would have wished to preserve,(1) omitted a number of things that must surely have been known to him, and others, probably, through oversight.(2) There must have been a good many things, too, that were inaccessible to him, and some things, no doubt, of which he was entirely ignorant. It is reasonably clear that Poe had not preserved any very full collection of his writings. He wrote Lowell, for instance, in 1844 that he had not saved copies of any of the volumes of his poems, and that at that time he had “on hand” only one of his stories, “The Gold-Bug.”(3) So far as we know, moreover, he had not taken the trouble to make up any very exhaustive list of his publications. And most of his essays — especially his editorial and critical essays had been published anonymously, while some of them had appeared in extremely out-of-the-way places. [page 189:] Small wonder, then, if Griswold missed a good many things.

The main discoveries of new items have been made by Mr. J. H. Ingram, Professor George E. Wood-berry, Professor James A. Harrison, Mr. J. H. Whitty, and Professor Thomas Ollive Mabbott. To Mr. Ingram it fell a good many years ago to establish Poe’s authorship of “The Journal of Julius Rodman,”(1) a tale of more than 25,000 words published anonymously in Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine in 1840, when Poe was one of its editors. Professor Woodberry succeeded not long afterwards in turning up, in a New York annual, Poe’s tale “The Elk” (or “Morning on the Wissahiccon”) ;(2) and he subsequently brought to light a fragment of another tale, “The Light-house.”(3) Professor Harrison was the first to present at all adequately Poe’s contributions to the Southern Literary Messenger and the Broadway Journal, printing in his edition more than a hundred brief articles that had been either overlooked or ignored by former editors. Mr. J. H. Whitty has called attention to a half-dozen or more new poems that he attributes to Poe, and he has in addition drawn attention to some neglected prose items in [page 190:] Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine.(1) Other uncollected items have been pointed out by B. B. Minor (several short papers in the Southern Literary Messenger),(2) by Professor John C. French (a signed poem and two other poems perhaps by Poe, in the Baltimore Saturday Visiter for 1833),(3) by Professor Thomas Ollive Mabbott (several articles contributed to Thomas Dunn English’s Aristidean and articles in the Democratic Review, the Pittsburgh Literary Examiner,(4) and the Philadelphia Public Ledger), by Miss Margaret Alterton (sundry articles in the Southern Literary Messenger and Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine),(5) by Miss Mary E. Phillips (a dozen or more items, including articles in Blackwood’s Magazine),(6) and by myself (some forty miscellaneous articles, mainly reviews and editorials, in the Southern Literary Messenger, Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine, Graham’s Magazine, the Broadway Journal, and the New York Evening Mirror).(7)

In the course of these many accretions, it is but natural that some things should have crept into the [page 191:] canon which on closer examination must be rejected from it, and that certain other things should have been admitted that are of doubtful authenticity. It stands to reason, too, that some things belonging to Poe should have eluded the search of his editors and bibliographers. The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the genuineness of a number of items that appear to be either spurious or of doubtful authority, and to indicate where further additions to the canon may possibly be found.

II

(A) Poems. — Of poems that have been erroneously ascribed to Poe there are upwards of a score. First of all, there are ten or a dozen pieces that have at some time been ascribed to the poet but that have subsequently been shown to be the work of other hands. These include “My Soul,” a brief poem written by a student of the University of Virginia and published as a “Poe find” in one of the University annuals;(1) Hood’s sonnet on “Silence,” which Poe published in Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine above his own initial, and which I, misled by this, once attempted to saddle upon him;(2) “Kelah,” a piece of doggerel (sometimes entitled “The Murderer”) which is from time to time resurrected and [page 192:] proclaimed to the world as a Poe discovery; some crude lines beginning “O, where shall our waking be,” published above Poe’s initials in the New York Tribune of August 27, 1845, and later assigned to a writer using the initials “E. A. S.” (E. A. Stansbury?) ;(1) four short poems — “To Isadore,” “The Village Street,” “The Forest Reverie,” and “Annette” — from the pen of A. M. Ide, published in the Broadway Journal in 1845, and tentatively attributed to Poe by Mr. John H. Ingram;(2) a parody of “The Raven” by Harriet Winslow, published originally in Graham’s Magazine in April, 1848;(3) a part of one of Mrs. Osgood’s earlier poems, “Woman’s Trust, a Dramatic Sketch,” impliedly given to Poe by John Pendleton Kennedy in his Autograph Leaves of American Authors (in which an excerpt from the poem appears in facsimile in Poe’s autograph) ;(4) a part of S. Anna Lewis’s poem “The Forsaken”;(5) “Lilitha,” an imitation of “Ulalume,” now known to be the work of F. G. Fairfield;(6) and “Leonainie,” assigned to Poe by a contributor to the [page 193:] Fortnightly Review in 1904,(1) but later shown to have been written by James Whitcomb Riley.(2)

There are also several poems still attributed to Poe by one or more of his editors or biographers which we can be sure are not his work. These are: 1) a translation of the Greek “Hymn in Honor of Harmodius and Aristogiton,” first published in the Southern Literary Messenger for December, 1835;(3) 2) “The Mammoth Squash,” which appeared in Thomas Dunn English’s Aristidean, October, 1845;(4) 3) “The Poets and Poetry of America,” a satire in verse published under the pseudonym “Lavante” at Philadelphia in 1847;(5) 4) “The Fire-Fiend,” which first appeared in the New York Saturday Press, November 19, 1859.(6)

1) It may be argued in favor of Poe’s authorship of the “Hymn in Honor of Harmodius and Aristogiton” — first attributed to Poe by Ingram,(7) and also included by Harrison and Whitty in their editions of the poems (under “Poems Attributed to Poe” in each instance) (8) — that the article containing the translation is subscribed with Poe’s initial and that Poe, who was the editor of the Messenger when the poem appeared, had signed at least one article known [page 194:] to be his in the same way.(1) But there is an article in the Messenger for March, 1848,(2) in which the writer, who signs himself “M.,” expressly claims the authorship of the translation for himself. Examination of the files of the Messenger reveals that “M.” was one of the signatures used by Lucian Minor, a gifted lawyer of Louisa County, Virginia, and at one time Professor of Law at William and Mary College. Minor had contributed to the Messenger from its beginning. Poe, in subscribing his initial to the article containing the poem, did not mean, I take it, to set up any claim to its authorship.

2) “The Mammoth Squash” is included among the “Poems Attributed to Poe” by both Harrison(3) and Whitty.(4) But it is clear enough from the context in which the lines originally appeared that they were not by Poe, but were intended as a hoax, as was the case, also, with the verses accompanying them and attributed to Longfellow, Whittier, and others.(5)

3) The “Lavante” booklet, which adopts the title of Griswold’s famous anthology, The Poets and Poetry of America, was first attributed to Poe by Mr. Oliver Leigh, writing under the pen-name “Geoffrey Quarles,” in a pamphlet on the subject(6) [page 195:] in which a reprint of the satire is included. Leigh holds that the poem is nothing other than Poe’s “American Parnassus” (or “The Authors of America in Prose and Verse,” as Poe sometimes styled it), a critical treatise on the celebrities of Poe’s time, on which we know, from various allusions to it in his letters, he was engaged during several years after his return to New York in 1844. That this view is erroneous is evident, I think, from the style of the poem. But there is conclusive demonstration that the article is not Poe’s in a letter of his, of the date December 15, 1846,(1) in which the projected volume is described in some detail. Alluding to his “Literati” articles in Godey’s (1846), Poe says: “The unexpected circulation of the series, also, suggested to me that I might make a hit and some profit. . . by extending the plan into that of a book on American Letters generally, and keeping the publication in my own hands.” Continuing, he writes: “I am now at this — body and soul. I intend to be thorough. . . to examine analytically. . . all the salient points of Literature in general — e. g., Poetry, The Drama, Criticism, Historical Writing, Versification, &c., &c. You may get an idea of the manner in which I propose to write the whole book, by reading the notice of Hawthorne which will appear in the January ‘Godey,’(2) as well as the article on ‘The Rationale [page 196:] of Verse.’” This makes it plain that the “Parnassus” was in prose and that it dealt with prose writers as well as with writers of verse; the “Lavante” pamphlet is in verse, and deals only with “poets and poetry.” Mr. Whitty is, I think, right in his conjecture(1) that Poe’s “Parnassus” was the same as his “Living Writers of America,” certain notes for the prospectus of which are still in existence.

4) Both Stedman and Gill believed “The Fire-Fiend” to be Poe’s, and Professor Harrison also inclined to the same view.(2) But C. D. Gardette, who first attributed the poem to Poe (in the New York Saturday Press of November 19, 1859), subsequently published a pamphlet — The Whole Truth in the Question of the Fire-Fiend, Philadelphia, 1864 — in which he admits that he composed the piece himself.(3)

Besides these there are several other poems that have been attributed to Poe for which I do not believe the poet is to be held responsible. These are: 1) “The Three Meetings”; 2) “The Skeleton Hand” and “The Magician”; 3) “To Sarah”; [page 197:] 4) “An Enigma”; 5) “A Poetical Epistle to Mr. Pickwick” and “A Bachelor’s Address to his Cane”; 6) “The Times”; 7) “The Departed”; 8) “Gratitude.”

1) “The Three Meetings” is ascribed to Poe by Mr. Irving T. Richards in an article entitled “A New Poe Poem” published in Modern Language Notes for March, 1927.(1) Mr. Richards holds that these lines, which were published in John Neal’s Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette in February, 1828, and which are there signed “Edgar,” are an early poem of Poe’s, though he suggests that they had probably been tinkered with by someone else before being sent to Neal. I find nothing in “The Three Meetings,” however, whether in matter or in style, that suggests the hand of Poe. Besides, the lines are dated “Cambridge, Feb. 19, 1828,” whereas (as Mr. Richards concedes) Poe was stationed at Charleston, South Carolina, at that time.

2) “The Skeleton Hand” and “The Magician” were first attributed to Poe by Professor Harrison in 1902 on the grounds that they were subscribed with the initial “P.”(2) — a signature which Poe had used with occasional articles in the Messenger, Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine, and the Broadway Journal — and that they were published in the Yankee shortly after excerpts from his “Fairy-Land” and other early verses had appeared there. But neither of the poems is in Poe’s manner; and one of them — “The [page 198:] Magician” — is an obvious imitation of “The Ancient Mariner,” whereas Poe in his acknowledged productions displayed little if anything of Coleridge’s influence before 1831. The evidence of the signature, furthermore, is by no means conclusive, since there were numerous other articles in the American periodicals of the time that bore the signature “P.”(1)

3) “To Sarah” was first attributed to Poe in 1911 by Mr. J. H. Whitty.(2) It was published in the Southern Literary Messenger for August, 1835,(3) while Poe was connected with that magazine, and was signed “ Sylvio.” Mr. Whitty attributes the poem to Poe on the basis of a memorandum which he believes was made by Poe in the “Duane” copy of the Southern Literary Messenger, on the strength of which he also [page 199:] attributes to Poe a story, “The Doom,” which was published in the same number of the Messenger. But, as I shall later show,(1) Mr. Whitty is mistaken in attributing “The Doom” to Poe. Besides, in both mood and diction the lines “To Sarah” are unlike anything we have that is indubitably Poe’s. Particularly unlike Poe is the very realistic reference to the mocking-bird in the second stanza; and unlike him also is the slip (in the third stanza) in referring to “Hermon’s dew” as “Hermia’s dew,” an allusion which Poe gets quite right both in Politian and in his lines to Mrs. Shew beginning “Not long ago, the writer of these lines.”(2)

4) Another poem first attributed to Poe by Mr. Whitty(3) is “An Enigma,” some lines which were cited in a brief note — apparently by Poe — entitled “Palindromes” in Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine for May, 1840, as furnishing an example of “an enigma where all the words required are palindromes.” The writer of this note, however, does not set up a claim to the authorship of the poem. Moreover, if the poem actually be Poe’s, it was written by him a good many years before its publication in Burton’s; for a version of it, differing only in phrasing here and there, appeared in the Philadelphia Casket for May, 1827.(4) This earlier version — which is entitled [page 200:] “Enigma” and was unsigned — runs as follows:

First take a word that does silence proclaim,

Which backwards and forwards does still spell the same;

Then add to the first a feminine name,

Which backwards and forwards does still spell the same;

An instrument, too, which lawyers oft frame,

And backwards and forwards does still spell the same;

A very rich fruit whose Botanical name,

Both backwards and forwards does still spell the same;

And a musical note which all will proclaim,

Both backwards and forwards does still spell the same;

The initials of these, when joined form a name,

Which every young lady that’s married will claim,

And backwards and forwards does still spell the same.

5) The two pieces of doggerel entitled “A Poetical Epistle to Mr. Pickwick” and “A Bachelor’s Address to his Cane,” embodied in a volume entitled English Notes(1) (published at Boston in 1842), were first attributed to Poe by Mr. Joseph Jackson in an article in the World’s Work for January, 1912.(2) As I point out below, the inadequacy of the evidence on which English Notes has been attributed to Poe is conclusively shown by Mr. W. N. C. Carlton in an article in the Americana Collector for February, 1926.(3) With the rejection of English Notes as Poe’s, the case for Poe’s authorship of these two effusions falls to the ground. [page 201:]

6) “The Times,” also a piece of doggerel, was published in the Boston Mail for January 11, 1843, where it is ascribed to “The Author of ‘English Notes.’ “(1) The rejection of English Notes as Poe’s automatically carries with it the rejection of these lines.

7) “The Departed,” published in the Broadway Journal for July 12, 1845, above the initial “L.,” has been ascribed to Poe by the poet Chivers;(2) but as I have elsewhere tried to show,(3) the poem is probably the work of Chivers himself.

8) “Gratitude,” attributed to Poe by Mr. Whitty,(4) first appeared in The Symposia published at Providence, Rhode Island, early in 1845, above the initials “E. A. P.” The lines do not resemble anything that has been authenticated as Poe’s. There appeared in The Symposia, moreover, two items signed with the initials “E. A. B.,” which begets the suspicion that the initials “E. A. P.” as appended to the poem involve a typographical error for “E. A. B.,” the initials of the Boston poet and artist E. A. Brackett, author of Twilight Hours and other volumes.

There are also a number of poems that have been ascribed to Poe on evidence that is more or less plausible, but that is not entirely convincing. These include: 1) “Oh Tempora! oh Mores!” some crude [page 202:] verses published in the No Name Magazine for October, 1889; 2) “Lines to Louisa,” a short poem, possibly in Poe’s handwriting, found among the Ellis-Allan Papers; 3) “Alone,” some lines preserved in manuscript in a Baltimore autograph album; 4) “A West Point Lampoon,” said to have been written by Poe while a cadet at West Point; 5) two poems — “To —— “ (“Sleep on,” etc.) and “Fanny” — published in the Baltimore Saturday Visiter in 1833 above the signature “Tamerlane”; 6) “Spiritual Song,” a fragment of three lines found in manuscript, conjecturally in Poe’s autograph, in the desk used by the poet while editor of the Southern Literary Messenger; 7) “The Great Man,” also from a manuscript found in Poe’s desk; 8) “Extract from an Unfinished Poem,” published anonymously in the Southern Literary Messenger for March, 1835; 9) “Ballad,” published anonymously in the Messenger for August, 1835; 10) “Fragment of, a Campaign Song,” published in the New York Times of March 4, 1899; 11) “New Year’s Address of the Carriers of the Columbia Spy,” published in the Spy of January 1, 1844, and tentatively assigned to Poe by Mr. T. O. Mabbott; 12) “Impromptu. To Kate Carol,” some punning lines that appeared in the Broadway Journal for April 26, 1845; and 13) “Stanzas” and “The Divine Right of Kings,” published above the initial “P.” in Graham’s Magazine for October and December (respectively), 1845.(1) [page 203:]

1) The lines “Oh Tempora! oh Mores!” were first published in the No Name Magazine for October, 1889,1 by E. L. Didier, who declared that the manuscript of the poem had long been in the possession of the MacKenzie family in Richmond, with whom Poe’s sister Rosalie made her home, and that their authenticity as Poe’s had been vouched for by John R. Thompson.(2) Both in style and in mood the lines are unlike anything published by Poe in his first volume of poems (1827) or in any subsequent volume; moreover, John R. Thompson, so far as I am aware, nowhere publicly attributed the poem to Poe, while Didier’s authority is discredited by his misleading statements with respect to the poem “Alone.”(3) Such evidence as we have in support of the genuineness of the poem, then, is wholly external and second-hand, and as such is far from conclusive.

2) The poem which I have referred to as “Lines to Louisa” is a crude lyric of four stanzas found in manuscript (without title) among papers left by the firm of Ellis and Allan (of which Poe’s foster-father was the junior member), and now preserved in the Library of Congress at Washington. The lines are perhaps in Poe’s handwriting, though we can be by no means certain of this. In style they are clumsy and bare; and I can discover in them nothing that points to Poe’s authorship. Their claim to authenticity must rest, then, on the circumstance that they [page 204:] were found among the Ellis-Allan Papers (which are a welter of miscellaneous documents from hundreds of different hands) and the possibility that they are in Poe’s handwriting, evidence that is exceedingly flimsy.

3) “Alone,” a poem much in the manner of “Tamerlane,” was first published by E. L. Didier in Scribner’s Monthly for September, 1875,(1) and was there said to have been taken from a manuscript, in Poe’s handwriting, that had long been in the possession of a Baltimore family. Didier published along with the poem what he declared to be a facsimile of the manuscript, but when it was pointed out that the date and place of the poem as given in this facsimile were inaccurate, he admitted that the date and place and the title had been filled in by himself, but maintained that the rest of the facsimile was in Poe’s autograph. It is fairly evident, however, that the poem proper is in the same handwriting as that of the date and place. Nevertheless, the style and diction and matter of the lyric so strongly suggest Poe that Poe’s editors have, almost without exception, held the poem to be genuine. The case for Poe’s authorship, in view of the internal evidence, seems to me to be strong.

4) “A West Point Lampoon” is a squib of eight lines said to have been written by Poe while at West Point and to have been directed against one of his instructors at the Academy. The lines were first [page 205:] attributed to Poe by Henry B. Hirst in the Philadelphia Saturday Museum of February 25, 1843; and as Hirst’s article was made up from materials furnished him by Poe, it would seem virtually certain that the poem is authentic. A fellow-cadet of Poe’s at the Academy, T. W. Gibson, also testifies to its authenticity in an article published in Harper’s Monthly for November, 1867.(1)

5) The two poems “To —— “ (“Sleep on, sleep on, another hour”) and “Fanny,” found by Professor J. C. French in the Baltimore Saturday Visiter for May, 1833, where they appear above the signature “Tamerlane,”(2) are not unlike Poe’s earlier work and may well have been youthful compositions which he felt to be unworthy of public acknowledgment. In particular, the third and fourth stanzas of “To —— “ seem to me to be in Poe’s early manner, though both poems in every likelihood proceeded from the same pen. The use of the pseudonym “Tamerlane” obviously strengthens the supposition that these poems are the work of Poe.

6) The lines entitled “Spiritual Song,” found by Mr. Whitty in manuscript in a desk used by Poe while editor of the Southern Literary Messenger,(3) are apparently in Poe’s autograph, and are, moreover, in the manner of some of his early lyrics, especially the songs in “Al Aaraaf.” Hence they are with great [page 206:] likelihood Poe’s. The evidence cannot be held to be conclusive, however, since, even though in Poe’s handwriting, it is possible that the manuscript was copied by him from some other source, as happened in the case of Miss Winslow’s parody of “The Raven” and in the case of the excerpt from Mrs. Osgood’s “Woman’s Trust.”(1)

7) “The Great Man,” also found by Mr. Whitty in the desk used by Poe while editing the Messenger, is likewise held by him to be in Poe’s handwriting.(2) The case for or against its genuineness as Poe’s is, then, much the same as with “Spiritual Song,” except that in style and content “The Great Man” is much less like Poe’s characteristic work than is “Spiritual Song.”

8) “Extract from an Unfinished Poem” is a fragment of some thirty lines which appeared anonymously in the Southern Literary Messenger for March, 1835.(3) In tone and diction the lines manifestly resemble Poe’s early long poem, “Tamerlane,” and it may well be that they are from his scrap-bag of unfinished or rejected verses, though obviously the evidence at hand is insufficient to do more than to suggest the possibility of Poe’s authorship.(4)

9) “Ballad,” first published in the Southern Literary Messenger for August, 1835,(5) is prefaced by a letter signed “Sidney,” in which it is asserted that [page 207:] the poem was composed by a fair lady acquaintance of the editor’s and had never before been printed. The lines strikingly resemble Poe’s “Bridal Ballad” (with which they possess one line in common save for the variation of a single word), and Professor Woodberry has suggested that they were probably an early draft of that poem.(1) In this conjecture he is in all likelihood right. The attribution of the poem to another (in the prefatory note accompanying it in the Messenger) would involve a piece of mystification by the poet paralleled by his attribution (by implication) of his “Letter to B —— “ to another in the text of that essay published in the Messenger for July, 1836.(2)

10) “Fragment of a Campaign Song” is a scrap of four lines first attributed to Poe by the artist Gabriel Harrison in the New York Times of March 4, 1899, and declared by him to have been written by the poet on a visit to New York in the winter of 1843-1844. In matter and style it resembles nothing else that has been associated with Poe; on the other hand, Harrison, who at one time painted a portrait of Poe, seems to have been a thoroughly reliable witness,(3) and there would accordingly appear to be little ground for doubting its authenticity.

11) “New Year’s Address of the Carriers of the Columbia Spy,” published in the Columbia Spy of January 1, 1844, is tentatively assigned to Poe by Mr. T. O. Mabbott.(4) The poem is without distinction, [page 208:] and is clumsily done; but Mr. Mabbott calls attention to certain parallels with Poe’s well-authenticated work, and suggests, by way of accounting for the crudity of the lines, that they may have been written in haste or at the suggestion of the editors of the Spy — and for a consideration. This is possible, but the evidence in the case is almost wholly circumstantial, and hence is, at best, as Mr. Mabbott admits, inconclusive.

12) “Impromptu. To Kate Carol,” four lines originally published in the Broadway Journal of April 26, 1845,(1) as a part of the “Editorial Miscellany” for that issue, was first attributed to Poe by Mr. Whitty.(2) The bulk of the editorials appearing in the Broadway at this time were evidently the work of Poe. Besides, as Mr. Whitty notes, “Kate Carol” was a pen-name adopted by Mrs. Frances Sargent Osgood with a number of her contributions to the magazines of the forties,(3) and Poe, as we know, was openly coquetting with Mrs. Osgood at the time. Hence there is much likelihood that the lines proceeded from him.

13) “Stanzas” and “The Divine Right of Kings,” first assigned to Poe by Mr. Whitty in an article in the New York Sun for November 21, 1915, were published in Graham’s Magazine for October and December (respectively), 1845, above the signature [page 209:] “P.”(1) This signature is expanded, so Mr. Whitty informs us, in a copy of Graham’s once owned by Mrs. Osgood, to read “E. A. P.” Neither of the two poems, however, resembles very closely anything else that has been attributed to Poe; and the inadequacy of the evidence afforded by the signature “P.” is apparent.(2) Inadequate also, as I have already shown,(3) is the handwriting as a basis of unqualified ascription of authorship. Further evidence must be forthcoming, then, before we can be sure that these two poems are Poe’s.(4)

B) Tales. — Of the tales that have at some time been associated with Poe’s name, there are only four about the authenticity of which any doubt still remains.(5) These are 1) “A Dream,” published in the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post for August 13, 1831; 2) “The Doom,” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for January, 1835; 3) “Erostratus,” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for July, 1836; and 4) “Who is the Murderer:” [page 210:] published in Blackwood’s Magazine for May, 1842.(1)

1) “A Dream” was published in the Saturday Evening Post for August 13, 1831, and is there signed with the initial “P.” For the suggestion that it is possibly the work of Poe, I am myself responsible.(2) In mood and diction the story is not unlike some of the more gruesome of Poe’s early tales; besides, Poe’s friend and comrade, L. A. Wilmer, was at the time on the staff of the Post, and it was through his influence perhaps that two of Poe’s poems, his “Sonnet. To Science” and the lines “To Helen,” had shortly before s been published in that journal. But such evidence as we have is plainly insufficient to do more than to raise the question whether the story is not the work of Poe.

2) “The Doom,” a brief narrative published in the Southern Literary Messenger for January, 1835,4 and there signed “Benedict,” is attributed to Poe by Mr. J. H. Whitty on the basis of a memorandum [page 211:] which he believes to have been made by the poet in the “Duane” copy of the Messenger for 1835.(1) In style and workmanship the story is exceedingly crude; in fact, it is so poor a performance that the editor of the Messenger took occasion, at the end of the number in which it appeared, to apologize for its admission into his columns.(2) The only evidence in support of Poe’s authorship is, then, the memorandum in the “Duane” Messenger. There is, to be sure, a reference at one point in the story to Poe’s well-known swimming feat in the James;(3) but this, in my judgment, tells against Poe’s authorship rather than for it. In a letter in the issue of the Messenger for May, 1835,(4) it may be added, Poe comments on the allusion made to him in the story, and in a later letter he inquires of Mr. White, proprietor of the Messenger, as to the authorship of the story.(5) Had Poe actually been the author of the tale, it is all but inconceivable that this correspondence could have gone on without White’s discovering it.(6)

3) The first to suggest that Poe perhaps wrote the [page 212:] tale “Erostratus”(1) was B. B. Minor in his volume The [[the]] Southern Literary Messenger.(2) Miss Alterton also suggests(3) the possibility of Poe’s authorship, her grounds for associating the story with Poe being the classic setting with which the plot has to do and sundry classical allusions that are introduced into the story. Poe was a staunch believer in the classics, and he seems to have been especially interested in classical lore during the time of his connection with the Messenger. He published in the Messenger for August of the same year his “Pinakidia,”(4) a collection of cullings in the manner of Disraeli, a good many of which are from the classics, and he introduced catalogues of classical authors into several of his early stories.(5) But Lucian Minor, as I have already shown,(6) was also connected with the Messenger at this time, and he was more immediately interested in the classics than was Poe. Besides, the style of the story is more bare, more metallic, I think, than Poe’s; and the incidents of the narrative are but little elaborated; so that I cannot bring myself to believe that this story was the work of Poe.

4) The story “Who is the Murderer?”(7) is assigned [page 213:] signed to Poe by Miss Mary E. Phillips(1) on the supposition that it is one of the articles which Poe claimed to have written for British journals early in the forties.(2) The story has Poe’s circumstantiality, and the method adopted in presenting the testimony of the witnesses in the trial that is described is not unlike that adopted in “The Murders in the Rue Morgue.” But the tale is much more loosely constructed than was usual with Poe, especially in his better years, and the suspense and the climax are poorly managed. Besides, it seems to me very unlikely that Poe would have referred to Kit North as “dear Christopher” and “your loving friend,”(3) as does the writer of this article.(4)

C) Book-Reviews, Editorials, and Miscellaneous Prose Items. — Among book-reviews attributed to Poe either erroneously or on evidence that is inconclusive are the following:(5) [page 214:]

1) A notice of Bryant’s poems in the Southern Literary Messenger for January, 1835.(1) This is given to Poe by implication in a bibliographical note in the Stedman-Woodberry edition of Poe’s Works,(2) and it is included in the collective edition of Poe’s Works(3) by Professor Harrison, though the editor expresses doubts as to its authenticity.(4) Poe contributed to the Messenger as early as February, 1835,(5) but I know of nothing to indicate that he wrote for the Messenger before that time. The article in question, moreover, is less simple and forthright than is usual with Poe, and is more florid in style.

2) A paragraph of five lines on “The Unities” in the Southern Literary Messenger for August, 1835.(6) This item, a paraphrase of a paragraph from Schlegel’s Lectures on Dramatic Art, is assigned to Poe by [page 215:] Miss Alterton in her thesis Origins of Poe’s Critical Theory (p. 73). As Miss Alterton notes, Poe seems to have been reading Schlegel at the time, and it was like him to paraphrase his original. The paragraph is in all likelihood Poe’s.

3) A letter signed “X. Y.” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for January, 1835.(1) This item is provisionally ascribed to Poe by Miss Alterton(2) on the basis of circumstantial evidence. The sentiments recorded are such as might have proceeded from Poe, but the style is hardly Poe’s, in my opinion. Besides, “X. Y.,” who represents himself as being a “purveyor” of manuscripts for the Messenger, caters, as he tells us, to Virginians, not (as was the case with Poe at the time) to Marylanders. I see no good reason for assigning this item to Poe.

4) Three articles entitled “Translation” (containing a versified rendering of one of the odes of Horace), “The Classics,” and “Some Ancient Greek Authors,” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for January, March, and April, 1836,(3) respectively. These are tentatively ascribed to Poe by Miss Alterton(4) on the ground that they deal with subjects in which Poe is known to have been interested at the time.(5) Each of them is possibly Poe’s; but it seems to me much more likely that they are the work of Lucian Minor, who was confessedly responsible [page 216:] for the translation of the “Hymn in Honor of Harmodius and Aristogiton,” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for December, 1835,(1) and there entitled “Greek Song.” There is nothing that suggests Poe, moreover, in the style of any of these articles, though it may be that Poe wrote the prose comments which accompany them.

5) “Chief Justice Marshall,” an article containing a review of three books dealing with Marshall, published in the Messenger for February, 1836.(2) This is given to Poe by Miss Alterton (p. 50), mainly on the ground of a reference by Poe in one of his letters(3) to an article on Marshall that he had sent to T. W. White, proprietor of the Messenger. The circumstantial evidence supporting Poe’s authorship seems to me to have weight; but the article is largely a compilation, and is less deftly mortised together than was usual with Poe. Besides, it was not like Poe to document quite so freely his reviews as is done in this instance. It is more probable, I think, as B. B. Minor suggests,(4) that the article was written by Judge Beverly Tucker.

6) An essay on “Genius” in the Southern Literary Messenger for April, 1836.(5) This is attributed to Poe by Dr. J. W. Robertson(6) and also by Miss Alterton.(7) The essay is concerned mainly with the “incompatibility” [page 217:] between “poetical and philosophical genius,” a theme with which, in one or another of its aspects, Poe was fond of dallying. With the incompatibility (as he held) between poetry and science he had dealt both in his “Sonnet. To Science” and in his long poem “Al Aaraaf.”(1) And he touches on the relation between poetry and science in his “Letter to B —— “ and incidentally in “The Purloined Letter.”(2) The subject, then, is one that would have been congenial to Poe. Two citations are made from Byron, moreover, besides quotations from Locke and Bacon, which would argue in favor of Poe’s authorship. On the other hand, three quotations are taken from Lucretius, whom Poe very rarely refers to; and the style of the paper has less of point and decision than we ordinarily find with Poe. I doubt, then, the authenticity of this item.

7) “Verbal Criticisms,” a series of comments on current phrases and idioms, published in the Messenger for May, 1836.(3) The item is attributed to Poe by Miss Alterton (p. 100 n.) on the ground that it appeared in the Messenger, and without any signature, while Poe was the editor. The article is not improbably Poe’s, though it cannot be taken for granted that all unsigned articles that appeared in the Messenger during his editorship are the work of his hand. The references to Coleridge’s Table Talk and Irving’s Tour of the Prairies point to Poe’s authorship, as does [page 218:] also the comment on the use of “ directly “ for “as soon as,” which Poe was to object to in an installment of the “Marginalia”(1) in the Democratic Review for December, 1844.(2) But over against the supposition of Poe’s authorship it is to be noted that another idiom objected to here, the progressive passive (as “is being built ”), is also objected to in a similar article published in the Messenger for May, 1837,(3) which seems to have proceeded from another hand than Poe’s.

8) “Character of Coriolanus,” an article published in the Southern Literary Messenger for November, 1836,(4) and subscribed with the initial “P.” This article Miss Alterton (p. 107) declares to be “unmistakably Poe’s.” The presence of Poe’s initial at the end of the article has weight, it must be admitted; but, as has already been shown,(5) it is by no means definitive as establishing Poe’s authorship. The article was perhaps written by Poe; though I do not feel that we can be sure of this.

9) Three articles entitled “The Philosophy of Antiquity,” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for November, 1836, and January and February, 1837.(6) These are provisionally ascribed to Poe by Miss Alterton (pp. 107, 110). Poe was interested in philosophy, as his writings reveal at various points; but I can find nothing either in the content or in the [page 219:] style of these papers that serves to establish their authenticity as his.

10) Certain reviews published in the Southern Literary Messenger for the months of February, April, October, and November, 1837, conjecturally ascribed to Poe by myself on the strength of a letter of his to Mrs. Sarah Josepha Hale, of the date October 30, 1837, in the course of which he asserts that he was at the time acting as editor of the Messenger.(1) Miss Mary E. Phillips in her Poe — the Man (p. 541) has suggested that Poe’s letter to Mrs. Hale was misdated by him, and that it was actually written on October 30, 1836; and she cites in support of her suggestion the fact that Mrs. Hale’s The Ladies’ Wreath, to which reference is made in Poe’s letter, was copyrighted in 1836, a circumstance that I first discovered some time after the publication of my article. This circumstance makes it likely, I think, that the items that I had provisionally assigned to Poe are the work of some other hand or hands.(2)

11) “New Views of the Solar System,” published in the Southern Literary Messenger for July and December, 1838,(3) and “New Views of the Tides,” published in the Messenger for December, 1838.(4) [page 220:] Miss Alterton holds (p. 144) that these articles are possibly Poe’s. But I know of nothing to indicate that Poe had any connection with the Messenger in 1838; on the contrary, there is evidence to show that he believed himself to be persona non grata to the proprietor of the Messenger (T. W. White) at that time.(1)

12) “Half an Hour in the Academy of Fine Arts at Philadelphia,” published in Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine for August, 1839.(2) This article is attributed to Poe by Miss Alterton (p. 93), on the theory that it represents some of the miscellaneous material which Poe claims to have written for Burton’s, but for which his editors have not accounted.(3) The article is professedly the work of “A Philadelphian,” whereas it would hardly have been like Poe to proclaim himself a Philadelphian. Besides, it is not, I think, in Poe’s manner,(4) and it contains no phrase or allusion that one would readily associate with Poe.(5)

13) A review of Captain Marryat’s Diary in [page 221:] America, published in Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine for February, 1840.(1) This is listed by Professor Harrison(2) among Poe’s writings, but is not included by him in the text of his edition. There is neither internal nor external evidence to support the ascription of the item to Poe. Moreover, in a letter(3) of Poe’s to Burton in which he professes to give an accurate reckoning of his contributions to Burton’s month by month, he claims to have furnished only twelve pages of original matter for the issue of February, 1840, or precisely the number of pages covered by four items published in that issue that are all manifestly Poe’s, namely, the chapter from “Julius Rodman,” “The Business Man,” and the reviews of Voices of the Night and Duncan’s Sacred Philosophy of the Seasons.

14) A brief review of Ainsworth’s Tower of London in Graham’s for March, 1841.(4) The grounds for doubting Poe’s authorship of this item are these: that Poe in reviewing Ainsworth’s Guy Fawkes in Graham’s for November, 1841,(5) asserts that he had hitherto read nothing of The Tower of London save “some detached passages”; that he expresses in his notice of Guy Fawkes a view of Ainsworth’s Jack Sheppard at variance with that expressed by the reviewer [page 222:] of The Tower of London; and that the reviewer of The Tower of London mentions a notice by himself of Jack Sheppard, whereas there is no evidence that Poe ever published such a review.

15) The review of G. P. R. James’s The Ancient Regime in Graham’s Magazine for October, 1841.(1) This was attributed to Poe by myself(2) on the basis of a reference to Poe’s review of James’s Corse de Leon in Graham’s for June, 1841; but a foot-note (which I had overlooked) in this issue of Graham’s (p. 189) gives the information that Poe wrote none of the reviews contained in the June number.

16) Several articles published either anonymously or pseudonymously in Blackwood’s during the years 1842 and 1847 and attributed to Poe by Miss Mary E. Phillips,(3) — namely, “The Copyright Question,” “Copyright,” a review of Dickens’s American Notes, signed “Q. Q. Q.,” “Maga in America,” “The American Library,” and “Emerson.”(4) That Poe wrote for Blackwood’s is indicated by a statement that he made in a letter to Dr. J. E. Snodgrass of September 11, 1839, to the effect that he had recently “made a profitable engagement with Blackwood’s.”(5) He declared, too, in an autobiographical memorandum sent to Griswold in 1841 that he had “lately. . . written articles continuously for two British [page 223:] journals.”(1) Miss Phillips, then, is entitled to our gratitude for endeavoring to clear up the mystery surrounding Poe’s alleged contributions to British periodicals. But I am not convinced that any one of the articles that she mentions was written by Poe. I can find in no one of them anything that smacks of Poe’s characteristic style, — except, perhaps, in the article entitled “The Copyright Question,” which has the intensity and the precision that distinguish Poe’s work. But the copyright question was an important question, and it seems to me unlikely that the editor of Blackwood’s would have commissioned a writer as little known as Poe was in 1842 to prepare for him a lengthy article on the subject. Poe’s authorship of the article on American Notes is discredited, among other things, by the statement(2) that Dickens was “justly oppressed and disgusted at the consciousness of being in a slave country.” Similarly the article on “Emerson” is discredited as Poe’s by the statement, twice made (pp. 644, 657), that Emerson displayed “above all others” in America “undoubted marks of original genius,” — a view that runs quite counter to Poe’s recorded judgments on Emerson. And the article on “ The American Library” was apparently written by an Englishman, — certainly not by Poe, for he constantly misspells the name of Simms, and he professes to be uncertain as to whether Margaret Fuller should be referred to as “Mrs.” or “Miss.” [page 224:]

17) The article entitled “Imagination” (a review of Louisa Frances Poulter’s Imagination) published in Graham’s for March, 1842.(1) Professor Harrison lists this — perhaps by an oversight — in his bibliography of Poe,(2) but he does not include it in his edition. In the table of contents for the volume of Graham’s in which the article appeared, it is ascribed to Park Benjamin.

18) A review of Bulwer’s Zanoni in Graham’s for June, 1842.(3) That this review is not Poe’s is established by a letter written by him to J. E. Snodgrass of June 4, 1842,(4) in which Poe makes a vigorous denial of its authorship. Poe asserts in the same place that it was not from the pen of Griswold, but was the “handiwork of some underling.”

19) A review of Griswold’s Poets and Poetry of America, also in Graham’s for June, 1842.(5) This article is included in the Harrison edition of Poe;(6) but it does not appear in Griswold’s edition; nor is it attributed to Poe by W. M. Griswold in his edition of his father’s letters.(7) And it is not mentioned by Poe in a list of his publications about Griswold sent the latter in 1849,(8) in the hope, apparently, of placating him in advance of the publication of a forthcoming [page 225:] edition of his anthology, in which Poe was eager to receive favorable notice. Had Poe written the review he would in all likelihood have included it in his list; for it contains nothing that is especially disparaging to Griswold. Finally, there is Poe’s declaration in his letter to Snodgrass of June 4, 1842,(1) that he had withdrawn from Graham’s with the May issue. All this makes Poe’s title extremely questionable.(2)

20) A volume entitled English Notes and signed “Quarles Quickens,” published at Boston in 1842. The volume was first attributed to Poe by Mr. Joseph Jackson in an article published in the World’s Work for January, 1912,(3) and it is also assigned to Poe by Miss Phillips.(4) Mr. Jackson, who brought out (with Mr. George H. Sargent) a reprint of the volume in 1920, assembles in the preface of this reprint(5) the evidence as he sees it in support of Poe’s authorship, noting among other things that Poe had an axe to grind with Dickens, that he had adopted the pseudonym “Quarles” with the first publication of “The Raven,” that both “Quarles Quickens” and Poe were given to making a show of erudition, that Poe was, like “Quarles Quickens,” an “intense lover of [page 226:] America,” and that Poe was acquainted with Europe. But that this volume was not the work of Poe has been pretty conclusively shown by Mr. W. N. C. Carlton in an article in the Americana Collector for February, 1926.(1) Mr. Carlton takes up the chief points proposed by Mr. Jackson and demonstrates their inadequacy; and by way of further confutation of the assumption of Poe’s authorship, he calls attention(2) to some lines entitled “The Times” published in the Boston Daily Mail of January 7, 1843, and there attributed to “the Author of English Notes,” lines which are, as he justly observes, sheer doggerel and may scarcely be conceived of as the work of Poe by any stretch of the imagination.

21) An extended review of Griswold’s Poets and Poetry of America published in the Philadelphia Saturday Museum early in 1843 (probably in January). The review is ascribed to Poe by W. F. Gill, who reprints it in his life of Poe.(3) Professor Woodberry holds(4) that the article is “indubitably Poe’s,” and his opinion in any matter relating to Poe is entitled to high respect. But I do not feel that this article may safely be assigned to Poe without reservation. The reviewer’s observations on prosody, his insistence on honesty in criticism, his mention of “ideality” as a poetic trait, his praise of Willis and Thomas and Conrad and Mrs. Osgood, and his censure of Wordsworth and Keats, all point to Poe as [page 227:] the author. But the scurrilous and egotistical tone adopted in the review, and the looseness and carelessness of style, point in the opposite direction; and so also with the characterization of Bryant (p. 223) as a poet whose “sole merit is tolerable versification and fine marches of description.”(1) Moreover, in a list that Poe gave shortly before his death of the articles that he had written about Griswold,(2) he does not include this review. It is possible, of course, that Poe wrote the review in collaboration with some other contributor to the Saturday Museum; or it may be that he merely touched up a review that some of his admirers had submitted to him; or, again, and this seems to me the most plausible theory, it may be that Poe had no hand in the review, the article being written by some imitator of his manner, — with great likelihood, I think, the Philadelphia poetaster Henry B. Hirst.(3)

22) “Our Magazine Literature,” an article published in the New World for March 11, 1843,4 and there subscribed with the letter “L.” The item is attributed to Poe by W. M. Griswold in Passages from the Correspondence of Rufus W. Griswold (p. 118), but on what ground he does not state. In both style and substance the article is not unlike Poe’s work. [page 228:] Besides, L. G. Clark, editor of the Knickerbocker, apparently understood the article to be Poe’s, since he refers to it in the Knickerbocker of April, 1843,(1) as the work of an “ authorling. . . of a small volume of. . . trash. . . fallen dead-born from the press, before the first fifty copies printed are exhausted in a third edition.” But such evidence as we have is insufficient to warrant the unconditional ascription of the article to Poe.(2)

23) Three editorials published in the Philadelphia Public Ledger in July, 1844, and ascribed to Poe by Eli Bowen, editor of the Columbia Spy,(3) to which journal Poe contributed a series of articles at about the same time. From these papers it appears that Bowen was in fairly close touch with Poe; hence we are justified in concluding, I think, with Mr. T. O. Mabbott,(4) that the evidence is “almost conclusive” in support of Poe’s authorship.

24) Two articles on “Puffing” and a paragraph entitled “Literary Theft” published in the Columbia Spy in 1844. These are provisionally attributed to Poe by Professor Mabbott, but on circumstantial evidence alone;(5) hence we must await further evidence [page 229:] before these items may be confidently assigned to Poe.

25) An article signed “Outis” and published in the New York Evening Mirror of March 1, 1845,(1) in the course of the so-called “Longfellow War.” The article is ascribed to Poe by Miss Mary E. Phillips, in her Poe — the Man,(2) on the theory that it was composed by Poe as a hoax in an effort to advertise himself in the literary world. The suggestion is an ingenious one, but, as I have elsewhere tried to show,(3) there is no direct evidence to support it, and circumstantial evidence, also, seems to me to tell strongly against it.(4) The article was universally accepted at the time as the work of one of Longfellow’s admirers, and I can find nothing in it, either in matter or in style, to beget doubts of its sincerity.

26) “A Reviewer Reviewed,” an article preserved in Poe’s handwriting but purporting to be from the pen of one “Walter G. Bowen,” first published in the New York Journal for March 15, 1896. The article has been attributed to Poe both by Professor George E. Woodberry (on the strength of its existing in Poe’s autograph) (5) and by Miss Mary E. [page 230:] Phillips.(1) It would seem to me improbable that Poe would have written a criticism that is so frankly condemnatory of himself as this. Besides, as I have shown above,(2) it is unsafe to assign an item to Poe on the strength of its being preserved in his autograph. But the argument on this score has less of weight in the present instance since the manuscript runs to several pages. There are, furthermore, certain details in the article, as the mention of Poe’s exceptional powers of analysis, the reference to Tupper’s review of the Tales, and the assertion that “The Sleeper” and “Dream-Land” are superior as poetry to “The Raven,” that indubitably suggest the hand of Poe. Hence, although the evidence is inconclusive, I am inclined to believe that the article is a freakish production of Poe’s, which, however, it seems that he never completed and which he never saw fit to publish.

There are also a good many other reviews and book-notices that have been attributed to Poe that have not been completely established as authentic. On the basis of a rather comprehensive general statement made by the poet (in the fall of 1836) concerning the book-reviews that had appeared in the Southern Literary Messenger Harrison assigns to him the entire list of these reviews.(3) But Poe’s statement — “ Since [page 231:] the commencement of my editorship in December last ninety-four books have been reviewed” — does not fully warrant the inference that he had written all these reviews.(1) There is the same sort of uncertainty about some of the reviews reprinted from other numbers of the Messenger (that is, before December, 1835, and after September, 1836) ;(2) and also about some of the papers reprinted from Graham’s Magazine.(3)

It has been suggested that certain of the prose articles contained in Griswold’s edition were spurious,(4) — in particular, the five articles printed by Griswold in the Literati in place of the articles that had originally appeared in Godey’s.(5) But, although [page 232:] Griswold was not a very conscientious editor, I can conceive of no motive for the garbling of his text or for the introduction of spurious items in the present instance. What he did, I think, was to substitute for the original Godey articles papers written by Poe or dressed up by him after 1846.(1) One of the suspected Literati articles — the paper on Mrs. Osgood(2) — appeared in the Southern Literary Messenger for August, 1849,(3) and is there duly accredited to Poe; and the remaining four items are all in Poe’s manner.

III

The additions that will hereafter be made to the Poe canon will come mainly from the magazines for which Poe wrote; though we may expect to see still other manuscripts brought to light.(4) It is not unreasonable, for instance, to hope that the manuscript of The Authors of America in Prose and Verse, of which mention has been made above in the discussion of the “Lavante” pamphlet, still survives. This manuscript was probably in the hands of Griswold when he was making up his edition; in which case I suspect that it was found to track the Literati pretty closely, and for that reason was ignored by him. It is not [page 233:] unlikely, too, that other manuscripts of the “Marginalia” will be discovered in the course of time. In a letter to Mrs. Richmond early in 1849,(1) Poe wrote that he had sent fifty pages of the “Marginalia” to the Southern Literary Messenger, five pages of it to appear in each of the next ten numbers; in reality, only five of the projected ten installments ever appeared: the manuscript for the rest may still be in existence.(2) And there are, perhaps, other tales preserved in manuscript. The assertion is made in a review of the 1845 edition of Poe’s tales — inspired, so Professor Woodberry thinks,(3) by the poet — that Poe had already published “seventy-five or eighty tales,” whereas but sixty-nine (exclusive of the Pym and the “Rodman”) are known to the editors of Poe, and some of these, it is certain, were written after 1845.(4) It is, of course, very likely — to adopt another of Professor Woodberry’s suggestions — that [page 234:] there were included in this estimate some of Poe’s miscellanies.(1) But Mr. Woodberry’s discovery a few years ago of a fragment of a tale of which apparently nothing had hitherto been known, “The Lighthouse,” should of itself make us hesitate to predict that there are no other tales yet to be found. Poe sent the manuscript of at least one of his tales, as we know, to friends in England, and something may perhaps be looked for from that source.(2) Mr. Ingram asserts (p. 139) that there is some reason for believing that Poe completed the “Journal of Julius Rodman,” which had been abruptly brought to an end in Burton’s for June, 1840, with his secession from the editorship of that magazine. The story may have been concluded in the Saturday Museum, which contained in its issue of July 22, 1842, “further extracts from the ‘Narrative of a Journey to the Rocky Mountains.’”(3) And W. F. Gill in his Life of Poe (p. 124) speaks of an unpublished story of Poe’s that remained in the hands of T. C. Clarke.

There are also reminiscences, more or less authentic, of a number of poems which have been lost but [page 235:] which may yet turn up in manuscript. These are: 1) a volume of juvenilia submitted to Poe’s Richmond school-teacher, Joseph H. Clarke, in 1823, and consisting “chiefly of pieces addressed to different little girls in Richmond who had from time to time engaged his youthful affections”;(1) 2) a poem addressed to Master Clarke on his retirement as principal of his school in Richmond;(2) 3) “To Mary ——,”(3) lines addressed to a Baltimore sweetheart and said to have been published in a Baltimore newspaper;(4) a poem in honor of Mrs. Shew and entitled “The Beautiful Physician,”(5) composed in part, so Mrs. Shew declared, while the poet was in a delirium following the death of his wife in 1847, and later recast by him from jottings which Mrs. Shew had made.(6) There is also a tradition that Poe wrote in [page 236:] collaboration with his friend R. M. Bird, of Philadelphia, a scenario for a play.(1)

But, as I have said, the main additions to the canon are to be sought in the magazines of Poe’s time. Of two of the periodicals to which Poe contributed more or less freely, no complete files are known. These are the Baltimore Saturday Visiter, in which his “MS. Found in a Bottle,” “A Serenade,” and “‘The Coliseum” were first printed, and the Philadelphia Saturday Museum, to which he contributed divers critical articles in the early forties.(2) It is highly probable that he published in these papers other things besides those of which we have record. And there are doubtless yet other items in the periodicals and annuals of Poe’s time. In particular, there are, I suspect, unidentified articles in the magazines which Poe edited — the Southern Literary Messenger, Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine, Graham’s, the Evening Mirror, and the Broadway Journal.(3) It remains, among other things, to determine just which of certain “short notices” in [page 237:] Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine attributed to Poe without specification of title(1) are actually Poe’s and which are the work of others.(2) Mr. Whitty asserts (p. xxxvi) that Poe wrote for Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser and for the Philadelphia Mercury in the early thirties; Professor Woodberry has suggested(3) that Poe probably contributed to the Brother Jonathan in the autumn of 1843; and in two of his letters during his final year(4) the poet refers to the Literary World (of which his friend E. A. Duyckinck was then editor) as though he were perhaps a contributor.(5) Mr. Whitty has told us(6) of Poe’s connection with the Richmond Examiner in the summer of 1849, — in particular, of his republishing in its columns several of his poems; Bishop Fitzgerald is authority for the statement that Poe also contributed critical articles to the Examiner at this time;(7) and I have already called attention to Poe’s assertions [page 238:] that he had written for several British magazines.(1) Hirst states in his sketch of Poe in the Saturday Museum that he had also written for a “Parisian critical journal.”(2) Similarly it is asserted in Lowell’s sketch of Poe in Graham’s that he had “contributed several reviews” to French as well as English periodicals.(3)

Before we can feel satisfied that we have got a complete list of Poe’s writings, it will be necessary to bring from out their hiding-places complete files of the Saturday Visiter and the Saturday Museum; we must also examine anew the files of the periodicals with which Poe was connected editorially; and we must institute a search through the remainder of the early magazines and newspapers and annuals to which Poe may have contributed. In particular, the Baltimore papers of the early thirties and the Philadelphia papers of the forties must be sifted. When this is done, it is possible that the canon of Poe’s writings will be materially enlarged.

 


[[Footnotes]]

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 187:]

1.  Reprinted, with revisions and additions, from the Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, XXVII, 325 f. (September, 1912).

2.  The Works of the Late Edgar Allan Poe, ed. R. W. Griswold, 4 vols., New York, 1850, 1856.

3.  The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. J. A. Harrison, 17 vols., New York [1902]. Referred to in this volume as Poe’s Works.

4.  Ibid., xvi, 355 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 188:]

1.  Poe’s Works, ed. Griswold, IV, v.

2.  He omitted, among other things, the early lines “To Helen,” beginning, “Helen, thy beauty is to me,” and the tale entitled “The Elk.”

3.  Woodberry, II, 94 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 189:]

1.  Through the discovery of a letter in which Poe acknowledges the authorship of this story (Ingram, p. 145).

2.  Of which mention had been made in the list of Poe’s tales enumerated by Lowell, in his sketch of Poe in Graham’s for February, 1845.

3.  This he found in manuscript among the Griswold Papers. It is published in Woodberry’s revised life of Poe, Boston, 1909, II, 397 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 190:]

1.  The Complete Poems of Edgar Allan Poe, Boston, 1911, pp. 139 f., and passim.

2.  See his volume, The Southern Literary Messenger, 1834-1864, New York, 1905, pp. 37, 42, 45.

3.  Modern Language Notes, XXXIII, 259 f. (May, 1918).

4.  The American Mercury, XI, 205 (June, 1924) ; Doings of Gotham, ed. J. E. Spannuth and T. O. Mabbott, pp. 23 f.

5.  Origins of Poe’s Critical Theory, Iowa City, 1925, passim.

6.  Poe — the Man, pp. 712 f. and passim.

7.  The New York Nation, LXXXIX, 623 f., 647 f. (December 23 and 30, 1909) ; ibid., XC, 62 (January 20, 1910) ; Modern Language Notes, XXXII, 267 f. (May, 1917).

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 191:]

1.  Reproduced in facsimile in the Richmond Dispatch for January 17, 1909.

2.  See the New York Nation, December 30, 1909, and January 20, 1910.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 192:]

1.  The Broadway Journal, August 30, 1845.

2.  Ingram, The Complete Poetical Works of Edgar Allen (sic) Poe, New York [1888], pp. 178 f. Cf. also Poe’s Works, VII, pp. 226, 228 f., and James L. Onderdonk, History of American Verse, Chicago, 1901, p. 243.

3.  A facsimile of the poem as copied by Poe appears in the New York Journal for March 15, 1896. See the New York Times for November 27 and December 11, 1909.

4.  Autograph Leaves of American Authors, ed. J. P. Kennedy and Alexander Bliss, Baltimore, 1864.

5.  The New York Times for December 4 and December 11, 1909.

6.  The Southern Bivouac, V, 298 (October, 1886).

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 193:]

1.  The Fortnightly Review, LXXXI, 329 f. (February, 1904). See also in this connection a strange pamphlet, Edgar Allan Poe, by Alfred Russell Wallace, New York [1930].

2.  The Fortnightly Review, LXXXI, 706 f.

3.  II, 38.

4.  Republished by Harrison in Poe’s Works, VII, 236.

5.  Ibid., pp. 246 f.; VII, 246 f.

6.  Ibid., pp. 239 f.

7.  Life and Letters of Poe, pp. 52 f.

8.  Poe’s Works, VII, 250; Whitty, p. 158.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 194:]

1.  See the article entitled “Palestine” in the Messenger for February, 1836 (II, 152).

2.  XIV, 185.

3.  VII, 236.

4.  Poe’s Poems, pp. 159 f.

5.  Poe’s Works, VII, 236. A similar hoax at Poe’s expense appeared in Godey’s Lady’s Book for December, 1849 (XXXIX, 419), together with a facsimile of Poe’s autograph.

6.  The Poets and Poetry of America, New York, 1887.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 195:]

1.  Poe’s Works, XVII, 269 f.; J. S. Wilson, University of Virginia Alumni Bulletin, XVII, 40 f. (January, 1924).

2.  It did not appear till November. It is reprinted in Poe’s Works, XIII, 141 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 196:]

1.  See his edition of Poe’s poems, p. lxii.

2.  Poe’s Works, VII, 238 f.

3.  Cf. also Notes and Queries, 3d series, VII, 61 f. (January 21, 1865). Here also may be mentioned several poems published in 1821 in a Baltimore volume, Miscellaneous Selections and Original Pieces in Prose and Verse, edited by Elizabeth Chase. These are signed “Edgar,” and it has been suggested that they are among the poems which Poe claimed to have written in 1821-1822 (see Catalogue 344 of the Merwin-Clayton Sales Company, p. 32, New York, 1910). They are described, however, in the volume in which they appear, as having been written by a youth of eighteen, whereas Poe in 1821 was only twelve. Moreover, one of the pieces (pp. 216 f.) is addressed to a sister, “Ellen,” whereas Poe had but one sister, — Rosalie.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 197:]

1.  XLII, 158 f.

2.  Poe’s Works, VII, 252 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 198:]

1.  There are two poems in the Token (published at Boston) in 1829 and one in 1830 that are signed “P.” but are obviously not Poe’s; there are three poems bearing this signature in the Boston Memorial for 1826 that we can also be sure are not his; there are two poems and two prose pieces in the American Monthly Magazine (published at Boston) for 1830 that are surely not Poe’s; and there were poems published in the Philadelphia Casket (May, 1827, p. 198) and in the Baltimore Emerald (June 21 and 28, 1828) that are subscribed with his initial but are manifestly not from his pen. Among other items signed “P.” that I have stumbled upon in the periodicals of Poe’s time are a dreary poem on “Ambition” in the Providence Literary Journal for February 22, 1834; a sonnet (without title) in the New England Magazine for December, 1834; “Lines” in the Philadelphia Casket for November, 1837; “The Fairy Queen” and “Impromptu” in Alexander’s Weekly Messenger for December 13 and 20, 1837; “Autumn Morning” in the Philadelphia Saturday Courier for October 15, 1842; “ Woman’s Tactics” in the New Mirror for July 8, 1843; and “To — (On Giving Her an Album) ” in the Dollar Newspaper for May 17, 1848. See, too, my note below (p. 235) on the lines “To Mary” in the New England Magazine for January, 1832.

2.  Poe’s Poems, pp. 142, 286.

3.  I, 692.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 199:]

1.  Infra, pp. 210 f.

2.  Politian, ed. Mabbott, p. 14; Poe’s Works, VII, 106.

3.  Poe’s Poems, pp. 146, 287.

4.  II, 199.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 200:]

1.  English Notes, ed. Lewis M. Thompson, New York, 1920, pp. 154 f., 157 f.

2.  XXIII, 292.

3.  Infra, pp. 224 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 201:]

1.  See Miss Mary E. Phillips, Poe — the Man, pp. 738 f.

2.  See the Waverley Magazine for July 30, 1853 (p. 73).

3.  Cf. the University of Texas Studies in English, No. 10, pp. 152 f. (1930). But see also the American Book Collector, II, 233 (October, 1932), for the suggestion that the poem was written by J. Hunt, Jr.

4.  Poe’s Poems, pp. 144 f., 286 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 202:]

1.  XXVII, 189, 251.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 203:]

1.  I, 1.

2.  Whitty, Poe’s Poems, p. 165 n.

3.  See infra, p. 204.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 204:]

1.  X, 608.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 205:]

1.  XXXV, 754.

2.  Modern Language Notes, XXXIII, 257 f. (May, 1918).

3.  Whitty, pp. 189, 283 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 206:]

1.  Supra, p. 192.

2.  See Whitty, pp. 143 f., 285 f.

3.  I, 370.

4.  See Modern Language Notes, XXXII, 271 f. (May, 1917).

5.  I, 705 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 207:]

1.  Life of Poe, II, 415.

2.  II, 501 f.

3.  Woodberry, II, 422 f.

4.  Doings of Gotham, pp. 113 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 208:]

1.  I, 271.

2.  Poems of Poe, p. e87.

3.  Among them the Union Magazine and Labree’s Illustrated Magazine. See also a statement of Griswold’s confirming Mr. Whitty’s statement in Laurel Leaves, New York, 1854, p. 22.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 209:]

1.  XXVII, 189, 251.

2.  See my note on “The Skeleton Hand” and “The Magician,” pp. 197 f., above.

3.  Supra, p. 192.

4.  Two of Poe’s early poems, “The Happiest Day” and “Dreams,” it should be added, were published, as Mr. Mabbott has pointed out (Poe’s Brother, New York, 1926, pp. 42 f., 49 f.), above the initials of Poe’s brother, William Henry Poe, in the Baltimore North American in 1827. But Mr. Mabbott questions whether William Henry Poe actually had any hand in their composition.

5.  Professor Woodberry informs us (I, 134 n.) that the late W. M. Griswold inclined to attribute to Poe, “on internal evidence solely,” four stories published in Godey’s Lady’s Book in 1833-1834, but he rightly concludes that there is no good ground for believing these to be Poe’s.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 210:]

1.  A story entitled “The Ghost of a Grey Tadpole,” originally published in the Baltimore Republican and Argus of February 1, 1844, and there attributed to Poe, has recently been shown by Mr. T. O. Mabbott (American Irish Historical Society, XXIX, 121 f. [1931]) to be the work of Thomas Dunn English. So, also, a crude tale entitled “La Cancion de Hollands” published in Spanish in La América for October 28, 1883, and there represented as being a translation of a story by Poe, has been convincingly shown, by John E. Englekirk, Jr., in the New Mexico Quarterly, 1, 247 f. (August, 1931), to be a hoax at Poe’s expense. The author of the hoax, so Mr. Englekirk plausibly suggests (p. 261), was Aurelien Scholl.

2.  See Modern Language Notes, XXXII, 271 (May, 1917).

3.  In its issues of September 11, 1830, and May 21, 1831, respectively. 1, 235 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 211:]

1.  Poe’s Poems, pp. xxviii, 286.

2.  The Southern Literary Messenger, I, 254 f.

3.  Ibid., p. 235.

4.  Ibid., p. 468.

5.  Poe’s Works, XVII, 10.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 211, running to the bottom of page 212:]

6.  Evidence is also at hand of another sort discrediting the theory of Poe’s authorship. In the Richmond Compiler of April 8, 1835, there appeared a letter from a correspondent who signs himself “The Writer of the Doom,” replying hotly to a criticism of “The Doom” that had appeared in the Compiler two days before. The writer of this reply represents himself as writing from Richmond on April 6. But there is no record of Poe’s making a trip to Richmond in April, 1835; on the contrary, there is every reason to believe that he was still in Baltimore at that time, where he was living in poverty. What Mr. Whitty takes to be an acknowledgment [page 212:] by Poe of the authorship of “The Doom” is, I should guess, a notation relating to the reference made to his swimming feat.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 212:]

1.  The Southern Literary Messenger, II, 467 f. (July, 1836).

2.  New York, 1905, p. 49.

3.  Origins of Poe’s Critical Theory, p. 107.

4.  The Southern Literary Messenger, II, 573 f. (August, 1836).

5.  Poe’s Works, II, 38 f., 142, 326.

6.  Supra, p. 194.

7.  Blackwood’s Magazine, LI, 553-578 (May, 1842).

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 213:]

1.  Poe — the Man, p. 712.

2.  Poe’s Works, I, 346; Woodberry, I, 220.

3.  Blackwood’s, LI, 578.

4.  The suggestion is made by Allen and Mabbott in their volume Poe’s Brother (New York, 1926, p. 53) that Poe wrote, “at least in part,” the story entitled “The Pirate” contributed by Poe’s brother, William Henry Poe, to the Baltimore North American for November 27, 1827.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 213, running to the bottom of page 214:]

5.  There are also certain items once assigned to Poe that have already been rejected as his. Among these are:

1) A notice of “Glenn’s Reply to the Critics” in Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine for September, 1839 (V, 164 f.). This is given to Poe in the list of his writings printed in Poe’s Works, XVI, 363, but, as was pointed out in the Nation of December 23, 1909 (p. 623), it was written by Burton.

2) A review of The Poems of Alfred Tennyson in Graham’s for September, 1842 (XXI, 152 f.). This appears in Poe’s Works, xi, 127 f. It has been denied to Poe, on the basis of internal evidence, by Mr. J. H. [page 214:] by Whitty (the New York Times, December 11, 1909). In a review of Griswold’s anthology published in the Saturday Museum in 1843 (Poe’s Works, XI, 237 f.), the review is attributed to Griswold.

3) A number of translations from the French published in the New Mirror in 1843-1844 above the signature “E. P.” and attributed to Poe by Ingram (p. 201). These, as Professor Woodberry has shown (II, 103), came from the pen of a woman, — probably, as he suggests, Emily Percival. A poem — “ The Idiot Boy” — bearing the same signature and published in Graham’s Magazine for June, 1847 (XXX, 330 f.), probably came from the same source.

Two other spurious items are listed by Charles F. Heartman and Kenneth Rede in their Census of First Editions and Source Materials by Edgar Allan Poe in American Collections, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1932, pp. 63 f., 66 f., — namely, The Philosophy of Animal Magnetism, Philadelphia, 1837, and A Chapter in the History of Vivum-Ovo, Memphis, 1882.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 214:]

1.  I, 250 f.

2.  VI, 324.

3.  VIII, i f.

4.  Poe’s Works, VIIIi, vii n.

5.  See the Nation, October 19, 1911, p. 362.

6.  I, 698.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 215:]

1.  I, 255 f.

2.  Pp, 56 f.

3.  II, 93, 221 f., 301 f.

4.  Pp. 107, 118 f.

5.  The third of these items is also ascribed to Poe by B. B. Minor (The Southern Literary Messenger, p. 42).

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 216:]

1.  II, 38.

2.  II, 181 f.

3.  Poe’s Works, XVII, 12.

4.  The Southern Literary Messenger, p. 39.

5.  II, 297 f.

6.  Poe: A Study, pp. 251 f.

7.  Origins of Poe’s Critical Theory, pp. 97 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 217:]

1.  Poe’s Works, VII, 22, 35.

2.  Ibid., VII, xxxviii f.; VI, 43.

3.  Southern Literary Messenger, II, 388 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 218:]

1.  Poe’s Works, XVI, 43.

2.  XV, 586.

3.  III, 334 f.

4.  II, 737 f.

5.  Supra, p. 198 n.

6.  II, 739 f.; III, 32 f., 158.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 219:]

1.  See the New York Nation, LXXXIX, 9 f. (July 1, 1909).

2.  It should be noted, however, that a second edition of The Ladies’ Wreath, “improved and enlarged,” appeared at Boston in 1839, and it is barely possible that Poe’s reference is to this second edition, then (on this supposition) in process of compilation and revision, but delayed in publication until a year or more later.

3.  IV, 433 f., 769 f.

4.  IV, 747 f.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 220:]

1.  See a letter from James E. Heath to Poe, Poe’s Works, XVII, 48.

2.  V, 78 f.

3.  Poe’s Works, I, 165.

4.  I cannot imagine Poe having spoken of a picture as “ a darling picture. . . the darling’st of the darling kind”: see p. 81 of the article in question.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 220, running to the bottom of page 221:]

5.  Ingram (p. 138) assigns to Poe unconditionally and Woodberry (I, 198) mentions as possibly Poe’s A Synopsis of Natural History,” Translated from. . . Lemmonnier. . . with Additions from. . . Cuvier” (and others), reviewed by Poe in Burton’s for July, 1839 (V, 61 f.), and there attributed to Thomas Wyatt. Poe asserts in the course of his review that he writes from “personal knowledge, and the closest inspection and collation,” which would suggest the possibility that he had collaborated with Wyatt in making up the volume, as he had done earlier in the year in the composition of his Conchologist’s First Book. So, too, Lowell in [page 221:] his sketch of Poe in Graham’s for February, 1845 (xxvii, 53), attributed the item to Poe, and we know that Lowell’s sketch had passed under Poe’s eye. But I have not seen a copy of this book, and so speak with diffidence about it.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 221:]

1.  VI, 103, 105.

2.  Poe’s Works, XVI, 364.

3.  Of date June 1, 1840: see Ingram, p. 143.

4.  XVIII, 142; Poe’s Works, X, 110 f.

5.  Ibid., p. 219.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 222:]

1.  XIX, 190.

2.  The Nation, December 23, 1909, p. 623.

3.  Poe — the Man, pp. 591 f., 712, 719, 734, 751, 1196, 1230, 1236.

4.  These appeared in Blackwood’s for January, May, and December, 1842, and October, November, and December, 1847, respectively.

5.  Woodberry, I, 220.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 223:]

1.  Poe’s Works, I, 346.

2.  Blackwood’s, CII, p. 793.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 224:]

1.  XX, 174 f.

2.  Poe’s Works, XVI, 367.

3.  XX, 354 f.; Poe’s Works, XI, 115 f.

4.  Sold at the Maier Sale in 1909, and published in Catalogue 784 of the Anderson Auction Company, pp. 210 f.

5.  XX, 356.

6.  Poe’s Works, XI, 124 f.

7.  Passages from the Correspondence of Rufus W. Griswold, Cambridge, 1898.

8.  Poe’s Works, XVII, 326.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 225:]

1.  Catalogue 784 of the Anderson Auction Company, p. 210.

2.  The denying of this item to Poe apparently necessitates also the denying to him the brief notice of Griswold’s book in the May issue of Graham’s which I assigned to him in the Nation of December 23, 1909 (p. 623).

3.  XXIII, 292 f. See also a further article by the same writer in the Sewanee Review, XXVI, 274 f. (July, 1918).

4.  Poe — the Man, pp. 718 f.

5.  Pp. 15 f.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 226:]

1.  III, 186 f.

2.  Pp. 189 f.

3.  New York, 1877, pp. 327 f. 48.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 227:]

1.  Poe’s Works, XI, 223. The judgment is quite at variance with the judgments recorded by Poe in his known reviews of Bryant.

2.  See a letter to Griswold written at some time in 1849 (Griswold, I, xxii).

3.  As Miss Phillips (Poe — the Man, p. 783) has suggested. If Poe actually wrote the review, I should guess that he wrote while in his cups.

4.  VI, 802-303.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 228:]

1.  XXI, 380.

2.  It should be added that in the Broadway Journal for July 12, 1845 7), there appeared a poem, “The Departed,” subscribed with the letter “ L.,” which has been attributed to Poe; but as I have already noted (supra, p. 201), this poem was probably the work of Thomas Holley Chivers.

3.  Doings of Gotham, ed. J. E. Spannuth and T. O. Mabbott, pp. 88 f.

4.  Ibid., p. 88.

5.  Ibid., pp. 108 f., 111.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 229:]

1.  Reprinted in Poe’s Works, XII, 46 f.

2.  II, 956 f.

3.  University of Texas Studies in English, No. 8, pp. 107 f. (1928).

4.  I am aware that Miss Phillips cites in support of her theory the article “A Reviewer Reviewed,” which she believes to have been written by Poe and to have been conceived likewise as a hoax, but while this evidence is not without weight, it seems to me insufficient to offset the evidence pointing in the opposite direction.

5.  The New York Journal, March 15, 1896.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 230:]

1.  Poe — the Man, pp. 959, 968.

2.  See above, p. 192.

3.  Poe’s Works, VIII, X, XVI. Poe evidently counted the Sigourney-Gould-Ellet review in the issue for January, 1836, as three items, and the Drake-Ralleck review in the issue for April as two items (see Poe’s own statement, ibid., p. xiv).

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 231:]

1.  Indeed, Professor Harrison, after assigning to Poe all the reviews published in the Messenger during the nine months covered by Poe’s statement, excludes from his bibliography one of the items published there — that of “ Mellen’s Poems,” — and he expresses doubt whether Poe wrote the lengthy article on Chief Justice Marshall in the Messenger for February, 1836 (XI, 181 f.).

2.  One such item — the notice of Haxall’s Dissertation on the Diseases of the Abdomen and Thorax, in the Messenger for October, 1836 (Ix, 725) — is singled out by Professor Harrison in a foot-note (Poe’s Works, IX, 164).

3.  On the other hand, we can identify without much difficulty most of Poe’s unsigned contributions to Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine, with the aid of a letter of his to Burton, of June 1, 1840 (in which he specifies the number of pages written by him for each issue from July, 1839, to June, 1840), and of letters written by him to Cooke and Snodgrass (see Ingram, pp. 142-145; Woodberry, II, 212 f., 221, 242 f.; Poe’s Works, XVII, 51 f.) ; and we can also identify most of his contributions to the Broadway Journal, through the poet’s own signature appended to them in a copy of the Journal presented to Mrs. Whitman and now in the Huntington Library (see Poe’s Works, I, xiii; xir, viii f.).

4.  See Poe’s Works, I, xv; xv, ix, 263 f.; xvx, vii.

5.  See Griswold, III, 35 f., 79 f., 87 f., 101 f.; and Poe’s Works, XV, 263 f.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 232:]

1.  Whether or not he had authority for this, it is impossible now to know.

2.  See Griswold, III, 87 f.; and Poe’s Works, XV, 271 f.

3.  XV, 509 f.

4.  Of interest in this connection is the manuscript of a hitherto unknown poem in Poe’s autograph and apparently of his composition — a valentine “To Miss Louise Olivia Hunter” — that appeared in the New York Times of February 14, 1932.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 233:]

1.  Poe’s Works, XVII, 328 f.

2.  A small manuscript roll of “Marginalia” was among the rarities disposed of at the sale of the Stedman Library in January, 1911; and Mr. Whitty mentions (p. 233) a manuscript volume of “Marginalia” once in the possession of a Richmond printer, but now lost.

3.  II, 406.

4.  In June, 1844, Poe wrote Anthon that his tales were “in number sixty-six” (Woodberry, 33, 78) ; and in a notice of the 1845 edition of the tales, published in the Broadway Journal of July 12, 1845, while he was editor, it is asserted that the tales in that edition were selected from “about seventy tales of similar length, written by Mr. Poe.” On December 15, 1846, Poe wrote Eveleth (see The Letters of Poe to Eveleth, ed. James Southall Wilson, p. 9) that the number of his stories at that time was seventy-two.

“Mellonta Tauta,” “Hop-Frog,” “X-ing a Paragrab,” and “Von Kempelen and His Discovery” all appear to have been written during the last two years of the poet’s life.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 234:]

1.  Griswold, it may be noted, included “The Philosophy of Furniture” among the tales. In the same way, Poe may have counted his essay “An Opinion on Dreams” (printed in Burton’s for August, 1839, and first assigned to Poe by Mr. Whitty, p. lxiii) as a tale. Perhaps, too, he counted his introduction to the “Tales of the Folio Club” as a separate story (see Poe’s Works, II, xxxvi f.).

2.  “The Spectacles” was sent to Horne in 1843 or 1844 (see Poe’s Works, XVII, 168, and Ingram, p. 204) ; and before this Poe had sent to Dickens a volume of tales which he hoped to have published in England (see the Nation for November 24, 1910, p. 492).

3.  See the Philadelphia United States Gazette, July 21, 1843.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 235:]

1.  Didier, Life of Poe, New York, 1879, p. 31.

2.  Ibid., p. 33.

3.  These, Woodberry suggests 414), were probably the same as Poe’s lines “To Mary” in the Southern Literary Messenger for July, 1835 (I, 636), later addressed to Mrs. Osgood under the title “To F —.” But the lines to the “Baltimore Mary” are said to have been “very severe” and to have dealt with “fickleness and inconstancy” — a description to which Poe’s lines in the Messenger hardly answer. Another poem “To Mary” — and subscribed, as it happens, with the initial “P.” — appeared in the New England Magazine for January, 1832 (II, 72). But this, too, contains nothing of the satirical; besides, it comprises sixteen lines, while the poem said to have been published in Baltimore was only “six or eight” lines in length. And there is a brief poem, “Lines to Mary,” in the Baltimore Saturday Visiter of November 3,1832; but this poem is signed “H. T.” and is evidently not Poe’s.

4.  See the article of Augustus Van Cleef, Harper’s Monthly, CXXVIII, 638 (March, 1889).

5.  Mr. Whitty suggests (p. 286) that this was perhaps a revised version of the poem “The Great Man,” found by him in manuscript in the desk used by Poe when editor of the Southern Literary Messenger.

6.  See Ingram, the Bookman, CXXCVIII, 452 f. (January, 1909).

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 236:]

1.  Woodberry, II, 421. Poe’s statement that he had also written a poem entitled “Holy Eyes” and a novel entitled “An Artist at Home and Abroad” must, of course, be dismissed as apocryphal.

2.  See his letter to Lowell of March 27, 1843 (Woodberry, II, 21).

3.  See the Nation of December 23, 1909, pp. 623 f., for a list of some twenty-five brief articles published in these magazines which are probably Poe’s, but which have not yet been fully authenticated. It is possible, I think, that some of the shorter poems published anonymously in the Southern Literary Messenger in 1834 and 1835 are Poe’s; and we can be all but certain that there are other critical articles in the Messenger for 1845 and 1849. See also in this connection an article by Mr. T. O. Mabbott in Notes and Queries for December 17, 1932, p. 441.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 237:]

1.  Poe’s Works, XVI, 363 f.

2.  It is perhaps not a matter of large importance that all these scraps should be collected, but it is at least desirable that such as can be shown to be Poe’s shall be definitely set down to his credit, in order that the biographer and the literary historian may avail themselves of such information as they afford. See, in this connection, an editorial in the Atlantic Monthly, LXXVII, 552 (April, 1896), in which it was declared that owing to the incompleteness of the editions of Poe published up to that time there remained “for the student of Poe’s life and times a field of research practically unexplored.”

3.  II, 424.

4.  Poe’s Works, XVII, 361, 367.

5.  In another letter (of March 8, 1849, — ibid., p. 341) he mentions having offered his tale “Von Kempelen and His Discovery” to Duyckinck for publication in the Literary World.

6.  Poe’s Poems, pp. viii f., lxxvii f.

7.  See Poe’s Works, I, 318.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 238:]

1.  Supra, p. 222.

2.  Woodberry, II, 410.

3.  Poe’s Works, I, 382.

 


∞∞∞∞∞∞∞


Notes:

None.

 

∞∞∞∞∞∞∞

[S:0 - KCMP, 1933] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Articles - The Mind of Poe and Other Studies (K. Campbell) (The Poe Canon)